TOEFL Simulation 1

Approved & Edited by ProProfs Editorial Team
The editorial team at ProProfs Quizzes consists of a select group of subject experts, trivia writers, and quiz masters who have authored over 10,000 quizzes taken by more than 100 million users. This team includes our in-house seasoned quiz moderators and subject matter experts. Our editorial experts, spread across the world, are rigorously trained using our comprehensive guidelines to ensure that you receive the highest quality quizzes.
Learn about Our Editorial Process
| By Seeking English
S
Seeking English
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 2,618
Questions: 73 | Attempts: 1,945

SettingsSettingsSettings
TOEFL Simulation 1 - Quiz

Welcome to our 3 hour TOEFL Simulation


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Directions: Click PLAY and listen to the track

  • 2. 

    Click Play. You may listen to the track ONCE

  • 3. 

    Click Play. You may listen to the track ONCE.

  • 4. 

    Click Play. You may listen to the track ONCE.

  • 5. 

    Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone.Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. Typically, an effective response will be between 300 and 350 words.

  • 6. 

    Response Time: 30 minutes

  • 7. 

    Directions: You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.

  • 8. 

    Directions: Give yourself 3 minutes to read the passage. Soon technology will provide smart cars: cars that virtually drive themselves. A computer in the car determines the speed and route to the desired destination. The computer is in continuous contact with a global positioning system and other technologies that will provide extremely accurate information about the location of the car, other cars on the road, congestion, accidents, and so forth> the human driver will be little more than a passenger. Smart cars promise to make driving safer, quicker, and less expensive. First of all, smart cars will prevent many accidents, thereby saving lives. The cars will be equipped with a variety of sensors that very accurately detect cars and other obstacles in their path, and they will have automatic programs that control braking and turning to avoid collisions. Given the hundreds of accidents that occur on highways daily, it is clear that humans do a poor job of avoiding accidents and that computer control would be a great improvement. Second, with the wide use of smart cars, traffic problems will practically disappear. These computer-controlled cars can follow each other closely, even at high speeds. This ability will result in increased highway speeds. Today commuting by car can take hours a day. So the increased speed of smart cars will be a great benefit, welcomed by the many people who commute by car. Finally, smart cars will bring a reduction in the costs of driving. Because smart cars are programmed to drive the most direct routes, car owners will have to spend less money on repairs and replacement parts. Expensive items such as brakes, tires, and transmissions will last much longer in smart cars than in other cars.  

  • 9. 

    Click Play. You may listen to the track ONCE.

  • 10. 

    Click Play. You may listen to the track ONCE.

  • 11. 

    Click Play. You may listen only ONCE.

  • 12. 

    Click Play. You may listen only ONCE.Then answer the questions.

  • 13. 

    Click PLAY. You may listen only ONCE.Then answer the questions. 

  • 14. 

    Click Play. You may listen only ONCE.

  • 15. 

    Click Play. you may listen only ONCE.Then answer the questions. 

  • 16. 

    Choose from the drop down menu.

  • 17. 

    Click Play. You may listen only ONCE. 

  • 18. 

    Directions: Read the passage. Then answer the questions. Give yourself 20 minutes to complete this practice set. HABITAT AND CHIPMUNK SPECIES There are eight chipmunk species in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, and most of them look pretty much alike. But eight different species of chipmunks scurrying around a picnic area will not be found. Nowhere in the Sierra do all eight species occur together. Each species tends strongly to occupy a specific habitat type, within an elevational range, and the overlap among them is minimal.     The eight chipmunk species of the Sierra Nevada represent but a few of the 15 species found in western North America, yet the whole of eastern North America makes do with but one species: the Eastern chipmunk. Why are there so many very similar chipmunks in the West? The presence of tall mountains interspersed with vast areas of arid desert and grassland makes the West ecologically far different from the East. The West affords much more opportunity for chipmunks populations to become geographically isolated from one another, a condition of species formation. Also, there are more extremes in western habitats. In the Sierra Nevada, high elevations are close to low elevations, at least in terms of mileage, but ecologically they are very different.     Most ecologists believe that ancient populations of chipmunks diverged genetically when isolated from one another by mountains and unfavorable ecological habitat. These scattered populations first evolved into races - adapted to the local ecological conditions - and then into species, reproductively isolated from one another. This period of evolution was relatively recent, as evidenced by the similar appearance of all the western chipmunk species.     Ecologists have studied the four chipmunk species that occur on the eastern slope of the Sierra and have learned just how these species interact while remaining separate, each occupying its own elevational zone. The sagebrush chipmunk is found at the lowest elevation, among the sagebrush. The yellow pine chipmunk is common in low to mid-elevations and open to conifer forests, including piñon and ponderosa and Jeffrey pine forests. The lodgepole chipmunk is found at higher elevations, among the lodgepoles, firs, and high-elevation pines. The alpine chipmunk is higher still, venturing the talus slopes, alpine meadows, and high-elevation pines and junipers. Obviously, the ranges of each species overlap. Why don’t sagebrush chipmunks move into the pine zones? Why don’t alpine chipmunks move to lower elevations and share the conifer forests with lodgepole chipmunks?The answer, in one word, is aggression.  Chipmunk species actively defend their ecological zones from encroachment by neighboring species. The yellow pine chipmunk is more aggressive than the sagebrush chipmunk, possibly because it is a bit larger. It successfully bullies its smaller evolutionary cousin, excluding it from the pine forests. Experiments have shown that the sagebrush chipmunk is physiologically able to live anywhere in the Sierra Nevada, from high alpine zones to the desert. The little creature is apparently restricted to the desert not because it is specialized to live only there but because that is the only habitat where none of the other chipmunk species can live. The fact that sagebrush chipmunks tolerate very warm temperatures makes them, and only them, able to live where they do. The sagebrush chipmunk essentially occupies its habitat by default. In one study, ecologists established that the yellow pine chipmunks actively exclude sagebrush chipmunks from pine forests; the ecologists simply trapped all the yellow pine chipmunks in a section of forest and moved them out. Sagebrush chipmunks immediately moved in, but yellow pine chipmunks did not enter the sagebrush desert when sagebrush chipmunks were removed.     The most aggressive of the four eastern-slope species is the lodgepole chipmunk, a feisty rodent indeed. It actively prevents alpine chipmunks from moving downslope, and yellow pine chipmunks from moving upslope. There is logic behind the lodgepole’s aggressive demeanor. It lives in the cool, shaded conifer forests, and of the four species, it is the least able to tolerate heat stress. It is, in other words, the species of the strictest habitat needs: it simply must be in those shaded forests. However, if it shared its habitat with alpine and yellow pine chipmunks, either or both of these species might outcompete it, taking most of the available food. Such a competition could effectively eliminate lodgepole chipmunks from the habitat. Lodgepoles survive only by virtue of their aggression.  Directions: Now answer the questions.  PARAGRAPH 1There are eight chipmunk species in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, and most of them look pretty much alike. But eight different species of chipmunks scurrying around a picnic area will not be found. Nowhere in the Sierra do all eight species occur together. Each species tends strongly to occupy a specific habitat type, within an elevational range, and the overlap among them is minimal. 
    1. Why does the author mentions a “picnic area” in paragraph 1?
     

    • A.

      To identify a site where a variety of different species of chipmunks can be seen.

    • B.

      To support the point that each species of chipmunk inhabits a distinct location.

    • C.

      To emphasize the idea that all species of chipmunks have a similar appearance.

    • D.

      To provide an example of a location to which chipmunks are likely to scurry for food.

    Correct Answer
    B. To support the point that each species of chipmunk inhabits a distinct location.
    Explanation
    The author mentions a "picnic area" in paragraph 1 to support the point that each species of chipmunk inhabits a distinct location. The statement that "eight different species of chipmunks scurrying around a picnic area will not be found" implies that each species tends to occupy a specific habitat type within an elevational range, and the overlap among them is minimal. This reinforces the idea that chipmunk species have specific habitat preferences and do not coexist in the same area.

    Rate this question:

  • 19. 

    PARAGRAPH 2The eight chipmunk species of the Sierra Nevada represent but a few of the 15 species found in western North America, yet the whole of eastern North America makes do with but one species: the Eastern chipmunk. Why are there so many very similar chipmunks in the West? The presence of tall mountains interspersed with vast areas of arid desert and grassland makes the West ecologically far different from the East. The West affords much more opportunity for chipmunks populations to become geographically isolated from one another, a condition of species formation. Also, there are more extremes in western habitats. In the Sierra Nevada, high elevations are close to low elevations, at least in terms of mileage, but ecologically they are very different.The phrase “interspersed with” in the passage is closest in meaning to

    • A.

      Distributed among

    • B.

      Covered by

    • C.

      Positioned above

    • D.

      Evolved from

    Correct Answer
    A. Distributed among
    Explanation
    The phrase "interspersed with" in the passage means that tall mountains are distributed among vast areas of arid desert and grassland in the West. This suggests that the mountains are scattered or spread out throughout the region, rather than being concentrated in one area.

    Rate this question:

  • 20. 

    In paragraph 2, the author indicates that a large variety of chipmunk species exist in western North America because of

    • A.

      A large migration of chipmunks from eastern North America in an earlier period.

    • B.

      The inability of chipmunks to adapt to the high mountainous regions of eastern North America.

    • C.

      The ecological variety and extremes of the West that caused chipmunks to become geographically isolated.

    • D.

      The absence of large human populations that discouraged species formation among chipmunk species.

    Correct Answer
    C. The ecological variety and extremes of the West that caused chipmunks to become geographically isolated.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the ecological variety and extremes of the West that caused chipmunks to become geographically isolated. This is supported by the statement in paragraph 2 that mentions the ecological variety and extremes of the West as the reason for the existence of a large variety of chipmunk species in western North America. The author implies that these ecological factors have led to the chipmunks becoming geographically isolated, which in turn has contributed to the development of different species.

    Rate this question:

  • 21. 

    PARAGRAPH 3 Most ecologists believe that ancient populations of chipmunks diverged genetically when isolated from one another by mountains and unfavorable ecological habitat. These scattered populations first evolved into races - adapted to the local ecological conditions - and then into species, reproductively isolated from one another. This period of evolution was relatively recent, as evidenced by the similar appearance of all the western chipmunk species. The word “diverged” in the passage is closest in meaning to

    • A.

      Declined

    • B.

      Competed

    • C.

      Progressed

    • D.

      Separated

    Correct Answer
    D. Separated
    Explanation
    The word "diverged" in the passage is closest in meaning to "separated" because it suggests that the ancient populations of chipmunks were isolated from one another by mountains and unfavorable ecological habitat, leading to their genetic divergence and reproductive isolation. This implies that they were separated from one another and developed into different races and eventually species.

    Rate this question:

  • 22. 

    The phrase “one another” in the passage refers to

    • A.

      Populations

    • B.

      Races

    • C.

      Ecological conditions

    • D.

      Species

    Correct Answer
    D. Species
    Explanation
    The phrase "one another" in the passage refers to species. This means that the passage is discussing the interactions or relationships between different species within an ecosystem. It implies that the passage is focusing on how different species interact with and impact each other.

    Rate this question:

  • 23. 

    PARAGRAPH 4 Ecologists have studied the four chipmunk species that occur on the eastern slope of the Sierra and have learned just how these species interact while remaining separate, each occupying its own elevational zone. The sagebrush chipmunk is found at the lowest elevation, among the sagebrush. The yellow pine chipmunk is common in low to mid-elevations and open to conifer forests, including piñon and ponderosa and Jeffrey pine forests. The lodgepole chipmunk is found at higher elevations, among the lodgepoles, firs, and high-elevation pines. The alpine chipmunk is higher still, venturing the talus slopes, alpine meadows, and high-elevation pines and junipers. Obviously, the ranges of each species overlap. Why don’t sagebrush chipmunks move into the pine zones? Why don’t alpine chipmunks move to lower elevations and share the conifer forests with lodgepole chipmunks?6) Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

    • A.

      Ecologists studied how the geographic characteristics of the eastern slope of the Sierra influenced the social development of chipmunks.

    • B.

      Ecologists learned exactly how chipmunk species separated from each other on the eastern slope of the Sierra relate to one another.

    • C.

      Ecologists discovered that chipmunks of the eastern slope of the Sierra invade and occupy higher elevational zones when threatened by another species.

    • D.

      Ecologists studied how individual chipmunks of the eastern slope of the Sierra avoid interacting with others of their species.

    Correct Answer
    B. Ecologists learned exactly how chipmunk species separated from each other on the eastern slope of the Sierra relate to one another.
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that ecologists have learned how chipmunk species on the eastern slope of the Sierra interact with each other while remaining separate. This suggests that the ecologists have studied the relationships and interactions between the chipmunk species in terms of their geographic distribution and elevational zones. The answer also implies that the ecologists have gained knowledge about how the chipmunk species separate and relate to each other in their respective habitats.

    Rate this question:

  • 24. 

    Where does paragraph 4 indicate that the yellow pine chipmunk can be found in relationship to the other species of the eastern slope of the Sierra?

    • A.

      Below the sagebrush chipmunk

    • B.

      Above the alpine chipmunk

    • C.

      At the same elevation as the sagebrush chipmunk

    • D.

      Below the lodgepole chipmunk

    Correct Answer
    D. Below the lodgepole chipmunk
  • 25. 

    PARAGRAPH 5The answer, in one word, is aggression.  Chipmunk species actively defend their ecological zones from encroachment by neighboring species. The yellow pine chipmunk is more aggressive than the sagebrush chipmunk, possibly because it is a bit larger. It successfully bullies its smaller evolutionary cousin, excluding it from the pine forests. Experiments have shown that the sagebrush chipmunk is physiologically able to live anywhere in the Sierra Nevada, from high alpine zones to the desert. The little creature is apparently restricted to the desert not because it is specialized to live only there but because that is the only habitat where none of the other chipmunk species can live. The fact that sagebrush chipmunks tolerate very warm temperatures makes them, and only them, able to live where they do. The sagebrush chipmunk essentially occupies its habitat by default. In one study, ecologists established that the yellow pine chipmunks actively exclude sagebrush chipmunks from pine forests; the ecologists simply trapped all the yellow pine chipmunks in a section of forest and moved them out. Sagebrush chipmunks immediately moved in, but yellow pine chipmunks did not enter the sagebrush desert when sagebrush chipmunks were removed.  8) The word “encroachment” in the passage is closest in meaning to 

    • A.

      Complete destruction

    • B.

      Gradual invasion

    • C.

      Excessive development

    • D.

      Substitution

    Correct Answer
    B. Gradual invasion
    Explanation
    The word "encroachment" in the passage refers to the act of gradually invading or intruding upon someone else's territory or space. It implies a slow and persistent takeover rather than complete destruction or excessive development. This is supported by the context in which it is mentioned, as the paragraph discusses how chipmunk species actively defend their ecological zones from neighboring species, suggesting a gradual invasion of territory by one species over another. Therefore, "gradual invasion" is the closest meaning to "encroachment" in this context.

    Rate this question:

  • 26. 

    Paragraph 5 mentions all of the following as true of the relationship of sagebrush chipmunks to their habitats EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Sagebrush chipmunks are able to survive in any habitat of the Sierra Nevada.

    • B.

      Sagebrush chipmunks occupy their habitat because of the absence of competition from other chipmunks.

    • C.

      Sagebrush chipmunks are better to survive in hot temperatures than other species of chipmunks.

    • D.

      Sagebrush chipmunks spend the warm season at the higher elevations of the alpine zone.

    Correct Answer
    D. Sagebrush chipmunks spend the warm season at the higher elevations of the alpine zone.
    Explanation
    The passage states that sagebrush chipmunks are able to survive in any habitat of the Sierra Nevada, occupy their habitat because of the absence of competition from other chipmunks, and are better adapted to survive in hot temperatures than other species of chipmunks. However, it does not mention anything about sagebrush chipmunks spending the warm season at the higher elevations of the alpine zone.

    Rate this question:

  • 27. 

    Which of the following statements is supported by the results of the experiment described at the end of paragraph 5?

    • A.

      The habitat of the yellow pine chipmunk is a desirable one to other species, but the habitat of the sagebrush chipmunk is not.

    • B.

      It was more difficult to remove sagebrush chipmunks from their habitat than it was to remove yellow pine chipmunks from theirs.

    • C.

      Yellow pine chipmunks and sagebrush chipmunks require the same environmental conditions in their habitats.

    • D.

      The temperature of the habitat is not an important factor to either yellow pine chipmunk or the sagebrush chipmunk.

    Correct Answer
    A. The habitat of the yellow pine chipmunk is a desirable one to other species, but the habitat of the sagebrush chipmunk is not.
    Explanation
    The experiment described in paragraph 5 supports the statement that the habitat of the yellow pine chipmunk is desirable to other species, while the habitat of the sagebrush chipmunk is not. This can be inferred from the fact that it was easier to remove yellow pine chipmunks from their habitat compared to sagebrush chipmunks. The difficulty in removing the sagebrush chipmunks suggests that their habitat is less desirable and potentially more suitable for their survival, as they may have adapted to the specific conditions of their habitat.

    Rate this question:

  • 28. 

    PARAGRAPH 6The most aggressive of the four eastern-slope species is the lodgepole chipmunk, a feisty rodent indeed. It actively prevents alpine chipmunks from moving downslope, and yellow pine chipmunks from moving upslope. There is logic behind the lodgepole’s aggressive demeanor. It lives in the cool, shaded conifer forests, and of the four species, it is the least able to tolerate heat stress. It is, in other words, the species of the strictest habitat needs: it simply must be in those shaded forests. However, if it shared its habitat with alpine and yellow pine chipmunks, either or both of these species might outcompete it, taking most of the available food. Such a competition could effectively eliminate lodgepole chipmunks from the habitat. Lodgepoles survive only by virtue of their aggression. 
    1. According to paragraph 6, why is the lodgepole chipmunk so protective of its habitat from competing chipmunks?

    • A.

      It has specialized food requirements.

    • B.

      It cannot tolerate cold temperatures well.

    • C.

      It requires the shade provided by forests trees.

    • D.

      It prefers to be able to move between areas that are downslope and upslope.

    Correct Answer
    C. It requires the shade provided by forests trees.
    Explanation
    The paragraph explains that the lodgepole chipmunk lives in cool, shaded conifer forests and is the least able to tolerate heat stress. It is stated that the lodgepole chipmunk is the species with the strictest habitat needs and must be in those shaded forests. If it shared its habitat with other chipmunk species, they might outcompete it for food, potentially eliminating the lodgepole chipmunks from the habitat. Therefore, the lodgepole chipmunk is protective of its habitat because it requires the shade provided by forest trees.

    Rate this question:

  • 29. 

    The phrase “by virtue of” in the passage is closest in meaning to

    • A.

      In spite of

    • B.

      Because of

    • C.

      Unconcerned about

    • D.

      With attention

    Correct Answer
    B. Because of
    Explanation
    The phrase "by virtue of" in the passage indicates a cause or reason for something. It implies that something is happening or is true because of a particular quality or characteristic. Therefore, the closest meaning to "by virtue of" is "because of."

    Rate this question:

  • 30. 

    Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided here. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.    Write your answer choice in the spaces where they belong. You can either write the letter of your answer choice or you can copy the sentence.  A variety of chipmunk species inhabit western North America.

    • A.

      Ecological variation of the Sierra Nevada resulted in the differentiation of chipmunk species.

    • B.

      Only one species of chipmunk inhabits eastern North America.

    • C.

      Although chipmunk species of the Sierra Nevada have the ability to live at various elevations, each species inhabits a specifically restricted zone.

    • D.

      Chipmunks aggressively defend their habitats from invasion by other species of chipmunks.

    • E.

      Experimental studies indicate that sagebrush chipmunks live in the desert because of their physiological requirements.

    • F.

      The most aggressive of the chipmunk species is the lodgepole chipmunk.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ecological variation of the Sierra Nevada resulted in the differentiation of chipmunk species.
    C. Although chipmunk species of the Sierra Nevada have the ability to live at various elevations, each species inhabits a specifically restricted zone.
    D. Chipmunks aggressively defend their habitats from invasion by other species of chipmunks.
    Explanation
    The passage discusses the ecological variation in the Sierra Nevada that led to the differentiation of chipmunk species. It also mentions that although chipmunk species in the Sierra Nevada can live at different elevations, each species has a specific restricted zone. Additionally, the passage states that chipmunks aggressively defend their habitats from invasion by other chipmunk species. These three ideas are the most important points in the passage and summarize the main information provided.

    Rate this question:

  • 31. 

    Directions: Read the passage. Then answer the questions. Give yourself 20 minutes to complete this practice set. CETACEAN INTELLIGENCE We often hear that whales, dolphins, and porpoises are as intelligent as humans, maybe even more so. Are they really smart? There is no question that cetaceans are among the most intelligent of animals. Dolphins, killer whales, and pilot whales in captivity quickly learn tricks. The military has trained bottlenose dolphins to find bombs and missile heads and to work as underwater spies. This type of learning, however, is called conditioning. The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behavior, it gets a reward, usually a fish. Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be conditioned to perform tricks. We certainly don’t think of these animals as our mental rivals. Unlike most other animals, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneously imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver –complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles, and even water-skiers. Given the seeming intelligence of cetaceans, people are always tempted to compare them with humans and other animals. Studies on discrimination and problem-solving skills in the bottlenose dolphin, for instance, have concluded that its intelligence lies “somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee.” Such comparisons are unfair. It is important to realize that intelligence is a very human concept and that we evaluate it in human terms. After all, not many people would consider themselves stupid because they couldn’t locate and identify a fish by its echo. Why should we judge cetaceans by their ability to solve human problems? Both humans and cetaceans have large brains with an expanded and distinctively folded surface, the cortex. The cortex is the dominant association center of the brain, where abilities such as memory and sensory perception are centered. Cetaceans have larger brains than ours, but the ratio of brain to body weight is higher in humans. Again, direct comparisons are misleading. In cetaceans it is mainly the portions of the brain associated with hearing and the processing of sound information that are expanded. The enlarged portions of our brain deal largely with vision and hand-eye coordination. Cetaceans and humans almost certainly perceive the world in very different ways. Their world is largely one of sounds, ours one of sights. Contrary to what is depicted in movies and on television, the notion of “talking” to dolphins is also misleading. Although they produce a rich repertoire of complex sounds, they lack vocal cords and their brains probably process sound differently from ours. Bottlenose dolphins have been trained to make sounds through the blow-hole that sound something like human sounds, but this is a far cry from human speech. By the same token, humans cannot make whale sounds. We will probably never be able to carry on an unaided conversation with cetaceans. As in chimpanzees, captive bottlenose dolphins have been taught American Sign Language. These dolphins have learned to communicate with trainers who use sign language to ask simple questions. Dolphins answered back by pushing a “yes” or “no” paddle. They have been known to give spontaneous responses not taught by trainers. Evidence also indicates that these dolphin can distinguish between commands that differ from each other only by their word order, a truly remarkable achievement. Nevertheless, dolphins do not seem to have a real language like ours. Unlike humans, dolphins probably cannot convey very complex messages. Observations of cetaceans in the wild have provided some insights on their learning abilities. Several bottlenose dolphins off western Australia, for instance, have been observed carrying large cone-shaped sponges over their beaks. They supposedly use the sponges for protection against stingrays and other hazards on the bottom as they search for fish to eat. This is the first record use of tools among wild cetaceans. Instead of “intelligence,” some people prefer to speak of “awareness.” In any case, cetaceans probably have a very different awareness and perception of their environment than do humans. Maybe one day we will come to understand cetaceans on their terms instead of ours, and perhaps we will discover a mental sophistication rivaling our own. Directions: Now answer the questions.  Paragraph 1 We often hear that whales, dolphins, and porpoises are as intelligent as humans, maybe even more so. Are they really that smart?  There is no question that cetaceans are among the most intelligent of animals. Dolphins, killer whales, and pilot whales in captivity quickly learn tricks. The military has trained bottlenose dolphins to find bombs and missile heads and to work as underwater spies.The author asks the question “Are they really that smart?“ for which of the following reasons? 

    • A.

      To question the notion that humans are the most intelligent of animals

    • B.

      To introduce the discussion of intelligence that follows

    • C.

      To explain why dolphins, killer whales, and pilot whales can learn tricks

    • D.

      To emphasize the ways that dolphins can help the military

    Correct Answer
    B. To introduce the discussion of intelligence that follows
    Explanation
    The author asks the question "Are they really that smart?" to introduce the discussion of intelligence that follows. The question sets up the topic of cetacean intelligence and prompts the reader to consider the level of intelligence attributed to whales, dolphins, and porpoises.

    Rate this question:

  • 32. 

    (Paragraph 2)This type of learning, however, is called conditioning. The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behaviour, it gets a reward, usually a fish. Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be conditioned to perform tricks. We certainly don’t think of these animals as our mental rivals. Unlike most other animals, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneously imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver---complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles,and even water-skiers. According to the passage, which of the following animals is most likely to learn by watching another animal perform an activity?

    • A.

      Rats

    • B.

      Birds

    • C.

      Invertebrates

    • D.

      Dolphins

    Correct Answer
    D. Dolphins
    Explanation
    The passage states that dolphins are able to quickly learn by observation and may spontaneously imitate human activities. It gives an example of a dolphin imitating a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window. Therefore, dolphins are the most likely animal to learn by watching another animal perform an activity.

    Rate this question:

  • 33. 

    (Paragraph 3) Given the seeming intelligence of cetaceans, people are always tempted to compare them with humans and other animals. Studies on discrimination and problem-solving skills in the bottlenose dolphins, for instance, have concluded that its intelligence lies “somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee.” Such comparisons are unfair. It is important to realize that intelligence is a very human concept and that we evaluate it on human terms. After all, not many people would consider themselves stupid because they couldn’t locate and identify a fish by its echo. Why should we judge cetaceans by their ability to solve our problems?The word “tempted” in the passage is closest in meaning to:

    • A.

      Conditioned

    • B.

      Reluctant

    • C.

      Inclined

    • D.

      Invited

    Correct Answer
    C. Inclined
    Explanation
    The word "tempted" in the passage is closest in meaning to "inclined". This means that people are naturally inclined or have a tendency to compare cetaceans with humans and other animals due to their seeming intelligence. The word "tempted" suggests that there is a strong inclination or desire to make these comparisons.

    Rate this question:

  • 34. 

    According to the passage, why are the studies that conclude that dolphin intelligence is “somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee” not correct?

    • A.

      The human method of drawing comparisons is not relevant to animal intelligence.

    • B.

      Dolphins have actually shown to be much more intelligent than chimpanzees.

    • C.

      The studies were not conducted according to standard research methods.

    • D.

      Dolphins do not typically demonstrate conditioned responses for humans to observe.

    Correct Answer
    A. The human method of drawing comparisons is not relevant to animal intelligence.
    Explanation
    The passage suggests that the studies concluding that dolphin intelligence is "somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee" are not correct because the human method of drawing comparisons is not relevant to animal intelligence. This implies that using human standards to compare animal intelligence is not appropriate, as different species may have different types and levels of intelligence. Therefore, the studies' conclusions based on such comparisons are not accurate.

    Rate this question:

  • 35. 

    (Paragraph 4) Both humans and cetaceans have large brains with an expanded and distinctly folded surface, the cortex. The cortex is the dominant association center of the brain, where abilities such as memory and sensory perception are centered. Cetaceans have larger brains than ours, but the ratio of brain to body weight is higher in humans. Again, direct comparisons are misleading. In cetaceans it is mainly the portions of the brain associated with hearing and processing of sound information that are expanded. The enlarged portions of our brain deal largely with vision and hand-eye coordination. Cetaceans and humans almost certainly perceive the world in very different ways. Their world is one of sounds, ours one of sights.The word “dominant” in the passage is closest in meaning to:

    • A.

      Local

    • B.

      Natural

    • C.

      Chief

    • D.

      Specific

    Correct Answer
    A. Local
    Explanation
    The word "dominant" in the passage is closest in meaning to "chief". This is because the passage is describing the cortex as the main or most important association center of the brain, where abilities such as memory and sensory perception are centered. Therefore, "dominant" refers to the central or primary role of the cortex in the brain.

    Rate this question:

  • 36. 

    (Paragraph 6) As in chimpanzees, captive bottlenose dolphins have been taught American Sign Language. These dolphins have learned to communicate with trainers who use sign language to ask simple questions. Dolphins answered back by pushing a “yes” or “no” paddle. They have been known to give spontaneous responses not taught by trainers. Evidence also indicates that these dolphin can distinguish between commands that differ from each other only by their word order, a truly remarkable achievement. Nevertheless, dolphins do not seem to have a real language like ours. Unlike humans, dolphins probably cannot convey very complex messages.The word “spontaneous” in the passage is closest in meaning to:

    • A.

      Sophisticated

    • B.

      Sensible

    • C.

      Appropriate

    • D.

      Unprompted

    Correct Answer
    D. Unprompted
    Explanation
    The word "spontaneous" in the passage is closest in meaning to "unprompted". This means that the dolphins are giving responses without being prompted or taught by the trainers. They are able to communicate in a natural and unplanned way, showing their intelligence and ability to understand and respond to sign language.

    Rate this question:

  • 37. 

    (Paragraph 7) Observations of cetaceans in the wild have provided some insights on their learning abilities. Several bottlenose dolphins off western Australia, for instance, have been observed carrying large cone-shaped sponges over their beaks. They supposedly use the sponges for protection against stingrays and other hazards on the bottom as they search for fish to eat. This is the first record use of tools among wild cetaceans.The word “insights” in the passage is closest in meaning to:

    • A.

      Examples

    • B.

      Understanding

    • C.

      Directions

    • D.

      Discussion

    Correct Answer
    B. Understanding
    Explanation
    The word "insights" in the passage refers to the knowledge or understanding gained from observing cetaceans in the wild. It suggests that through these observations, researchers have gained a deeper understanding of the learning abilities of cetaceans. Therefore, the closest meaning to "insights" in this context is "understanding".

    Rate this question:

  • 38. 

    Scientific observations show that cetaceans are able to do all the following EXCEPT

    • A.

      Use natural objects as tools for self-protection

    • B.

      Produce complex sounds through their blowholes

    • C.

      Answer spoken questions

    • D.

      Distinguish between very similar spoken sentences

    Correct Answer
    C. Answer spoken questions
    Explanation
    Cetaceans, such as dolphins and whales, have been observed using natural objects as tools for self-protection, producing complex sounds through their blowholes, and distinguishing between very similar spoken sentences. However, there is no scientific evidence to suggest that cetaceans are able to answer spoken questions.

    Rate this question:

  • 39. 

    The word “hazards” in the passage is closest meaning to

    • A.

      Objects

    • B.

      Dangers

    • C.

      Species

    • D.

      Debris

    Correct Answer
    B. Dangers
    Explanation
    In the passage, the word "hazards" refers to potential dangers or risks. It indicates that there are certain things or situations that can cause harm or be unsafe. The word "objects" does not convey the same meaning as hazards, as hazards imply a level of danger or risk. Similarly, "species" and "debris" do not accurately capture the meaning of hazards in this context.

    Rate this question:

  • 40. 

    (Paragraph 8) Instead of “intelligence,”some people prefer to speak of “awareness.” In any case, cetaceans probably have a very different awareness and perception of their environment than do humans. Maybe one day we will come to understand cetaceans on their terms instead of ours, and perhaps we will discover a mental sophistication rivaling our own. What does the author conclude about the intelligence of cetaceans?

    • A.

      It is not appropriate to judge cetacean intelligence in human terms.

    • B.

      Cetaceans probably probably possess a mental sophistication that is as complex as that of humans.

    • C.

      Although cetaceans may appear to be intelligent, they have fewer problems-solving skills than most animals.

    • D.

      Their ability to learn American Sign Language indicates that cetaceans have a high level of intelligence.

    Correct Answer
    A. It is not appropriate to judge cetacean intelligence in human terms.
    Explanation
    The author concludes that it is not appropriate to judge cetacean intelligence in human terms.

    Rate this question:

  • 41. 

    This type of learning, however, is called conditioning. A. The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behavior, it gets a reward, usually a fish. B. Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be condiioned to perform tricks. C. We certainly don't think of these animals as our mental rivals. D. Unlike most other aniamls, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneoulsy imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver - complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles, and even water-skiers.Look at the four options that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage. This reward is merely one possible type of positive reinforcement that leads to more frequent repetition of the behavior in the future. 

    • A.

      Option A

    • B.

      Option B

    • C.

      Option C

    • D.

      Option D

    Correct Answer
    B. Option B
    Explanation
    This reward is merely one possible type of positive reinforcement that leads to more frequent repetition of the behavior in the future. This sentence can be added to Option B because it talks about animals being conditioned to perform tricks, which is the context in which the sentence about positive reinforcement is relevant.

    Rate this question:

  • 42. 

     Directions: Read the passage. Then answer the questions. Give yourself 20 minutes to complete this practice set. A MODEL OF URBAN EXPANSION In the early twentieth century, the science of sociology found supporters in the United States and Canada partly because the cities there were growing so rapidly. It often appeared that North American cities would be unable to absorb all the new-comers arriving in such large numbers. Presociological thinkers like Frederick Law Olmsted, the founder of the movement to build parks and recreation areas in cities, and Jacob Riis, an advocate of slum reform, urged the nation’s leaders to invest in improving the urban environment, building parks and beaches, and making better housing available to all. These reform efforts were greatly aided by sociologists who conducted empirical research on the social conditions in cities. In the early twentieth century, many sociologists lived in cities like Chicago that were characterized by rapid population growth and serious problems. It seemed logical to use empirical research to construct theories about how cities grow and change in response to major social forces as well as more controlled urban planning. The founders of the Chicago school of sociology, Robert Park and Ernest Burgess, attempted to develop a dynamic model of the city, one that would account not only for the expansion of cities in terms of population and territory but also for the patterns of settlement and land use within cities. They identified several factors that influence the physical form of cities. As Parks stated, among them are “transportation and communication, tramways and telephones, newspapers and advertising, steel and construction and elevators–all things, in fact, which tend to bring about at once a greater mobility and a greater concentration of the urban populations.” Park and Burgess based their model of urban growth on the concept of “natural areas”–that is, areas such as occupational suburbs or residential enclaves in which the population is relatively homogeneous and land is used in similar ways without deliberate planning. Park and Burgess saw urban expansion as occurring through a series of “invasions” of successive zones or areas surrounding the center of the city. For example, people from rural areas and other societies “invaded” areas where housing was inexpensive. Those areas tended to be close to the places where they worked. In turn, people who could afford better housing and the cost of commuting “invaded” areas farther from the business district. Park and Burgess’s model has come to be known as the “concentric zone-zone model” (represented by the figure). Because the model was originally based on studies of Chicago, its center is labeled “Loop,” the term commonly applied to that city’s central commercial zone. Surrounding the central zone is a “zone in transition,”  an area that is being invaded by business and light manufacturing. The third zone is inhabited by workers who do not want to live in the factory or business district but at the same time need to live reasonably close to where they work. The fourth or residential zone consists of upscale apartment buildings and single-family homes. And the outermost ring, outside the city limits, is the suburban or commuters’ zone; its residents live within a 30- to 60-minute ride of the central business district. Studies by Park, Burgess, and other Chicago-school sociologists showed how new groups of immigrants tended to be concentrated in separate areas within inner-city zones where they sometimes experienced tension with other ethnic groups that had arrived earlier. Over time, however, each group was able to adjust to life in the city and to find a place for itself in the urban economy. Eventually many of the immigrants moved to unsegregated areas in outer zones; the areas they left behind were promptly occupied by new waves of immigrants. The Park and Burgess model of growth in zones and natural areas of the city can still be used to describe patterns of growth in cities that were built around a central business district and that continue to attract large numbers of immigrants. But this model is biased toward the commercial and industrial cities of North America, which have tended to form around business centers rather than around palaces or cathedrals, as is often the case in some other parts of the world. Moreover, it fails to account for other patterns of urbanization, such as the rapid urbanization that occurs along commercial transportation corridors and the rise of nearby satellite cities. Directions: Now answer the questions. (Paragraph 1)In the early twentieth century, the science of sociology found supporters in the United States and Canada partly because the cities there were growing so rapidly. It often appeared that North American cities would be unable to absorb all the new-comers arriving in such large numbers. Presociological thinkers like Frederick Law Olmsted, the founder of the movement to build parks and recreation areas in cities, and Jacob Riis, an advocate of slum reform, urged the nation’s leaders to invest in improving the urban environment, building parks and beaches, and making better housing available to all. These reform efforts were greatly aided by sociologists who conducted empirical research on the social conditions in cities. In the early twentieth century, many sociologists lived in cities like Chicago that were characterized by rapid population growth and serious problems. It seemed logical to use empirical research to construct theories about how cities grow and change in response to major social forces as well as more controlled urban planning. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about what olmsted and Riis had in common?

    • A.

      Both constructed theories based on empirical research on cities.

    • B.

      Both were among a large number of newcomers to North American cities.

    • C.

      Both wanted to improve the conditions of life in cities.

    • D.

      Both hoped to reduce the rapid growth of large cities.

    Correct Answer
    C. Both wanted to improve the conditions of life in cities.
    Explanation
    Both Olmsted and Riis were presociological thinkers who advocated for improving the urban environment and making better housing available to all. They both wanted to improve the conditions of life in cities, which is evident from their efforts to build parks, advocate for slum reform, and invest in improving the urban environment. The passage states that their reform efforts were greatly aided by sociologists who conducted empirical research on the social conditions in cities, suggesting that they were focused on improving the living conditions in cities.

    Rate this question:

  • 43. 

    Which of the following best states the relationship that Olmsted and Riis had to the study of sociology?

    • A.

      Their goals were supported by the research conducted later by sociologists.

    • B.

      Their approach led them to oppose empirical sociological studies.

    • C.

      They had difficulty establishing that their work was as important as sociological research.

    • D.

      They used evidence from sociological research to urge national leaders to invest in urban development.

    Correct Answer
    A. Their goals were supported by the research conducted later by sociologists.
    Explanation
    Olmsted and Riis had goals that were later supported by sociological research. This suggests that their work and ideas aligned with the findings and conclusions of sociologists.

    Rate this question:

  • 44. 

    (Paragraph 2) The founders of the Chicago school of sociology, Robert Park and Ernest Burgess, attempted to develop a dynamic model of the city, one that would account not only for the expansion of cities in terms of population and territory but also for the patterns of settlement and land use within cities. They identified several factors that influence the physical form of cities. As Parks stated, among them are “transportation and communication, tramways and telephones, newspapers and advertising, steel and construction and elevators–all things, in fact, which tend to bring about at once a greater mobility and a greater concentration of the urban populations.”Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 2? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

    • A.

      The Chicago school of sociology founded by Park and Burgess attempted to help the population of growing cities protect the land around them.

    • B.

      The model that Park and Burgess created was intended to explain both why the population and area of a city like Chicago grew and in what way urban land was used or settled.

    • C.

      The founders of the Chicago school of sociology wanted to make Chicago a dynamic model for how other cities should use and settle their land.

    • D.

      Park and Burgess were concerned that cities like Chicago should follow a model of good land use as the population grew and settled new areas.

    Correct Answer
    B. The model that Park and Burgess created was intended to explain both why the population and area of a city like Chicago grew and in what way urban land was used or settled.
    Explanation
    The sentence states that the model created by Park and Burgess was intended to explain the growth of population and territory in cities, as well as the patterns of settlement and land use within cities. This means that the model aimed to provide an understanding of both the expansion of cities and how the urban land was utilized or settled.

    Rate this question:

  • 45. 

    The author includes the statement by Robert Park in paragraph 2 in order to 

    • A.

      Establish the specific topics about which Park that required careful planning

    • B.

      Specify the aspects of Chicago’s development that required careful planning

    • C.

      Specify some of the factors that contributed to the pattern of development of cities

    • D.

      Compare the definitions given by Park and Burgess for the physical form of cities

    Correct Answer
    C. Specify some of the factors that contributed to the pattern of development of cities
    Explanation
    The author includes the statement by Robert Park in paragraph 2 to specify some of the factors that contributed to the pattern of development of cities. The statement highlights the importance of careful planning in order to avoid the chaotic growth of cities and to ensure that they are able to meet the needs of their inhabitants. By including this statement, the author is emphasizing the significance of factors such as transportation, housing, and public health in shaping the development of cities.

    Rate this question:

  • 46. 

    (Paragraph 3)Park and Burgess based their model of urban growth on the concept of “natural areas”–that is, areas such as occupational suburbs or residential enclaves in which the population is relatively homogeneous and land is used in similar ways without deliberate planning. Park and Burgess saw urban expansion as occurring through a series of “invasions” of successive zones or areas surrounding the center of the city. For example, people from rural areas and other societies “invaded” areas where housing was inexpensive. Those areas tended to be close to the places where they worked. In turn, people who could afford better housing and the cost of commuting “invaded” areas farther from the business district. Paragraph 3 indicates that all of the following are true of “natural areas” as conceived by Park and Burgess EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Use of the land in natural areas follows a consistent pattern but is generally unplanned.

    • B.

      People living in natural areas tend to have much in common.

    • C.

      Natural areas are usually protected from “invasion” by people in other areas.

    • D.

      Natural areas are an important basic component of the model Park and Burgess developed.

    Correct Answer
    C. Natural areas are usually protected from “invasion” by people in other areas.
    Explanation
    The passage states that natural areas are areas where the population is relatively homogeneous and land is used in similar ways without deliberate planning. It also mentions that urban expansion occurs through a series of "invasions" of successive zones surrounding the city center. Therefore, it can be inferred that natural areas are not usually protected from "invasion" by people in other areas. This is why the statement "Natural areas are usually protected from 'invasion' by people in other areas" is not true according to the passage.

    Rate this question:

  • 47. 

    (Paragraph 4) Park and Burgess’s model has come to be known as the “concentric zone-zone model” (represented by the figure). Because the model was originally based on studies of Chicago, its center is labeled “Loop,” the term commonly applied to that city’s central commercial zone. Surrounding the central zone is a “zone in transition,”  an area that is being invaded by business and light manufacturing. The third zone is inhabited by workers who do not want to live in the factory or business district but at the same time need to live reasonably close to where they work. The fourth or residential zone consists of upscale apartment buildings and single-family homes. And the outermost ring, outside the city limits, is the suburban or commuters’ zone; its residents live within a 30- to 60-minute ride of the central business district.According to paragraph 4, why is the term “Loop” used in concentric-zone model?

    • A.

      It indicates the many connections between each of the zones in the model.

    • B.

      It indicates that zones are often in transition and frequently changing.

    • C.

      It reflects the fact that the model was created with the city of Chicago in mind.

    • D.

      It emphasizes the fact that populations often returned to zones in which they used to live.

    Correct Answer
    C. It reflects the fact that the model was created with the city of Chicago in mind.
    Explanation
    The term "Loop" is used in the concentric-zone model because it reflects the fact that the model was created with the city of Chicago in mind. The model was originally based on studies of Chicago, and the center of the model is labeled "Loop," which is the term commonly applied to Chicago's central commercial zone. This indicates that the model was specifically designed to represent the urban structure of Chicago and may not be applicable to other cities.

    Rate this question:

  • 48. 

    Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 4 about the third zone?

    • A.

      It is the most expensive area in which to live.

    • B.

      It does not have factories and businesses.

    • C.

      People who live there travel long distances to work.

    • D.

      Most of the residents there work and live in the same zone.

    Correct Answer
    B. It does not have factories and businesses.
    Explanation
    The paragraph 4 does not mention anything about the cost of living in the third zone, the travel distances of the residents, or whether they work and live in the same zone. However, it does state that the third zone does not have factories and businesses.

    Rate this question:

  • 49. 

    The word “outermost” in the passage is closest in meaning to 

    • A.

      Most visible

    • B.

      Best protected

    • C.

      Farthest away

    • D.

      Wealthiest

    Correct Answer
    C. Farthest away
    Explanation
    The word "outermost" refers to something that is farthest away from the center or the core. In the given passage, the word is used to describe a location or position that is the farthest away from something. Therefore, the closest meaning to "outermost" in this context is "farthest away".

    Rate this question:

  • 50. 

    (Paragraph 5) Studies by Park, Burgess, and other Chicago-school sociologists showed how new groups of immigrants tended to be concentrated in separate areas within inner-city zones where they sometimes experienced tension with other ethnic groups that had arrived earlier. Over time, however, each group was able to adjust to life in the city and to find a place for itself in the urban economy. Eventually many of the immigrants moved to unsegregated areas in outer zones; the areas they left behind were promptly occupied by new waves of immigrants.The word “they” in the passage refers

    • A.

      Chicago-school sociologists

    • B.

      New groups of immigrants

    • C.

      Separate areas

    • D.

      Inner-city zones

    Correct Answer
    B. New groups of immigrants
    Explanation
    The word "they" in the passage refers to the new groups of immigrants. The passage discusses how these new groups of immigrants tend to be concentrated in separate areas within inner-city zones and eventually adjust to life in the city. It also mentions that these areas are promptly occupied by new waves of immigrants once the previous group moves to unsegregated areas in outer zones. Therefore, "they" refers to the new groups of immigrants who occupy the areas left behind by the previous group.

    Rate this question:

Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 23, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Seeking English

Related Topics

Back to Top Back to top
Advertisement
×

Wait!
Here's an interesting quiz for you.

We have other quizzes matching your interest.