number of protons
Number of electrons
all of the above
Considers the electron as a wave
States that electrons can only exist at specific distances from the nucleus
Considers the electron as a particle
Predicts the specific location of the electron in an atom
The positive charge in an atom is concentrated in a tiny, but dense nucleus
Atoms are solid, with spaces between them
Gold is an element, not a compound as previously believed
Atoms are electrically neutral
Was controversial bc it refuted accepted principles of physics
Held that electrons existed in allowed orbits and nowhere else
Accounted for the observed spectrum in hydrogen
All of the above
A. electrons move in circular, not elliptical orbits.
B. the electrons should lose energy since they are accelerating
C. opposite charges should attract one another.
D. the mass ratio of the nucleus to the electrons is wrong.
A. the charge-to-mass ratio was the same for all materials.
B. cathode rays could move through a vacuum.
C. electrons were attracted toward a negatively charged plate.
D. the charge was always 1.60 × 10–19 coulomb.
A. fast, massive, and positively charged radioactive particles all move straight through metal foil.
B. radioactive particles were deflected by a magnetic field.
C. some radioactive particles were deflected by metal foil.
D. None of the above is correct.
A. the drift of oil droplets in an electric field.
B. speculation about expected symmetry in gold foil.
C. measurements of radioactive particle deflections from gold foil.
D. measurements of the breakup of a nitrogen atom by collisions with radioactive particles.
A. determined by weighing individual atoms.
B. an average weight of the isotopes of an element.
C. the number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
D. a weighted average of the masses of isotopes of an element based on abundance.
B. discrete units called quanta.
C. pulses with no particular pattern.
d. pulses that vary in magnitude over time.
A. how electrons move in circular orbits.
B. why radiationless orbits existed.
C. the colors in the hydrogen line spectrum.
D. why the angular momentum of the electron should be by orbit quantum numbers.
A. spin and quantum leaps of electron masses.
B. elliptical orbits of electrons.
C. how electron particles move in orbits.
D. the wave nature of electrons.
A. photoelectric effect.
B. matter waves.
A. electron configuration.
A. alkali metals.
B. alkaline earth metals.
C. alkaline salts.
D. beryllium metals.
A. alkali elements.
b. transition elements.
C. representative elements.
A. Alkali metals
D. Noble gases
c. semiconductor.d. isotope.
B. transition elements.
D. noble gases.
A. are metals.
B. belong to the B group.
C. have variable charges.
D. All of the above are correct.
A. varies inversely with the frequency.
b. is directly proportional to the frequency.
C. varies directly with the velocity.
D. is inversely proportional to the velocity
B. are always the same, with a regular spacing pattern.
A. moving faster or slower in an allowed orbit.
B. jumping from one allowed orbit to another.
C. being completely removed from an atom.
D. jumping from one atom to another atom.
A. explained the color lines in the hydrogen spectrum.
B. could not explain the line spectrum of atoms larger than hydrogen.
C. had some made-up rules without explanations.
D. All of the above are correct
A. round the atomic weight to the nearest whole number.
B. add the mass number and the atomic number.
C. subtract the atomic number from the mass number.
D. add the mass
A. the significance of the de Broglie wavelength and the circumference of an orbit.
B. the importance of momentum in determining the size of an orbit.
C. how electrons are able to emit light.
D. None of the above is correct.