American Government 310l Test 1

75 Questions | Total Attempts: 105

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American Government 310l Test 1

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      Would be nasty, brutish, and short.

    • B. 

      Would be free of unnecessary intrusion.

    • C. 

      Is unnecessary, given man’s inherent qualities.

    • D. 

      Is a utopian ideal.

  • 2. 
    1. The preamble of the U.S. Constitution: 
    • A. 

      Protects basic rights of Americans.

    • B. 

      Defines the two central duties of national government.

    • C. 

      Establishes the limits of government power.

    • D. 

      Acknowledges life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as fundamental human rights.

  • 3. 
    1. Checks and balances limits government power by ________________; separation of powers limits government power by _____________. 
    • A. 

      Dividing power across state and national government; giving distinct duties to each branch of government

    • B. 

      dividing power between state and national government; giving each branch some power over the others

    • C. 

      Dividing the government into three branches; giving each branch some power over the others

    • D. 

      Giving each branch some power over the others; dividing the government into three branches

  • 4. 
    The president’s power to veto congressional legislation is an example of: 
    • A. 

      Separation of powers.

    • B. 

      Checks and balances.

    • C. 

      Federalism.

    • D. 

      Factionalism

  • 5. 
    According to Madison, factions arise out of 
    • A. 

      People’s self-interest.

    • B. 

      People’s opposition to powerful government.

    • C. 

      A desire to improve the public good.

    • D. 

      People’s altruistic tendencies.

  • 6. 
    The Founders incorporated separation of powers, checks and balances, and federalism into the structure of American government in order to: 
    • A. 

      Mimic the structure of English government.

    • B. 

      Promote altruism.

    • C. 

      Counter the effects of powerful factions.

    • D. 

      Prevent class-based politics.

  • 7. 
    1. Tyranny within American government is most effectively prevented by: 
    • A. 

      Competing political ideologies.

    • B. 

      Citizens’ strong commitment to the free market and economic individualism.

    • C. 

      A system of checks and balances.

    • D. 

      The collective action problem.

  • 8. 
    1. It is often necessary for government to provide public goods because: 
    • A. 

      Citizens are incapable of organizing efficient methods of distribution.

    • B. 

      Public goods are often underproduced in a free market.

    • C. 

      Only the government has the power to limit negative externalities.

    • D. 

      According to several states’ laws, public goods must be funded by tax dollars.

  • 9. 
    1. Collective action problems arise because each individual is ____________ off when _________ to cooperate and benefit from those who do work. 
    • A. 

      Better; refusing

    • B. 

      Worse; refusing

    • C. 

      Better; agreeing

    • D. 

      Worse; agreeing

  • 10. 
    1. The size of the federal government is evidence that: 
    • A. 

      Politics is everywhere.

    • B. 

      Politics is conflictual.

    • C. 

      The political process matters.

    • D. 

      The government is corrupt

  • 11. 
    Which of the following substantiates the fact that political process matters? 
    • A. 

      Government influences most aspects of daily life.

    • B. 

      The political party in power has extensive control over the policies enacted.

    • C. 

      People generally dislike political conflict.

    • D. 

      Over 11 million people receive a paycheck from the federal government.

  • 12. 
    Which of the following best characterizes the relationship between conflict and politics? 
    • A. 

      Conflict could be avoided without political parties.

    • B. 

      Government would be better off without conflict.

    • C. 

      Conflict in politics is a good thing.

    • D. 

      Conflict in politics is inevitable.

  • 13. 
    Americans have _________ interest in politics, most of us _____________ it every day. 
    • A. 

      Little; encounter

    • B. 

      Significant; avoid

    • C. 

      Little; avoid

    • D. 

      Significant; encounter

  • 14. 
    1. The reason conflict is nearly always a part of politics is because 
    • A. 

      The media tries to create an artificially conflictual environment.

    • B. 

      The easy issues get resolved and go away, the hard ones stay.

    • C. 

      Members of Congress genuinely dislike each other.

    • D. 

      The political parties disagree on everything.

  • 15. 
    1. An important implication of conflicts in politics is  that
    • A. 

      Compromise means abandoning principles.

    • B. 

      Agreements never exist in the midst of controversies.

    • C. 

      Congress never gets anything done.

    • D. 

      Compromise and bargaining are essential to getting things done.

  • 16. 
    1. Despite the importance of economic equality in defining our nation’s early history, socioeconomic classes have formed as a result of: 
    • A. 

      Americans’ rejection of government intervention in the economy.

    • B. 

      The Founders’ inability to predict how the American economy would develop.

    • C. 

      Slavery and its aftermath.

    • D. 

      The difficulty in revising laws established by the Constitution.

  • 17. 
    1. American economic interests tend to center on _________ and __________________. 
    • A. 

      Government regulation; economic individualism

    • B. 

      The free market; economic individualism

    • C. 

      The free market; economic mutualism

    • D. 

      Government regulation; economic mutualism

  • 18. 
    1. In the context of American politics, the term culture wars refers to: 
    • A. 

      Any conflict that occurs on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, or political ideology.

    • B. 

      The conflicts that exist as a result of the inherent differences among people living in the North and the South.

    • C. 

      The conflict among factions that form during each presidential election.

    • D. 

      The conflict between religious and secular Americans.

  • 19. 
    1. Democrats tend to favor _______________ tax policies and __________ restrictions on individual behavior. 
    • A. 

      Redistributive; few

    • B. 

      Redistributive; more

    • C. 

      Regressive; few

    • D. 

      Regressive; more

  • 20. 
    Which of the following policies would a Democrat most likely support? 
    • A. 

      An increase in benefits for welfare recipients

    • B. 

      Making abortion illegal

    • C. 

      Reducing business regulation

    • D. 

      Cutting the marginal tax rate

  • 21. 
    Americans tend to have ________ views on most issues. 
    • A. 

      Conservative

    • B. 

      Moderate

    • C. 

      Liberal

    • D. 

      Apathetic

  • 22. 
    1. Which of the following was a provision of the Articles of Confederation? 
    • A. 

      It established a national supreme court.

    • B. 

      Each a state had a single vote in Congress.

    • C. 

      All thirteen states had to agree to pass legislation.

    • D. 

      States shared authority to coin money with Congress.

  • 23. 
    1. How did the Articles of Confederation specify that the executive be selected? 
    • A. 

      National popular election

    • B. 

      Appointment by the Congress

    • C. 

      Appointment by the judiciary

    • D. 

      No executive leader was specified in the Articles of Confederation.

  • 24. 
    1. Which of the following is one of the reasons that American political leaders rejected the Articles of Confederation? 
    • A. 

      The states were unable to raise taxes.

    • B. 

      New York state troops threatened to occupy Massachusetts territory.

    • C. 

      Trade between the states was inefficient.

    • D. 

      South Carolina threatened to form an alliance with Spain.

  • 25. 
    Which of the following did Thomas Paine’s Common Sense advocate? 
    • A. 

      Republicanism

    • B. 

      Democracy

    • C. 

      State confederation

    • D. 

      Oligarchy

  • 26. 
    1. In Federalist 10, James Madison argued that the central goal of government is to: 
    • A. 

      Guarantee the rights of the majority.

    • B. 

      Control factions.

    • C. 

      Prevent foreign invasion.

    • D. 

      Provide public goods.

  • 27. 
    1. How did the level of economic inequality in the United States during the creation of the Constitution compare with the levels of economic inequality in Europe? 
    • A. 

      There was more inequality in American than in Europe.

    • B. 

      There was more inequality in Europe than in America.

    • C. 

      Inequality in Europe and America was quite high.

    • D. 

      Inequality in Europe and American was quite low.

  • 28. 
    1. Which of the following ideals is the basis of pluralism? 
    • A. 

      Political man is concerned with collective interests, rather than self-interest.

    • B. 

      Providing many groups access to government prevents authoritarianism.

    • C. 

      Providing many groups access to government promotes authoritarianism.

    • D. 

      Restricting civil liberties is necessary to produce stability and security.

  • 29. 
    1. The Great Compromise was the compromise between the constitutional proposals of ________________. 
    • A. 

      Delaware and New York

    • B. 

      New Jersey and New York

    • C. 

      Pennsylvania and Rhode Island

    • D. 

      New Jersey and Virginia

  • 30. 
    Which of the following is characteristic of the Parliamentary system? 
    • A. 

      Strong, independent executive

    • B. 

      Chief executive chosen by the electorate

    • C. 

      Chief executive chosen by the legislature

    • D. 

      Weak legislative branch

  • 31. 
    1. The outcome of the Three-Fifths Compromise was that slaves would _________________ and ____________________. 
    • A. 

      Each get three-fifths of a vote; each count as three-fifths of a person for taxation

    • B. 

      Each count as three-fifths of a person for taxation; each count as three-fifths of a person for the census

    • C. 

      Each get three-fifths of a vote; each count as three-fifths of a person for the census

    • D. 

      Each receive three-fifths the amount of social services that nonslaves got; each get three-fifths of a vote

  • 32. 
    1. Which of the following was not one of the central tensions at the Constitutional Convention? 
    • A. 

      Free trade versus domestic protectionism

    • B. 

      Legislative power versus executive power

    • C. 

      Majority rule versus minority rights

    • D. 

      National power versus states’ rights

  • 33. 
    1. During the constitutional deliberations, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote eighty-five essays to sway public opinion. Collectively, these eighty-five essays are known as _____________. 
    • A. 

      The Antifederalist Papers

    • B. 

      Common Sense

    • C. 

      The Federalist Papers

    • D. 

      The Pluralist Papers

  • 34. 
    1. The ____________________ felt that the Constitution should not specifically enumerate protected civil liberties. 
    • A. 

      Pluralists

    • B. 

      Federalists

    • C. 

      Populists

    • D. 

      Antifederalists

  • 35. 
    1. The Bill of Rights was included in the Constitution to assuage the fears of the __________________. 
    • A. 

      Big states

    • B. 

      Small states

    • C. 

      Antifederalists

    • D. 

      Federalists

  • 36. 
    15. Which branch of government is often considered the “First Branch”? 
    • A. 

      The presidency

    • B. 

      The Congress

    • C. 

      The courts

    • D. 

      The bureaucracy

  • 37. 
    16. Which of the following is not among Congress’s exclusive powers? 
    • A. 

      The right to regulate commerce

    • B. 

      The right to declare war

    • C. 

      The right to establish a post office

    • D. 

      The right to nominate judges

  • 38. 
    17. What is the name of the clause that gives Congress the “power to pass any law that is related to one of its expressed powers”? 
    • A. 

      Establishment clause

    • B. 

      National supremacy clause

    • C. 

      Congressional powers clause

    • D. 

      Necessary and proper clause

  • 39. 
    1. Which branch of government has “neither the power of the purse nor the sword?” 
    • A. 

      The courts

    • B. 

      The bureaucracy

    • C. 

      The presidency

    • D. 

      The Congress

  • 40. 
    19. How many times has Congress formally declared war? 
    • A. 

      Twice

    • B. 

      Four times

    • C. 

      Five times

    • D. 

      Twelve times

  • 41. 
    20. Impeachment allows Congress to remove the president for _______________________. 
    • A. 

      A politically unpopular action

    • B. 

      Marital infidelity

    • C. 

      Vetoing popular legislation

    • D. 

      abuses of power

  • 42. 
    21. Congress’s power of the purse __________ be used to punish executive agencies, and/but _______ be used to punish the federal judiciary. 
    • A. 

      Can; can

    • B. 

      Cannot; can

    • C. 

      Can; cannot

    • D. 

      Cannot; cannot

  • 43. 
    22. The president ______ have a check on Congress, and/but ________ have a check on the courts. 
    • A. 

      Does; does

    • B. 

      Does not; does

    • C. 

      Does; does not

    • D. 

      Does not; does not

  • 44. 
    23. Judicial review was asserted by the Court in _____________. 
    • A. 

      McCullough v. Maryland

    • B. 

      Marbury v. Madison

    • C. 

      Barron v. Baltimore

    • D. 

      Priestman v. United States

  • 45. 
    1. The Constitution ___________ provide the Supreme Court with a check on the president and/but _______________ provide the Supreme Court with a check on Congress. 
    • A. 

      Does; does

    • B. 

      Does not; does

    • C. 

      Does; does not

    • D. 

      Does not; does not

  • 46. 
    25. The Twenty-First Amendment, which repealed the prohibition of alcohol, was unique in how it was ratified. Which of the following was the ratification process for it? 
    • A. 

      Ratified by state convention

    • B. 

      Ratified by state legislature

    • C. 

      Ratified by public referenda

    • D. 

      Ratified by unanimous congressional approval

  • 47. 
    26. What does Article V of the Constitution detail? 
    • A. 

      The process of conducting national elections

    • B. 

      The process of establishing political parties

    • C. 

      The process of amending the Constitution

    • D. 

      The process of selecting Supreme Court justices

  • 48. 
    27. Which of the following is not an example of how implied powers have been interpreted? 
    • A. 

      The Supreme Court’s ruling that Congress could create a bank

    • B. 

      Congress’s levying a national tax to support the Marine Corps in the battle against the Barbary pirates

    • C. 

      The president’s unilaterally setting national foreign policy

    • D. 

      Congress’s removal of appointed officials from the president’s Cabinet

  • 49. 
    28. Which of the following options is not a reason that the Constitution is considered a “living document”?
    • A. 

      Some parts are ignored.

    • B. 

      The Constitution can be amended.

    • C. 

      Central passages are ambiguous.

    • D. 

      Explicit details allow only one interpretation of its meaning.

  • 50. 
    1. The form of government that best describes the American system while under the Articles of Confederation is _______________. 
    • A. 

      Confederal

    • B. 

      Federal

    • C. 

      Unitary

    • D. 

      Byzantine

  • 51. 
    2. One state’s recognizing a marriage sanctioned by another state is an example of the exercise of the __________ constitutional clause. 
    • A. 

      Privileges and immunities clause

    • B. 

      Elastic clause

    • C. 

      Commerce clause

    • D. 

      Full faith and credit clause

  • 52. 
    3. The privileges and immunities clause of the U.S. Constitution requires state governments to _______________________. 
    • A. 

      Treat non-state residents within their borders as they would state residents

    • B. 

      Respect one another’s laws

    • C. 

      Not delay other states’ members of Congress en route to Washington, D.C.

    • D. 

      Give foreign diplomats the same protections that the national government provides

  • 53. 
    4. Which of the following decisions was an outcome of the state-centered views of the Taney Court? 
    • A. 

      McCullough v. Maryland

    • B. 

      Gibbons v. Ogden

    • C. 

      Dred Scott v. Sandford

    • D. 

      Gideon v. Wainwright

  • 54. 
    5. Under a system of dual federalism, the national and state governments are: 
    • A. 

      Equally subject to the decisions of state supreme courts.

    • B. 

      Seen as distinct entities providing separate services.

    • C. 

      Seen as distinct entities providing overlapping, occasionally redundant services to ensure that all citizens have access to necessary public goods.

    • D. 

      Entitled to declare each other’s legislation void.

  • 55. 
    6. The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of the national government to create a national bank and reaffirmed the notion of national supremacy in the landmark case ___________. 
    • A. 

      Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)

    • B. 

      Barron v. Baltimore (1833)

    • C. 

      Marbury v. Madison (1803)

    • D. 

      McCullough v. Maryland (1819)

  • 56. 
    1. The commerce clause of Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution affords Congress broad regulatory power over __________________. 
    • A. 

      Intertribal trade among Native Americans

    • B. 

      International commerce

    • C. 

      Intrastate commerce

    • D. 

      Interstate commerce

  • 57. 
    8. During which decade did cooperative federalism begin? 
    • A. 

      The 1790s

    • B. 

      The 1830s

    • C. 

      The 1890s

    • D. 

      The 1930s

  • 58. 
    9. The _____ Amendment became the constitutional basis for many civil rights laws passed by Congress during Reconstruction 
    • A. 

      Tenth

    • B. 

      Eleventh

    • C. 

      Thirteenth

    • D. 

      Fourteenth

  • 59. 
    10. The Supreme Court’s late-nineteenth- and early twentieth-century decisions that congressional commerce clause powers extended only to _______________ commerce endorsed a view of ___________. 
    • A. 

      Interstate; laissez-faire capitalism

    • B. 

      Interstate; commonwealth capitalism

    • C. 

      Intrastate; laissez-faire capitalism

    • D. 

      Intrastate; commonwealth capitalism

  • 60. 
    1. Which of the following analogies best describes the federalism arrangement of the late 1930s? 
    • A. 

      Layer cake federalism

    • B. 

      Marble cake federalism

    • C. 

      Picket fence federalism

    • D. 

      Cherry cobbler federalism

  • 61. 
    12. Block grants consist of federal aid to state or local governments that is: 
    • A. 

      Divided into discrete “blocks” of grants, each capped at $50 million.

    • B. 

      To be spent on a policy area decided on by the state or local government.

    • C. 

      Contingent on state or local endorsement of some contentious piece of federal legislation.

    • D. 

      to be spent within a specified policy area, although the receiving state or local government can decide how to spend within that area.

  • 62. 
    13. General revenue sharing was mostly favored by the __________, but support declined during the __________. 
    • A. 

      States; 1930s

    • B. 

      States; 1980s

    • C. 

      National government; 1930s

    • D. 

      National government; 1980s

  • 63. 
    14. New Federalism was generally characterized by 
    • A. 

      Greater control by state and local governments of nationally funded programs.

    • B. 

      Greater control by the national government of state programs.

    • C. 

      The consolidation of block grants into categorical grants.

    • D. 

      An increase in unfunded mandates.

  • 64. 
    15. New Federalism is considered to have begun under _____________. 
    • A. 

      President Reagan

    • B. 

      President Ford

    • C. 

      President George H. W. Bush

    • D. 

      President Nixon

  • 65. 
    16. Despite the shift toward cooperative federalism, the supremacy of the national government continues to be reinforced by ___________ and the ____________. 
    • A. 

      Crises and war; rise of coercive federalism

    • B. 

      Crises and war; decline in unfunded mandates

    • C. 

      The rights revolution; decline in unfunded mandates

    • D. 

      The rights revolution; doctrine of interposition

  • 66. 
    1. Federal preemptions allow Congress to impose national priorities on states through national legislation, a power that is rooted in the Constitution’s ____________ clause. 
    • A. 

      Elastic

    • B. 

      Supremacy

    • C. 

      Establishment

    • D. 

      Necessary and proper

  • 67. 
    18. Coercive federalism describes a form of federalism in which: 
    • A. 

      The national government uses regulations, mandates, and conditional funding to pressure the states to change their policies.

    • B. 

      The state governments attempt to lobby the national government for specific laws or grants.

    • C. 

      The national government relies on grants alone to influence state policies.

    • D. 

      State governments compete with each other for business and jobs through the policies they adopt.

  • 68. 
    19. Competitive federalism is a form of federalism in which: 
    • A. 

      States levy taxes against each other, and the national government levies taxes on the individual states.

    • B. 

      The national government is in perpetual conflict with state governments over matters of economic policy and taxation.

    • C. 

      States compete to attract business and jobs through the policies they adopt.

    • D. 

      States provide block and categorical grants to local governments within the state.

  • 69. 
    20. As part of the federalism revolution of the 1990s, the U.S. Supreme Court began to chip away at Congress’s ________ Amendment powers to remedy bad state laws. 
    • A. 

      Ninth

    • B. 

      Tenth

    • C. 

      Fourteenth

    • D. 

      Twenty-Second

  • 70. 
    21. Citing the _____ Amendment, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that individuals, not just states, have the right to challenge the constitutionality of a federal law. 
    • A. 

      Second

    • B. 

      Eighth

    • C. 

      Ninth

    • D. 

      Tenth

  • 71. 
    1. Which of the following best describes remedial legislation? 
    • A. 

      National laws that designate block grants to be spent by the states on remedial education initiatives

    • B. 

      State laws that supplement national education laws pertaining to education

    • C. 

      National laws that address discriminatory state laws

    • D. 

      State laws that address discriminatory national laws

  • 72. 
    23. In recent years, traditional positions on federalism have changed somewhat, with liberals arguing for ______________ and conservatives arguing for _____________ on the issues of medicinal marijuana and gay marriage. 
    • A. 

      Strong national power; states’ rights

    • B. 

      Strong national power; strong national power

    • C. 

      States’ rights; states’ rights

    • D. 

      States’ rights; strong national power

  • 73. 
    24. States’ attempts to lure business by keeping taxes and social spending low can create a/the ______________. 
    • A. 

      Race to the bottom

    • B. 

      Tragedy of the commons

    • C. 

      Competition of convenience

    • D. 

      Beggar thy Neighbor Paradox

  • 74. 
    25. Although a federalist system has the advantage of ________________, it has the disadvantage of _______________. 
    • A. 

      Encouraging policy innovation; giving citizens several paths to contact government

    • B. 

      Encouraging policy innovation; maintaining interstate variation in resources

    • C. 

      Maintaining interstate variation in resources; discouraging policy innovation

    • D. 

      Maintaining interstate variation in resources; giving citizens several paths to contact government

  • 75. 
    26. Citizens’ ability to “vote with their feet” by deciding to move results in _______ competition among states, which would be impossible under a ___________ system. 
    • A. 

      Healthy; unitary

    • B. 

      Healthy; federalist

    • C. 

      Unhealthy; unitary

    • D. 

      Unhealthy; federalist