The Sultanate of Oman lies on the south east corner of the Arabian Peninsula between latitudes 16˚40' and 26˚-20' north and longitudes 51˚50', and 59˚40' east. Its coast runs to a distance of 1,700 km from the Strait of Hormuz in the north to the borders of the Republic of Yemen, thus overlooking three seas, the Arabian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea.
It is bordered to the west by the UAE and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to South by the Republic of Yemen, the Strait of I Hormuz to the North and the Arabian Sea to the East.
The Sultanate occupies a total area of about (309,500) square kms and includes different terrains that vary front plain, to highlands and mountains. The coastal plain overlooking the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea forms the most important plain of Oman, the area of which amounts to 3% of the total landmass while the mountain make up 15% or the total area, paramount among which are two ranges: Al Hajr mountains which stretches in the form of an are from Ras Musandam in the north to Ras Al Had. The second is Al Qara mountain range situated in the far side of south west of Oman. Sand and desert cover the greatest area as they represent approximately 82% of the total area: most of it is the Empty Quarter.
The Sultanate's climate varies from one area to another. In the coastal areas we find a hot and humid weather in summer while it is hot and dry in the interior, except for some high areas as the weather is moderate over the whole year. In the southern area the weather is more moderate. Rain in Oman is scarce and irregular. However, sometimes heavy rainfall is also reported. Governorate of Dhofar is an exception, where heavy and regular rain is registered from June to October due to monsoon.
The administrative division is as follows:
Ad Dakhiliyah is one of the governorates of Oman with Nizwa town as the regional center. It was previously a region. It became a governorate on 28 October 2011.
Ad Dakhiliyah Region consists of eight wilayats: Nizwa, Samail, Bahla, Adam, Al Hamra, Manah, Izki and Bid Bid.
Al Batinah Region, otherwise known as Al Batinah, occupies an important location on the coast of Gulf of Oman. It lies between Khatmat Malahah in the north and Ras AL Hamra in the south and confined between the Al Hajar Mountains in the west and the Gulf of Oman in the east. Most of Oman's population are in this region, because of the green plains between the Al Hajar Mountains and the sea.
Al Batinah Region contains the largest number of wilayat numbering twelve :Sohar, Ar Rustaq, Shinas, Liwa, Saham, Al Khaburah, Suwayq, Nakhal, Wadi Al Maawil, Al Awabi, Al Musanaah, Barka. Suwayq is considered as the biggest walyah in the Batinah Region
Sohar City is one of the Regional centers of the region. It is a great city with a corniche, fishing souq and lots of mosques. There's a town nearby called Majan.
Al Wusta is one of the governorates of Oman. Its capital is Haima (Hayma). It was previously a region. It became a governorate on 28 October 2011.
Al Wusta Region consists of four wilayat: Haima, Duqm, Mahout and Al Jazer.
Ash Sharqiyah was the eastern region of the Sultanate of Oman. The capital of Ash Sharqiyah is Sur. On 28 October 2011 Ash Sharqiyah Region was split into Ash Sharqiyah North Governorate and Ash Sharqiyah South Governorate.
Ash Sharqiyah Region consists of eleven provinces: Sur, Ibra, Mudhaibi, Al Kamil Wal Wafi, Jalan Bani Bu Hassan, Jalan Bani Bu Ali, Wadi Bani Khalid, Dema Wa Thaieen, Bidiya, Al Qabil, and Massirah.
The main cities are Sur and Ibra.
Of particular touristic interest is the Ash Sharqiyah coast, which includes the headlands of Ra's al-Hadd and Ra's al-Ghaima. The 42 kilometre stretch of beach between these two places is the most significant nesting ground in the Indian Ocean for green turtles. An estimated 13,000 turtles lay their individual clutches of 80 to 100 eggs annually. Oman's Ministry of Regional Municipalities, Environment and Water administers the site, which is one of the Sultanate's most important natural reserves.
Adh Dhahirah region consists of three wilayats: Ibri, Yankul, and Dhank.
Until October, 2006, two more wilayats were part of the region: Al Buraymi and Mahdha. In October, 2006, a new governorate, Al Buraymi was created from these two wilayats, and a third wilayat, Al Sinaihah was created from parts of the two.
Muscat is a governorate of the Sultanate of Oman. Its largest city is Muscat. The governorate of Muscat is sometimes referred to as Masqat to differentiate it from the city.
Administrative divisions are: Al Amrat, Bawshar, Muscat, Muttrah, Qurayyat, As Seeb
The city has numerous mosques including the Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, Ruwi Mosque and Zawawi Mosque.Muscat has a number of museums. These include Museum of Omani Heritage, National Museum of Oman, Oman Children's Museum, Oman Natural History Museum, Bait al Zubair, Oman Oil and Gas Exhibition Centre, Omani French Museum, Sultan's Armed Forces Museum and the Omani Aquarium and Marine Science and Fisheries Centre. The Bait Al Falaj Fort played an important role in Muscat's military history.
Several new projects are being planned including an opera house - which opened on October 14, 2011. One of the most notable projects is the Oman National Museum. It is expected to be an architectural jewel along with the Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque.
Visitors are also encouraged to visit Old Muscat and the Old Palace. The main shopping district is situated in Al Qurum Commercial Area, however shopping malls are spread out throughout the city.
Musandam peninsula juts into the Strait of Hormuz, the narrow entry into the Persian Gulf, from the Arabian Peninsula. The Musandam peninsula is an exclave of Oman, separated from the rest of the country by the United Arab Emirates.The Musandam Peninsula has an area of 1,800 square kilometers (695 sq mi) and a population of 31,425 people.
Musandam is a picturesque region separated from the rest of Oman, with its scenery being quite attractive to tourists.The world's fastest passenger ferry service between Muscat and Musandam was launched in August 2008 to alleviate this problem and make the region more accessible.
Dhofar Governorate is the largest of the eleven Governorates in the Sultanate of Oman in terms of area. It lies in Southern Oman, on the eastern border with Yemen. It is a rather mountainous area that covers 99,300 km2 (38,300 sq mi) and has a population of 250,000 as of the 2010 census. The largest city, as well as capital of the Governorate is Salalah. Historically the region was the chief source of frankincense in the world.
Dhofar has a tropical climate. Dhofar and a small portion of the northern tip of Yemen are directly exposed to the South East monsoon from mid-June to mid-September; this is known as the Khareef. As a result, it has a lush green climate during the monsoon season and for some time after until the vegetation loses its moisture.
The city of Salalah acts as the regions capital. It has an International Airport, one of the largest seaports in the Middle East, several resorts including Marriot & Crowne Plaza, well-kept streets, international retail chain outlets, more than five 3D cinemas under construction, a University, Colleges & Schools. But the main attraction of the region is the natural beauty that has been preserved despite its industries. Dhofar has been praised for its scenic beauty from time immemorial. The Dhofar region is rich in meteorites.
The Burj-al-Nadha Clock-tower is a popular landmark and is featured in the Dhofar Municipality coat of arms.
Al Buraimi is a governorate of Oman which was split from the Ad Dhahirah region.
Until October 2006, the area was part of Ad Dhahirah region. At this time, the new governorate was created from the wilayats Al Buraymi and Mahdah. A third wilayat, Al Sunaynah was created from parts of the two.
The town Al Buraymi is an oasis town in northeastern Oman, on the border of the United Arab Emirates. An adjacent city on the UAE's side of the border is Al Ain.