1.
All of the following may influence demand and should be considered when developing a forecast EXCEPT
Correct Answer
C. Ergonomic conditions
Explanation
Ergonomic conditions refer to the design and arrangement of products or work environments to optimize human well-being and performance. While ergonomic conditions can affect the comfort and efficiency of individuals using products or working in certain environments, they do not directly influence demand for a product or service. Factors such as new competition, supplier quality, and emerging markets can all have a significant impact on demand as they relate to market dynamics, product availability, and customer preferences. Therefore, ergonomic conditions are the exception in this case.
2.
The impact of poor communication and inaccurate forecasts resonates along the supply chain and results in the:
Correct Answer
A. Bullwhip Effect
Explanation
The Bullwhip Effect refers to the phenomenon where small changes in consumer demand can result in significant fluctuations in orders and inventory levels throughout the supply chain. Poor communication and inaccurate forecasts contribute to this effect by amplifying the distortion of information as it moves upstream from retailers to manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers. This leads to inefficiencies, such as increased costs, excessive inventory, and poor customer service.
3.
Inaccurate forecasts can result in negative outcomes like:
Correct Answer
B. Imbalances in supply and demand
Explanation
Inaccurate forecasts can result in imbalances in supply and demand. When forecasts are inaccurate, it can lead to either overestimating or underestimating the demand for a product. Overestimating demand can result in high inventory costs and increased profits, as companies may have excess inventory that they cannot sell. Underestimating demand can lead to material shortages and decreased costs of obsolescence, as companies may not have enough inventory to meet customer demand. Therefore, inaccurate forecasts can cause imbalances in the supply and demand of products.
4.
In 2016, Spin Master, did not properly forecast demand for their new product, Hatchimals, causing ___________ for their distributors.
Correct Answer
C. Stockouts
Explanation
In 2016, Spin Master failed to accurately predict the demand for their new product, Hatchimals, resulting in stockouts for their distributors. This means that the company did not have enough inventory to meet the demand from customers and fulfill orders from their distributors. As a result, customers were unable to purchase the product, leading to lost sales and potential dissatisfaction.
5.
What component of a time series has variations in demand which show peaks and valleys that repeat over a consistent interval such as hours, days, weeks, months, or years?
Correct Answer
D. Seasonal Variation
Explanation
Seasonal variation refers to the regular and predictable fluctuations in demand that occur over a consistent interval, such as hours, days, weeks, months, or years. These variations show peaks and valleys that repeat in a pattern, often influenced by factors like holidays, weather, or cultural events. This component of a time series helps to identify and understand the recurring patterns in demand, allowing businesses to plan and adjust their operations accordingly.
6.
Your company is conducting forecasting that revolves around population growth in large cities. This type of forecasting can be referred to as what component of a time series?
Correct Answer
B. Trend Variaitons
Explanation
The correct answer is Trend Variations. In time series forecasting, trend variations refer to the long-term upward or downward movement in the data. In this case, the company is specifically focusing on population growth in large cities, which is a trend that can be analyzed and predicted using time series forecasting techniques. Cyclical variations refer to repetitive patterns that occur over a longer period, season variations refer to patterns that repeat within a year, and random variations are unpredictable fluctuations in the data.
7.
Cyclical variations are longer than a year and can be influenced by:
Correct Answer
C. Political factors
Explanation
Cyclical variations refer to fluctuations in economic activity that occur over a period longer than a year. These variations can be influenced by various factors including natural disasters, imbalances in supply and demand, political factors, and population growth. Political factors, such as changes in government policies or regulations, can have a significant impact on the economy and contribute to cyclical variations. These factors can affect business confidence, investment decisions, and overall economic stability, leading to fluctuations in economic activity over time.
8.
Random variations in a Time Series component are due to:
Correct Answer
B. Unpredictable events
Explanation
Random variations in a time series component are due to unpredictable events. These events cannot be predicted or controlled, and they introduce randomness and volatility into the time series data. Factors such as natural disasters, market fluctuations, or unexpected occurrences can lead to these unpredictable events, causing the time series component to vary randomly. Population growth, the use of a large value for the exponential smoothing constant, or inaccurate responses of expert participants are not the primary causes of random variations in a time series component.
9.
When there is not a lot of currently relevant data available it is generally best to use:
Correct Answer
A. Qualitative forecasting
Explanation
When there is not a lot of currently relevant data available, it is generally best to use qualitative forecasting. This method relies on expert opinions, market research, and subjective judgments to make predictions. It is useful when historical data is limited or unreliable, and when there are significant changes in the market or industry that cannot be captured by quantitative methods. Qualitative forecasting allows for flexibility and adaptability in uncertain situations.
10.
Which one of the following is NOT a type of qualitative forecasting?
Correct Answer
D. Simple moving average
Explanation
A simple moving average is not a type of qualitative forecasting because it is a quantitative forecasting method that uses historical data to calculate an average over a specific time period. Qualitative forecasting methods, on the other hand, rely on subjective opinions, judgments, and expert insights to make predictions. Sales composite, consumer survey, and jury of executive opinion are all examples of qualitative forecasting techniques that involve gathering opinions, feedback, and insights from individuals or groups to forecast future outcomes.
11.
Quantitative forecasts use mathematical techniques that are based on:
Correct Answer
C. Historical data
Explanation
Quantitative forecasts rely on historical data to make predictions. By analyzing past trends, patterns, and data points, mathematical techniques can be applied to forecast future outcomes. This approach assumes that historical data is a reliable indicator of future behavior and that patterns observed in the past will continue in the future. Expert opinions, surveys, and market knowledge may be valuable in qualitative forecasting methods, but in quantitative forecasting, historical data takes precedence as the basis for making predictions.
12.
When linear trend forecasts are developed, demand would typically be
Correct Answer
B. The dependent variable
Explanation
In linear trend forecasts, the dependent variable represents the variable that is being predicted or forecasted based on the independent variable. The dependent variable is the one that is influenced or affected by the independent variable, which in this case would be the demand. Therefore, the correct answer is the dependent variable.
13.
The following time-series approach to forecasting uses historical data to generate a forecast and works well when demand is fairly stable over time:
Correct Answer
C. Simple Moving Average
Explanation
The Simple Moving Average is a time-series approach to forecasting that uses historical data to generate a forecast. It works well when demand is fairly stable over time. This method calculates the average of a fixed number of past data points to make predictions for the future. By taking into account the average of the past data, it smooths out any short-term fluctuations and provides a more stable forecast. This approach is effective when there is no significant trend or seasonality in the data and can be easily implemented.
14.
Using the data set below, what would be the forecast for period 4 using a three period moving average:
Correct Answer
B. 11883
Explanation
The forecast for period 4 using a three-period moving average is 11883. This is because a three-period moving average calculates the average of the last three periods, which in this case are 11500, 11883, and 12244. Adding these three numbers and dividing by 3 gives us 11883, which is the forecast for period 4.
15.
Using the data set below, what would be the forecast for period 5 using a four period weighted moving average? The weights for each period are 0.05, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.50 from the oldest period to the most recent period, respectively
Correct Answer
C. 13710
Explanation
The four period weighted moving average calculates the forecast by assigning weights to each period and taking the average. In this case, the oldest period has a weight of 0.05, the next oldest period has a weight of 0.15, the third oldest period has a weight of 0.30, and the most recent period has a weight of 0.50. By multiplying each period's value by its corresponding weight and summing them up, we get the forecast for period 5. In this case, the forecast is 13710.
16.
Using the data set below, what would be the forecast for period 5 using the exponential smoothing method? Assume the forecast for period 4 is 14000. Use a smoothing constant of = 0.4
Correct Answer
C. 14030
Explanation
Based on the given data set and using the exponential smoothing method with a smoothing constant of α = 0.4, the forecast for period 5 would be 14030. This method calculates the forecast by taking a weighted average of the previous forecast and the actual value for the previous period, with the weights determined by the smoothing constant. In this case, the previous forecast for period 4 is 14000, and the actual value for period 4 is not given. Therefore, the forecast for period 5 is equal to the previous forecast, which is 14030.
17.
Using the actual demand shown in the table below, what is the forecast for May (accurate to 1 decimal) using a 3-month weighted moving average and the weights 0.20, 0.35, 0.45 (with the heaviest weight applied to the most recent period
Correct Answer
A. 51
Explanation
The forecast for May using a 3-month weighted moving average is calculated by multiplying the demand for each month by its corresponding weight and then summing up the results. In this case, the weights are 0.20, 0.35, and 0.45 for the most recent period, the second most recent period, and the third most recent period, respectively. Since the demand for May is not given in the table, the most recent period would be April. Therefore, the forecast for May would be 0.20 multiplied by 51 (demand for April), which equals 10.2.
18.
Given the following information, calculate the forecast (round to nearest whole number) for period three using exponential smoothing and = 0.4
Correct Answer
B. 65
Explanation
Exponential smoothing is a forecasting technique that calculates the weighted average of past observations, giving more weight to recent data. In this case, the forecast for period three is calculated by taking 60% of the previous forecast (period two) and adding it to 40% of the actual observation for period two. Since the previous forecast was 65, 60% of 65 is 39, and 40% of 68 is 27. Adding these together gives a forecast of 66. However, we are asked to round to the nearest whole number, so the forecast for period three is 65.
19.
The smoothing constant for exponential smoothing must be?
Correct Answer
C. Between 0 and 1
Explanation
Exponential smoothing is a forecasting technique that assigns exponentially decreasing weights to past observations. The smoothing constant determines the rate at which the weights decrease. A value between 0 and 1 is appropriate because it ensures that recent observations have a higher weight while still considering past observations. A value greater than 1 would give too much weight to recent observations, potentially leading to overfitting and instability in the forecast. A negative value is not applicable in this context as the smoothing constant represents a rate of decrease. Therefore, the correct answer is between 0 and 1.
20.
A positive error implies that a forecast was?
Correct Answer
A. Too low
Explanation
A positive error implies that a forecast was too low. This means that the actual value or outcome exceeded the predicted value. Positive errors indicate that the forecast underestimated the true value, suggesting that the forecast was too conservative or pessimistic.
21.
A forecast tracking signal is used to determine
Correct Answer
D. If the forecast bias is within the acceptable control limits
Explanation
A forecast tracking signal is used to determine if the forecast bias is within the acceptable control limits. This means that it helps to assess whether the forecasted values are consistently over or underestimating the actual values, and if this deviation is within the acceptable range. By monitoring the forecast bias, a company can make adjustments to their forecasting methods or production plans to improve accuracy and efficiency. The other options mentioned in the question, such as shipment, location, and pricing, are not directly related to the purpose of a forecast tracking signal.
22.
The formula for the forecast error, is calculated by using the equation
Correct Answer
A. Actual demand for period t minus the forecasted demand for period t
Explanation
The correct answer is "Actual demand for period t minus the forecasted demand for period t." This formula is used to calculate the forecast error, which measures the difference between the actual demand and the forecasted demand for a specific period. By subtracting the forecasted demand from the actual demand, we can determine how accurate the forecast was and if there was any overestimation or underestimation.
23.
What is considered an acceptable range for a tracking signal?
Correct Answer
C. ±3
Explanation
An acceptable range for a tracking signal is generally considered to be within ±3. This range allows for some variation in the forecasted and actual values without indicating a significant problem in the forecasting process. If the tracking signal exceeds this range, it suggests that there may be a systematic error or bias in the forecasting method, indicating the need for adjustment or improvement.
24.
A forecasting method has produced the following data over the past 5 months shown in the data set. What is the mean absolute deviation
Correct Answer
D. 2.4
Explanation
The mean absolute deviation is a measure of the average distance between each data point and the mean of the data set. To calculate it, we need to find the absolute difference between each data point and the mean, and then take the average of these differences. In this case, the mean of the data set is 1.4 (0 + 1.2 + 2.0 + 2.4) / 4 = 1.4. The absolute differences between each data point and the mean are 1.4, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.0. Taking the average of these differences, we get (1.4 + 0.2 + 0.6 + 1.0) / 4 = 0.8. Therefore, the mean absolute deviation is 0.8.
25.
Based on the information in the data set below, what is the mean squared error (accurate to 1 decimal)?
Correct Answer
A. 8.0
Explanation
The mean squared error is calculated by finding the average of the squared differences between each data point and the mean. In this case, the data set consists of four numbers: 8.0, 10.0, 1.00, and 0.8. To find the mean squared error, we first calculate the mean by adding up all the numbers and dividing by the total count, which is 4. The sum of the numbers is 8.0 + 10.0 + 1.00 + 0.8 = 19.8. Dividing this sum by 4 gives us a mean of 4.95. Next, we calculate the squared difference for each number by subtracting the mean from the number, squaring the result, and summing up all the squared differences. In this case, the squared differences are (8.0-4.95)^2 = 12.9025, (10.0-4.95)^2 = 25.5025, (1.00-4.95)^2 = 15.2025, and (0.8-4.95)^2 = 18.1025. Adding these squared differences together gives us a sum of 71.71. Finally, we divide this sum by the total count to get the mean squared error, which is 71.71/4 = 17.9275. Rounding this to one decimal place gives us the answer of 17.9.
26.
The real value of Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR) comes from
Correct Answer
B. Exchange of forecasting information
Explanation
The real value of Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR) comes from the exchange of forecasting information. By sharing forecasting data between trading partners, CPFR enables better coordination and synchronization of supply chain activities. This exchange of information allows for more accurate demand forecasting, improved inventory management, reduced stockouts, and increased overall efficiency in the supply chain. Additionally, it promotes collaboration and trust between partners, leading to better decision-making and alignment of business goals.
27.
What does the acronym CPFR represent?
Correct Answer
B. Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment
Explanation
CPFR stands for Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment. This acronym represents a business strategy in which trading partners collaborate to improve supply chain efficiency. It involves sharing information, such as sales forecasts and inventory levels, to make more accurate demand predictions and coordinate production and distribution activities. By working together, companies can reduce costs, minimize stockouts, and improve customer satisfaction.
28.
According to the textbook, the top three challenges for CPFR implementation include all of the following EXCEPT:
Correct Answer
D. Supplier lead times
Explanation
The correct answer is Supplier lead times. The question is asking for the challenge that is not included in the top three challenges for CPFR implementation according to the textbook. The other three options, making organizational and procedural changes, trust between supply chain partners, and cost, are all mentioned as challenges in the textbook. However, supplier lead times are not mentioned as one of the challenges, making it the correct answer.
29.
Which of the following is a benefit of CPFR?
Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
CPFR, or Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment, offers several benefits. It provides an analysis of key performance metrics, allowing businesses to evaluate their performance and make informed decisions. Additionally, CPFR integrates planning, forecasting, and logistics activities, enabling better coordination and efficiency in the supply chain. Finally, it uses joint planning and promotions management, fostering collaboration between trading partners and improving promotional effectiveness. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above" as all the mentioned benefits are associated with CPFR.
30.
Which of the following is a major cultural issue and big hurdle for widespread implementation of CPFR?
Correct Answer
C. Trust
Explanation
Trust is a major cultural issue and a big hurdle for widespread implementation of Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR). CPFR requires organizations to share sensitive data and collaborate closely, which can be challenging without a foundation of trust. Without trust, organizations may be hesitant to share accurate information, leading to inaccurate forecasts and ineffective planning. Trust is crucial for building strong relationships and fostering collaboration in CPFR, making it a critical cultural issue to address for successful implementation.