# 4th Quarter Practice Assessment

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Taking this practice assessment is a great way to study for the assessment and see what you have learned and what you still need to review.

• 1.

### About how many galaxies are there?

• A.

Less than 100

• B.

Hundreds

• C.

Thousands

• D.

Millions

• E.

Billions

E. Billions
Explanation
There are billions of galaxies in the universe. This answer is supported by scientific observations and studies conducted by astronomers. The vastness of the universe and the sheer number of stars and celestial bodies within each galaxy contribute to the estimation of billions of galaxies. The exact number is difficult to determine due to the limitations of current technology and our understanding of the universe, but it is widely accepted that there are billions of galaxies out there.

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• 2.

### Galaxies that have no shape are called _________________ galaxies.

• A.

Spiral

• B.

Irregular

• C.

Elliptical

• D.

Spherical

• E.

Twirl

B. Irregular
Explanation
Galaxies that have no specific shape or structure are referred to as irregular galaxies. Unlike spiral or elliptical galaxies, irregular galaxies lack a distinct and organized form. They often exhibit chaotic and asymmetrical features, making them unique and unpredictable in their appearance.

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• 3.

### Galaxies that look like a flattened ball are called _________________ galaxies.

• A.

Spiral

• B.

Irregular

• C.

Elliptical

• D.

Spherical

• E.

Twirl

C. Elliptical
Explanation
Galaxies that have a flattened ball shape are known as elliptical galaxies. These galaxies have a smooth and elongated appearance, resembling an ellipse rather than a spiral or irregular shape. The term "elliptical" refers to the shape of these galaxies, indicating that they have a more rounded and flattened structure compared to other types of galaxies.

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• 4.

### Galaxies shaped like a pinwheel are called _________________ galaxies.

• A.

Spiral

• B.

Irregular

• C.

Elliptical

• D.

Spherical

• E.

Twirl

A. Spiral
Explanation
Galaxies shaped like a pinwheel are called spiral galaxies. These galaxies have a distinct spiral structure, with arms that extend from a central bulge. They are characterized by their rotating disk-like shape, with stars, gas, and dust concentrated in the arms. Spiral galaxies are one of the most common types of galaxies in the universe and are believed to be formed through the gravitational interaction of matter.

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• 5.

### Our galaxy is:

• A.

A twirl galaxy called the swirl galaxy

• B.

A spiral galaxy called the milky way galaxy

• C.

An elliptical galaxy called the milky way galaxy

• D.

An elliptical galaxy called the swirl galaxy

• E.

A spiral galaxy called the swirl galaxy

B. A spiral galaxy called the milky way galaxy
Explanation
The correct answer is a spiral galaxy called the Milky Way galaxy. The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy, meaning it has a distinct spiral structure with arms of stars and dust. It is named the Milky Way because it appears as a milky band of light in the night sky.

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• 6.

### Put the items in order from largest to smallest.

• A.

Universe, solar system, galaxy

• B.

Solar system, universe, galaxy

• C.

Universe, galaxy, solar system

• D.

Galaxy, universe, solar system

• E.

Galaxy, solar system, universe

C. Universe, galaxy, solar system
Explanation
The correct order of the items from largest to smallest is universe, galaxy, and solar system. The universe is the largest entity, consisting of billions of galaxies. A galaxy is a large system of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity. Within a galaxy, there are smaller structures called solar systems, which consist of a star and its orbiting planets. Therefore, the correct order is universe, galaxy, and solar system.

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• 7.

### At the center of our solar system is

• A.

The moon

• B.

Earth

• C.

A galaxy

• D.

A black hole

• E.

A star

E. A star
Explanation
The correct answer is a star. The center of our solar system is occupied by the Sun, which is a star. It is the largest and most massive object in our solar system, providing heat, light, and energy to all the planets, including Earth. The Sun's gravitational pull keeps the planets in orbit around it, making it the central and most important celestial body in our solar system.

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• 8.

### How many stars are there in our solar system

• A.

One

• B.

Around ten

• C.

Thousands

• D.

Millions

• E.

Billions

A. One
Explanation
The correct answer is "one" because our solar system consists of only one star, which is the Sun. While there are many other celestial bodies such as planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in our solar system, there is only one star at its center.

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• 9.

### The inner-most layer of the sun, where all of its energy is produced is the

• A.

Photosphere

• B.

• C.

Corona

• D.

Core

• E.

Convective zone

D. Core
Explanation
The core of the sun is the inner-most layer where all of its energy is produced through nuclear fusion. This is where hydrogen atoms combine to form helium, releasing a tremendous amount of energy in the process. The core is extremely hot and dense, with temperatures reaching millions of degrees Celsius. It is the source of the sun's heat and light, and without it, the sun would not be able to sustain its energy output.

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• 10.

### About how many times larger is Jupiter than Neptune?  Neptune's diameter is 49,528 and Jupiter's diameter is 142,984.

• A.

1

• B.

2

• C.

3

• D.

4

• E.

5

C. 3
Explanation
Jupiter's diameter is approximately 2.88 times larger than Neptune's diameter. This can be calculated by dividing Jupiter's diameter (142,984) by Neptune's diameter (49,528). The result is 2.88, which is rounded to 3. Therefore, Jupiter is about 3 times larger than Neptune.

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• 11.

### The layer of the sun we can only see during a solar eclipse is called the

• A.

Core

• B.

Corona

• C.

Convective zone

• D.

Solar flare

• E.

Photosphere

B. Corona
Explanation
During a solar eclipse, the moon blocks the bright light emitted by the photosphere, the visible surface of the sun. This allows us to see the outer layer of the sun called the corona. The corona is a faint, pearly white outer atmosphere of the sun that extends millions of kilometers into space. It is composed of extremely hot ionized gases and is only visible during a total solar eclipse or with specialized instruments. The corona is an important area of study as it plays a significant role in the sun's magnetic field and solar wind.

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• 12.

### Cool, dark spots on the sun's surface are called

• A.

Prominences

• B.

Solar flares

• C.

Sun spots

• D.

Coronal mass ejections

• E.

Pleges

C. Sun spots
Explanation
Sun spots are cool, dark spots on the sun's surface. They are caused by magnetic activity on the sun, which inhibits the flow of heat and creates cooler areas. Sun spots are typically darker than the surrounding area because they are cooler, but they are still extremely hot. These spots can vary in size and can last anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. Sun spots are important to study as they can provide valuable information about the sun's magnetic field and its effects on space weather.

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• 13.

### One rotation is equal to

• A.

One hour

• B.

One day

• C.

One month

• D.

One year

• E.

B. One day
Explanation
The given options represent different units of time. One rotation refers to the complete cycle of the Earth's rotation on its axis. This cycle takes approximately 24 hours, which is equivalent to one day. Therefore, the correct answer is one day.

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• 14.

### One revolution is equal to

• A.

One hour

• B.

One day

• C.

One month

• D.

One year

• E.

D. One year
Explanation
One revolution refers to the completion of a full orbit or rotation. In the context of the question, it is referring to the Earth's revolution around the Sun. It takes approximately one year for the Earth to complete one revolution around the Sun.

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• 15.

### This picture is of a(n)

• A.

Lunar eclipse

• B.

Solar flare

• C.

Solar eclipse

• D.

Annular eclipse

C. Solar eclipse
Explanation
The correct answer is solar eclipse. A solar eclipse occurs when the moon passes between the sun and the Earth, blocking the sunlight and casting a shadow on the Earth's surface. In the picture, we can see the moon partially covering the sun, indicating a solar eclipse. A lunar eclipse, on the other hand, occurs when the Earth comes between the sun and the moon, causing the moon to darken. A solar flare is a sudden and intense release of energy from the sun's surface. An annular eclipse is a type of solar eclipse where the moon appears smaller than the sun, leaving a ring of sunlight visible.

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• 16.

### The movement of one celestial object around another is called

• A.

A trip

• B.

A revolution

• C.

A rotation

• D.

An orbit

• E.

A spin

B. A revolution
Explanation
The movement of one celestial object around another is referred to as a revolution. This term is commonly used to describe the motion of planets around the sun or moons around a planet. It signifies a complete circular or elliptical path followed by the celestial object as it orbits around another. This term is distinct from rotation, which refers to the spinning motion of an object around its own axis.

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• 17.

### The spinning of a planet on its axis is called

• A.

Twirl

• B.

Ellipse

• C.

Revolution

• D.

Orbit

• E.

Rotation

E. Rotation
Explanation
Rotation refers to the spinning of a planet on its axis. It is the movement of a celestial body around its own axis, causing day and night to occur. This term is commonly used to describe the movement of planets, including Earth, as they spin on their axis. The other options, such as twirl, ellipse, revolution, and orbit, do not accurately describe the specific movement of a planet on its axis.

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• 18.

### Are inner planets warmer than outer planets?

• A.

Yes

• B.

No

A. Yes
Explanation
Inner planets are closer to the sun compared to outer planets. As a result, they receive more direct sunlight and therefore experience higher temperatures. This makes inner planets warmer than outer planets.

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• 19.

### Do inner planets have a faster rotation than outer planets?

• A.

Yes

• B.

No

• C.

Some do and some don't

• D.

No one knows

B. No
Explanation
Inner planets do not have a faster rotation than outer planets. The rotation speed of a planet is determined by its mass and distance from the sun. Inner planets, such as Mercury and Venus, are closer to the sun and therefore experience stronger gravitational forces. This causes them to have slower rotation speeds. Outer planets, on the other hand, are farther from the sun and experience weaker gravitational forces, allowing them to have faster rotation speeds.

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• 20.

### Do inner planets have a faster revolution than the outer planets?

• A.

Yes

• B.

No

• C.

Some do and some don't

• D.

No one knows

A. Yes
Explanation
Inner planets have a faster revolution than the outer planets because they are closer to the Sun and therefore have shorter orbital periods. The closer proximity to the Sun results in stronger gravitational forces, causing the inner planets to orbit at higher speeds compared to the outer planets.

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• 21.

### Are inner planets smaller or larger than the outer planets?

• A.

Smaller

• B.

Larger

• C.

Some are smaller and some are larger

• D.

No one knows

A. Smaller
Explanation
The inner planets are smaller than the outer planets. This is because the inner planets, also known as terrestrial planets, are made up of mostly rock and metal, while the outer planets, also known as gas giants, are composed mainly of gas and have much larger sizes. The inner planets include Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, which are all relatively small compared to the outer planets like Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

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• 22.

### Do the inner planets have a gassy or rocky surface?

• A.

Gassy

• B.

Rocky

• C.

Some are gassy and some are rocky

• D.

No one knows

B. Rocky
Explanation
The correct answer is rocky because the inner planets, namely Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are composed mainly of solid materials such as rock and metal. These planets have a solid surface with varying compositions and characteristics. They lack the thick atmospheres that the outer gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn possess.

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• 23.

### Diameter tells you about a sphere's

• A.

Color

• B.

Mass

• C.

Weight

• D.

Size

D. Size
Explanation
The diameter of a sphere refers to the length of a straight line passing through the center and connecting two points on the surface. It is a measurement of the sphere's size, indicating how large or small it is. The color, mass, and weight of a sphere are unrelated to its diameter and do not provide information about its size. Therefore, the correct answer is size.

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• 24.

### Asteroids orbit between

• A.

The sun and Mercury

• B.

Earth and Mars

• C.

Mars and Jupiter

• D.

Jupiter and Saturn

• E.

Saturn and Uranus

C. Mars and Jupiter
Explanation
Asteroids orbit between Mars and Jupiter. This region of space is known as the asteroid belt, which is located between the orbits of these two planets. The asteroid belt is composed of numerous small rocky objects that orbit the sun. These asteroids are remnants from the early formation of the solar system and did not accrete into a planet due to the strong gravitational influence of Jupiter.

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• 25.

### Meteoroids are _____________ than asteroids

• A.

Heavier

• B.

Rounder

• C.

Smaller

• D.

Larger

• E.

More metallic

C. Smaller
Explanation
Meteoroids are smaller than asteroids because meteoroids are small rocky or metallic objects that are significantly smaller in size compared to asteroids. While asteroids can range in size from a few meters to hundreds of kilometers in diameter, meteoroids are typically only a few meters in size or smaller. Therefore, meteoroids are generally smaller than asteroids.

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• 26.

• A.

Rock

• B.

Metal

• C.

Ice, gas and dust

• D.

Cheese

• E.

Fire

C. Ice, gas and dust
Explanation
Comets are celestial objects that consist of a combination of ice, gas, and dust. These components make up the nucleus of a comet, which is the solid core of the comet. The ice in comets is primarily composed of water ice, along with other volatile substances such as carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. As a comet approaches the Sun, the heat causes the ice to vaporize, releasing gas and dust particles that form a glowing coma and a tail. Therefore, the correct answer is ice, gas, and dust.

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• 27.

### A comet's tail

• A.

Always points towards Earth

• B.

Always points towards the sun

• C.

Always points away from the Earth

• D.

Always points away from the sun

• E.

Points random directions

D. Always points away from the sun
Explanation
Comet's tails are formed by the solar wind, which consists of charged particles emitted by the sun. As the solar wind pushes against the comet's nucleus, it causes the tail to form and always points away from the sun. This is due to the pressure exerted on the comet's nucleus by the solar wind, causing the tail to stream away in the opposite direction. Therefore, the correct answer is that a comet's tail always points away from the sun.

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• 28.

### A comet has a tail because

• A.

Of the sun's gravity

• B.

Of the Earth's gravity

• C.

The Earth's magnetic field

• D.

The sun's magnetic field

• E.

Of the solar wind

E. Of the solar wind
Explanation
A comet has a tail because of the solar wind. The solar wind is a stream of charged particles, mainly protons and electrons, that are constantly emitted by the sun. When a comet approaches the sun, the solar wind interacts with the comet's nucleus and causes the release of gas and dust particles. These particles are then pushed away from the sun by the solar wind, creating a glowing tail that points away from the sun.

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• 29.

### A meteoroid is located

• A.

In space

• B.

On the sun

• C.

In the atmosphere

• D.

On the Earth's surface

A. In space
Explanation
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic object that is located in space. It is typically smaller than an asteroid and can range in size from a grain of sand to a few meters in diameter. Meteoroids are often remnants of comets or asteroids that have broken apart. They can travel through space until they enter a planet's atmosphere, at which point they are called meteors. Therefore, the correct answer is "in space."

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• 30.

### A meteor is located

• A.

In space

• B.

On the sun

• C.

In the atmosphere

• D.

On the Earth's surface

C. In the atmospHere
Explanation
The correct answer is "in the atmosphere" because a meteor is a space rock or debris that enters Earth's atmosphere and burns up upon entry due to friction with the air molecules. This burning creates the bright streak of light that we see in the night sky, known as a shooting star. Therefore, a meteor is not located in space, on the sun, or on the Earth's surface, but rather in the atmosphere during its brief existence.

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• 31.

### A meteorite is located

• A.

In space

• B.

On the sun

• C.

In the atmosphere

• D.

On the Earth's surface

D. On the Earth's surface
Explanation
A meteorite is a piece of rock or metal that has fallen to the Earth's surface from outer space. Therefore, it is located on the Earth's surface.

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• 32.

### The moon appears to move through the sky because of the

• A.

Moon's rotation

• B.

Moon's revolution

• C.

Earth's rotation

• D.

Earth's revolution

• E.

Sun's position

C. Earth's rotation
Explanation
The moon appears to move through the sky because of the Earth's rotation. As the Earth spins on its axis, it creates the illusion that the moon is moving across the sky. In reality, the moon is actually orbiting around the Earth, but the Earth's rotation gives the appearance of the moon's movement. This is why we see the moon rise in the east and set in the west, just like the sun and other celestial bodies.

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• 33.

### The name of the moon's phase when none of the moon is visible is called

• A.

Nothing

• B.

Full moon

• C.

New moon

• D.

No moon

C. New moon
Explanation
The correct answer is "new moon". During a new moon, the moon is positioned between the Earth and the Sun, causing the side of the moon that faces the Earth to be completely dark. This means that none of the moon is visible from Earth during this phase.

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• 34.

### After the full moon, the next of the four main moon phases would be

• A.

New moon

• B.

No moon

• C.

First quarter

• D.

Last (3rd) quarter

D. Last (3rd) quarter
Explanation
The correct answer is last (3rd) quarter because after the full moon, the moon starts to wane or decrease in illumination. The last quarter phase occurs when the moon is half-lit and appears as a half-circle in the sky. This phase is also known as the third quarter because it marks the completion of three-quarters of the lunar cycle.

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• 35.

### The order for a solar eclipse would be:

• A.

Moon, sun, earth

• B.

Sun, moon, earth

• C.

Sun, earth, moon

• D.

Earth, sun, moon

• E.

None of the above

B. Sun, moon, earth
Explanation
During a solar eclipse, the moon passes between the sun and the earth, causing the sun to be temporarily blocked or obscured. Therefore, the correct order for a solar eclipse would be sun, moon, earth.

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• 36.

### The order for a lunar eclipse would be:

• A.

Moon, sun, earth

• B.

Sun, moon, earth

• C.

Sun, earth, moon

• D.

Earth, sun, moon

• E.

None of the above

C. Sun, earth, moon
Explanation
In a lunar eclipse, the Earth comes between the Sun and the Moon, causing the Moon to pass through the Earth's shadow. Therefore, the correct order for a lunar eclipse is sun, earth, moon.

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• 37.

### The Earth's seasons are caused by

• A.

The tilt of the earth

• B.

Our distance from the sun

• C.

The location of the earth

• D.

The location of the moon

A. The tilt of the earth
Explanation
The Earth's seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth. The Earth is tilted on its axis at an angle of about 23.5 degrees. This tilt causes different parts of the Earth to receive varying amounts of sunlight throughout the year, resulting in the changing seasons. When a hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, it experiences summer, while the opposite hemisphere experiences winter. As the Earth orbits the sun, the tilt causes the amount of sunlight to change, leading to the transition of seasons. The distance from the sun, the location of the Earth, and the location of the moon do not directly affect the Earth's seasons.

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• 38.

### If the northern hemisphere was experiencing fall than the southern hemisphere would be experiencing:

• A.

Summer

• B.

Spring

• C.

Winter

• D.

Fall

B. Spring
Explanation
If the northern hemisphere is experiencing fall, it means that the tilt of the Earth's axis is causing the northern hemisphere to be tilted away from the sun. In contrast, the southern hemisphere would be tilted towards the sun, resulting in more direct sunlight and warmer temperatures. This corresponds to the season of spring, where the weather is typically mild and temperatures start to rise after winter.

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• 39.

### When the Earth is neither tilted towards nor away from the sun, the season is either

• A.

Spring or winter

• B.

Summer or fall

• C.

Spring or summer

• D.

Winter or summer

• E.

Spring or fall

E. Spring or fall
Explanation
When the Earth is neither tilted towards nor away from the sun, it is in a position called equinox. During the equinox, the sun is directly above the equator, resulting in equal lengths of day and night. This occurs twice a year, once in March (spring equinox) and once in September (fall equinox). Therefore, when the Earth is in this position, the season can either be spring or fall.

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• 40.

### Tides are caused mostly by

• A.

The solar wind

• B.

The Coriolis effect

• C.

The moon's gravitational pull

• D.

The sun's gravitational pull

• E.

Wind

C. The moon's gravitational pull
Explanation
Tides are primarily caused by the moon's gravitational pull. The moon's gravitational force creates a tidal bulge on the side of the Earth closest to the moon and another bulge on the opposite side. As the Earth rotates, these bulges cause the water levels to rise and fall, resulting in the regular pattern of tides. While other factors like the sun's gravitational pull and the Coriolis effect also have some influence on tides, the moon's gravitational pull is the main driving force behind this natural phenomenon.

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• 41.

### High tide occurs

• A.

Only on the side of the Earth facing the moon

• B.

On the side of the Earth facing the moon and on the opposite side

• C.

At the same time each day

• D.

The side of the Earth facing the sun and on the opposite side

• E.

Only on the side of the Earth facing the sun

B. On the side of the Earth facing the moon and on the opposite side
Explanation
High tide occurs on the side of the Earth facing the moon and on the opposite side because of the gravitational pull exerted by the moon. The moon's gravity attracts the water on the Earth's surface, causing a bulge of water on the side facing the moon. At the same time, the moon's gravity also pulls the Earth away from the water on the opposite side, creating another bulge. These two bulges of water result in high tides occurring on both sides of the Earth simultaneously.

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• 42.

### Low tide occurs

• A.

The same time each day

• B.

Once a day

• C.

Twice a day

• D.

Three times a day

• E.

Four times a day

C. Twice a day
Explanation
Low tide occurs twice a day. This is due to the gravitational forces exerted by the moon and the sun on the Earth's oceans. The gravitational pull causes the water to bulge towards the moon, creating a high tide on the side of the Earth facing the moon, and a second high tide on the opposite side. The areas in between experience low tide. As the Earth rotates, different coastal areas experience high and low tides at different times, resulting in two low tides occurring each day.

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• 43.

### The sun is a

• A.

Super nova

• B.

Just a sun

• C.

Planet

• D.

Star

• E.

Chicken

D. Star
Explanation
The sun is a star because it is a massive, luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity. It emits light and heat due to nuclear reactions occurring at its core. The sun's characteristics, such as its size, temperature, and composition, align with those of other stars in the universe. Additionally, the sun is located at the center of our solar system, providing light and energy to the planets orbiting around it.

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• 44.

### Gravity is

• A.

The force that attracts objects together

• B.

The force that pulls objects apart

• C.

The magnetism of the Earth

• D.

The magnetism of the sun

A. The force that attracts objects together
Explanation
Gravity is the force that attracts objects together. This force is responsible for the phenomenon of objects falling towards the Earth's surface when dropped. It is a fundamental force of nature that exists between any two objects with mass. The greater the mass of an object, the stronger its gravitational pull. Gravity is what keeps planets in orbit around the sun and holds galaxies together. It is a universal force that is constantly acting on all objects in the universe.

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• 45.

### If the sun were a tennis ball, than the Earth would be

• A.

A base ball

• B.

A golf ball

• C.

A marble

• D.

A pencil eraser

• E.

A grain of sand

E. A grain of sand
Explanation
If the sun were a tennis ball, the Earth would be a grain of sand. This analogy suggests that the sun is much larger than the Earth, just as a tennis ball is much larger than a grain of sand. It highlights the vast difference in size between the two objects, emphasizing the immense size of the sun compared to the relatively tiny Earth.

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• 46.

### What season is the northern hemisphere experiencing in A?

• A.

Winter

• B.

Fall

• C.

Summer

• D.

Spring

C. Summer
Explanation
The northern hemisphere is experiencing summer in A because the question is asking about the season in the northern hemisphere, and the correct answer is summer.

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• 47.

### What season is the northern hemisphere experiencing in D?

• A.

Fall

• B.

Summer

• C.

Spring

• D.

Winter

C. Spring
Explanation
The northern hemisphere is experiencing spring in option D. Spring is characterized by warmer temperatures, blooming flowers, and longer daylight hours. During this season, the weather gradually becomes milder after winter, and plants and animals start to come out of hibernation. It is a time of renewal and growth in nature.

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• 48.

### A shooting star that streaks across the sky is really a

• A.

Comet

• B.

Asteroid

• C.

Meteoroid

• D.

Meteor

• E.

Meteorite

D. Meteor
Explanation
A shooting star that streaks across the sky is actually a meteor. Meteors are small particles or fragments of rock and dust that enter Earth's atmosphere from space. As they travel through the atmosphere, they heat up and produce a bright streak of light, commonly known as a shooting star. Once the meteor reaches the Earth's surface, it is then referred to as a meteorite. Comets, asteroids, and meteoroids are also celestial objects, but they have different characteristics and behaviors compared to meteors.

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• 49.

### What phase is the moon in at letter C

• A.

Full moon

• B.

New moon

• C.

3rd quarter

• D.

1st quarter

A. Full moon
Explanation
The correct answer is full moon because at this phase, the entire illuminated side of the moon is facing the Earth, making it appear as a complete circle. This phase occurs when the moon is directly opposite the sun in the sky, with the Earth in between.

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• 50.

### In what possition can none of the moon's lighted side be seen?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

A. A
Explanation
None of the moon's lighted side can be seen in position A because in this position, the Earth is directly between the moon and the sun. This causes the moon's lighted side to face away from the Earth, making it impossible to see any of the moon's lighted side.

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• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• May 31, 2009
Quiz Created by
Marquart

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