3DX5X Cyber Support Journeyman Volume 2. Information Technology Concepts

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Volume 2. Information Technology Concepts


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    (201) What layer of the Open System Interconnect model defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for links between communicating network systems?

    • A.

      A. Physical.

    • B.

      B. Data Link.

    • C.

      C. Network.

    • D.

      D. Transport.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Physical.
    Explanation
    The physical layer of the Open System Interconnect model is responsible for defining the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for links between communicating network systems. This layer deals with the physical transmission of data, including the physical medium (such as cables and connectors) and the encoding and decoding of data. It ensures that the data is transmitted reliably and accurately over the network.

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  • 2. 

    (201) The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers divide the Open System Interconnect Data Link Layers into what two sublayers?

    • A.

      A. High Level Data Link Control and Synchronous Data Link Control.

    • B.

      B. Logical Link Control and Media Access Control.

    • C.

      C. Distance Vector and Link State.

    • D.

      D. RS–232 and RS–530.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Logical Link Control and Media Access Control.
    Explanation
    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) divides the Open System Interconnect (OSI) Data Link Layers into two sublayers: Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). The LLC sublayer is responsible for managing communication between network devices and providing error control and flow control. The MAC sublayer is responsible for controlling access to the network media and handling data transmission. Therefore, option b, Logical Link Control and Media Access Control, is the correct answer.

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  • 3. 

    (201) At what Open System Interconnect layer do network switches and bridges operate?

    • A.

      A. Network.

    • B.

      B. Physical.

    • C.

      C. Data Link.

    • D.

      D. Transport.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Data Link.
    Explanation
    Network switches and bridges operate at the Data Link layer of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model. This layer is responsible for the reliable transfer of data between adjacent network nodes. Network switches and bridges use MAC addresses to forward data packets within a local area network (LAN). They examine the destination MAC address of incoming packets and forward them to the appropriate port based on the MAC address table. Therefore, the correct answer is c. Data Link.

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  • 4. 

    (201) At what Open System Interconnect layer do routers operate?

    • A.

      A. Network.

    • B.

      B. Physical.

    • C.

      C. Data Link.

    • D.

      D. Transport.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Network.
    Explanation
    Routers operate at the Network layer of the Open System Interconnect (OSI) model. The Network layer is responsible for routing packets across different networks, determining the best path for data transmission, and addressing logical network addresses. Routers use IP addresses to make routing decisions and connect different networks together. They analyze the destination IP address of a packet and use routing tables to determine the next hop for forwarding the packet to its destination. Therefore, the correct answer is a. Network.

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  • 5. 

    (201) At what Open System Interconnect layer are common data compression and encryption schemes used?

    • A.

      A. Application.

    • B.

      B. Session.

    • C.

      C. Presentation.

    • D.

      D. Transport.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Presentation.
    Explanation
    Common data compression and encryption schemes are used at the Presentation layer of the OSI model. This layer is responsible for formatting, encrypting, and compressing data to be sent across the network. It ensures that the data is in a format that can be understood by the receiving device. Therefore, the correct answer is c. Presentation.

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  • 6. 

    (201) What Open System Interconnect layer is closest to the end user?

    • A.

      A. Application.

    • B.

      B. Session.

    • C.

      C. Presentation.

    • D.

      D. Transport.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Application.
    Explanation
    The Open System Interconnect (OSI) model is a conceptual framework that standardizes the functions of a communication system into seven different layers. The layer closest to the end user is the Application layer. This layer provides services directly to the user, such as email, web browsing, and file transfer. It interacts with software applications and enables communication between the user and the network. The Application layer is responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of communication partners, as well as synchronizing and encrypting data for transmission.

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  • 7. 

    (201) What is a formal set of rules and conventions that govern how computers exchange information over a network medium?

    • A.

      A. Specification.

    • B.

      B. Standard.

    • C.

      C. Etiquette.

    • D.

      D. Protocol.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Protocol.
    Explanation
    A protocol is a formal set of rules and conventions that govern how computers exchange information over a network medium. It outlines the specific format, timing, sequencing, and error control for data transmission. It ensures that devices can communicate effectively and understand each other's messages.

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  • 8. 

    (202) What topology defines the layout of a network’s devices and media?

    • A.

      A. Physical.

    • B.

      B. Logical.

    • C.

      C. Star.

    • D.

      D. Hybrid.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Physical.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a. Physical". Physical topology refers to the physical arrangement of devices and media in a network. It describes how the devices are connected to each other and how they are physically located in the network. This includes the layout of cables, switches, routers, and other hardware components. Logical topology, on the other hand, refers to how data flows in a network and is independent of the physical arrangement. Star and hybrid are types of physical topologies, but physical topology itself defines the layout of a network's devices and media.

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  • 9. 

    (202) What topology defines the way in which devices communicate, and data is transmitted, throughout the network?

    • A.

      A. Physical.

    • B.

      B. Logical.

    • C.

      C. Star.

    • D.

      D. Hybrid.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Logical.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is b. Logical. Logical topology refers to the way in which devices communicate and data is transmitted in a network. It focuses on the logical connections and pathways between devices, rather than the physical layout. This includes concepts such as bus, ring, and mesh topologies.

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  • 10. 

    (202) What topology consists of devices connected to a common, shared cable?

    • A.

      A. Bus.

    • B.

      B. Ring.

    • C.

      C. Star.

    • D.

      D. Hybrid.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Bus.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a. Bus. In a bus topology, devices are connected to a common cable called a bus. All devices on the network share this cable, and data is transmitted in both directions. Each device receives all the data transmitted on the bus, but only the intended recipient processes the data. This topology is simple and cost-effective, but can be prone to collisions and performance issues as more devices are added to the network.

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  • 11. 

    (202) What topology consists of cable segments from each computer connected to a centralized component?

    • A.

      A. Bus.

    • B.

      B. Ring.

    • C.

      C. Star.

    • D.

      D. Hybrid.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Ring.
    Explanation
    A ring topology consists of cable segments from each computer connected to a centralized component. In this topology, the computers are connected in a loop or a ring, where each computer is connected to the next one and the last computer is connected back to the first one, forming a closed loop. This centralized component is responsible for transmitting data between the computers in the network.

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  • 12. 

    (202) What topology combines two or more different physical topologies in a single network?

    • A.

      A. Bus.

    • B.

      B. Ring.

    • C.

      C. Star.

    • D.

      D. Hybrid.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Hybrid.
    Explanation
    A hybrid topology combines two or more different physical topologies in a single network. This means that a network can have a combination of bus, ring, star, or other topologies. This allows for more flexibility and scalability in designing a network, as different topologies can be used to suit different needs and requirements. Therefore, the correct answer is d. Hybrid.

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  • 13. 

    (202) What topology combines two or more different physical topologies in a single network?

    • A.

      A. Bus.

    • B.

      B. Ring.

    • C.

      C. Star.

    • D.

      D. Hybrid.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Hybrid.
    Explanation
    A hybrid topology combines two or more different physical topologies in a single network. This means that the network can have a mix of different topologies such as bus, ring, or star. This allows for more flexibility and scalability in the network design, as different topologies can be used to suit different needs or requirements.

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  • 14. 

    (203) Which network protocol has the Department of Defense chosen as its standard to govern the flow of information?

    • A.

      A. AppleTalk.

    • B.

      B. NetBios Extended User Interface.

    • C.

      C. Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

    • D.

      D. Internetwork Packet Exchange/ Sequenced Packet Exchange.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
    Explanation
    The Department of Defense has chosen the Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) as its standard network protocol to govern the flow of information. TCP/IP is a widely used protocol in computer networks, including the internet, and it provides reliable and secure communication between devices. It allows for the transmission of data packets, ensuring that information is properly delivered and received. TCP/IP also provides addressing and routing functions, allowing for efficient and effective communication across networks.

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  • 15. 

    (203) What Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol network layer protocol provides the service of matching a known IP address for a destination device to a Media Access Control address?

    • A.

      A. Internet Protocol.

    • B.

      B. Address Resolution Protocol.

    • C.

      C. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.

    • D.

      D. Internet Control Message Protocol.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Address Resolution Protocol.
    Explanation
    The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is responsible for mapping an IP address to a Media Access Control (MAC) address. When a device wants to send data to a destination device, it needs to know the MAC address of that device. ARP allows the device to send an ARP request to the network, asking for the MAC address associated with a specific IP address. The device with the matching IP address will respond with its MAC address, allowing the sender to establish a connection and send data. Therefore, ARP provides the service of matching a known IP address to a MAC address.

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  • 16. 

    (203) What Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol network layer protocol provides the IP address for a device that knows its own MAC address?

    • A.

      A. Internet Protocol.

    • B.

      B. Address Resolution Protocol.

    • C.

      C. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.

    • D.

      D. Internet Control Message Protocol.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.
    Explanation
    The Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is a network layer protocol that provides the IP address for a device that knows its own MAC address. RARP allows a device to send its MAC address to a RARP server and request its corresponding IP address. This is useful in situations where a device does not have a configured IP address and needs to obtain one dynamically. RARP is the reverse process of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), which maps an IP address to a MAC address.

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  • 17. 

    (203) What Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol network layer protocol provides messaging that can help with troubleshooting?

    • A.

      A. Internet Protocol.

    • B.

      B. Address Resolution Protocol.

    • C.

      C. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.

    • D.

      D. Internet Control Message Protocol.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Internet Control Message Protocol.
    Explanation
    The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a network layer protocol that provides messaging capabilities to help with troubleshooting. ICMP messages are used to report errors, congestion, and other information about the network. These messages can be used by network administrators to diagnose and troubleshoot network issues, such as identifying unreachable hosts or determining the round-trip time for packets. ICMP is an integral part of the TCP/IP protocol suite and is essential for the proper functioning and maintenance of IP networks.

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  • 18. 

    (203) What Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol transport layer protocol provides reliable data delivery services?

    • A.

      A. Internet Protocol.

    • B.

      B. User Datagram Protocol.

    • C.

      C. Transmission Control Protocol.

    • D.

      D. Internet Control Message Protocol.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Transmission Control Protocol.
    Explanation
    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) provides reliable data delivery services. TCP ensures that data packets are delivered in the correct order and without errors. It uses acknowledgments and retransmissions to guarantee that all data is successfully received by the recipient. TCP also manages congestion control to prevent network congestion and ensure efficient data transmission.

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  • 19. 

    (203) What application within Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is used to send and receive files via TCP?

    • A.

      A. File Transfer Protocol.

    • B.

      B. Trivial File Transfer Protocol.

    • C.

      C. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

    • D.

      D. HyperText Transfer Protocol.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. File Transfer Protocol.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is File Transfer Protocol (FTP). FTP is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another over a TCP-based network, such as the internet. It provides a simple and reliable way to send and receive files, allowing users to upload and download files between their local system and a remote server. FTP uses TCP as its transport protocol to ensure the reliable delivery of data packets. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), and HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) are not designed specifically for file transfer purposes.

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  • 20. 

    (204) What type of network connects networks that are typically separated by geographical distances between cities, states, countries, or around the world?

    • A.

      A. Local Area Network.

    • B.

      B. Wide Area Network.

    • C.

      C. Virtual Private Network.

    • D.

      D. Metropolitan Area Network.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Wide Area Network.
    Explanation
    A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a type of network that connects networks that are typically separated by geographical distances between cities, states, countries, or around the world. Unlike a Local Area Network (LAN) which connects devices within a limited area, a WAN allows for long-distance communication and enables organizations to connect their remote offices or branches to a centralized network. A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a technology that allows users to securely access a private network over a public network, and a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) connects networks within a specific geographic area, such as a city. Therefore, the correct answer is b. Wide Area Network.

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  • 21. 

    (204) What type of network makes use of tunneling and security protocols to enables a group of two or more computer systems to communicate over the public Internet?

    • A.

      A. Local Area Network.

    • B.

      B. Wide Area Network.

    • C.

      C. Virtual Private Network.

    • D.

      D. Metropolitan Area Network.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Virtual Private Network.
    Explanation
    A Virtual Private Network (VPN) makes use of tunneling and security protocols to enable a group of two or more computer systems to communicate over the public Internet. VPNs create a secure and encrypted connection between the computers, allowing them to send and receive data privately and securely. This is especially useful for remote workers or businesses that need to connect to their network from outside locations, as it ensures that their communication is protected from potential threats on the public Internet.

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  • 22. 

    (204) Which is a common port that contains Hyper Text Transfer Protocol servers and proxies?

    • A.

      A. Port 80.

    • B.

      B. Port 110.

    • C.

      C. Port 443.

    • D.

      D. Port 8080.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Port 8080.
    Explanation
    Port 8080 is a common port that contains Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) servers and proxies. HTTP is the protocol used for transmitting web pages and other resources over the internet. Port 8080 is often used as an alternative to the default HTTP port (port 80) when the latter is already in use or blocked. It allows for the hosting of multiple web servers or applications on the same machine without conflicts.

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  • 23. 

    (205) How many bits are in an IPv4 address?

    • A.

      A. 16 bits.

    • B.

      B. 32 bits.

    • C.

      C. 64 bits.

    • D.

      D. 128 bits.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. 32 bits.
    Explanation
    An IPv4 address is a 32-bit address, which means it consists of 32 binary digits or bits. Each bit can be either a 0 or a 1, allowing for a total of 2^32 (approximately 4.3 billion) unique addresses. This addressing scheme is used to identify and locate devices on a network using the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) protocol.

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  • 24. 

    (205) Instead of using binary, how are IPv4 addresses expressed to be more user-friendly?

    • A.

      A. Colon Hexadecimal Format.

    • B.

      B. Dotted Decimal Notation.

    • C.

      C. Hexadecimal.

    • D.

      D. Octal.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Dotted Decimal Notation.
    Explanation
    IPv4 addresses are expressed in dotted decimal notation to make them more user-friendly. In this format, the address is divided into four sections, each representing one byte of the address. Each section is separated by a dot, making it easier for users to read and understand the address. This format is widely used and allows for easy recognition and interpretation of IPv4 addresses.

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  • 25. 

    (205) Using a range of 1–126 in the first octet of an IPv4 address, what class does it belong to?

    • A.

      A. Class A.

    • B.

      B. Class B.

    • C.

      C. Class C.

    • D.

      D. Class D.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Class A.
    Explanation
    The range of 1-126 in the first octet of an IPv4 address belongs to Class A. Class A addresses have the first bit set to 0, indicating that the address belongs to the network address space. The remaining 7 bits in the first octet are used to represent the network ID, allowing for a large number of networks. The range 1-126 falls within this class, making it the correct answer.

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  • 26. 

    (205) What IPv4 class address is used for networks with about 250 nodes?

    • A.

      A. Class C.

    • B.

      B. Class D.

    • C.

      C. Class E.

    • D.

      D. Class F.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Class C.
    Explanation
    Class C is the correct answer because it is specifically designed for networks with approximately 250 nodes. Class C addresses have a default subnet mask of 255.255.255.0, which allows for 256 possible network addresses and 254 usable host addresses. This makes it suitable for small to medium-sized networks, such as home networks or small businesses, that require a moderate number of devices to be connected. Class D is used for multicast addresses, Class E is reserved for experimental purposes, and Class F is unassigned.

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  • 27. 

    (205) What IPv4 class address is used for multicast addressing?

    • A.

      A. Class C.

    • B.

      B. Class D.

    • C.

      C. Class E.

    • D.

      D. Class F.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Class D.
    Explanation
    IPv4 addresses are divided into different classes based on their range and purpose. Class D addresses are reserved for multicast addressing. Multicast addressing allows a single packet to be sent to multiple hosts simultaneously. This is useful for applications such as video streaming, online gaming, and audio conferencing, where data needs to be distributed to multiple recipients. Class C addresses are used for small to medium-sized networks, Class E addresses are reserved for experimental purposes, and Class F addresses are reserved for future use.

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  • 28. 

    (205) What IPv4 reserved address is used for loop back?

    • A.

      A. 0.0.0.0.

    • B.

      B. 127.0.0.1.

    • C.

      C. 207.55.157.255.

    • D.

      D. 255.255.255.255.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. 127.0.0.1.
    Explanation
    The loopback address is a reserved IPv4 address used to test network communication within the device itself. The correct answer is b. 127.0.0.1. This address is commonly referred to as the localhost or loopback address, and it allows a device to send and receive data to itself. It is often used for troubleshooting network issues or testing network applications on a local machine.

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  • 29. 

    (205) What is a mechanism that allows a network device to divide an IP address into a network and host number?

    • A.

      A. Subnet mask.

    • B.

      B. Broadcast.

    • C.

      C. Multicast.

    • D.

      D. Subnet.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Subnet mask.
    Explanation
    A subnet mask is a mechanism that allows a network device to divide an IP address into a network and host number. It is used to determine which part of the IP address represents the network and which part represents the host. By using a subnet mask, the device can identify the network to which the IP address belongs and route the data accordingly.

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  • 30. 

    (205) What is the default classful subnet mask on class B networks?

    • A.

      A. 255.255.0.0.

    • B.

      B. 255.255.240.0.

    • C.

      C. 255.255.255.0.

    • D.

      D. 255.255.255.224.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. 255.255.0.0.
    Explanation
    The default classful subnet mask for class B networks is 255.255.0.0. In classful networking, IP addresses are divided into classes, and class B addresses have a default subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. This subnet mask allows for a larger number of available network addresses compared to class C networks, which have a default subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. The subnet mask 255.255.0.0 allows for 16 bits of network address and 16 bits of host address, providing a total of 65,536 possible network addresses.

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  • 31. 

    (205) What method borrows bits from the host field of an IP address to create a subnet?

    • A.

      A. Classful Subnet Masking.

    • B.

      B. Classless Inter-Domain Routing.

    • C.

      C. Virtual Private Networking.

    • D.

      D. Virtual Local Area Networking.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Classless Inter-Domain Routing.
    Explanation
    Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is a method that borrows bits from the host field of an IP address to create a subnet. CIDR allows for more flexible allocation of IP addresses by allowing the subnet mask to be of variable length, rather than being fixed based on the class of the IP address. This allows for more efficient use of IP addresses and better scalability of networks.

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  • 32. 

    (206) Instead of using binary, how are IPv6 addresses expressed to be more user-friendly?

    • A.

      A. Colon Hexadecimal Format.

    • B.

      B. Dotted Decimal Notation.

    • C.

      C. Hexadecimal.

    • D.

      D. Octal.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Colon Hexadecimal Format.
    Explanation
    IPv6 addresses are expressed in colon hexadecimal format to make them more user-friendly. In this format, the address is divided into eight groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by colons. This format allows for a larger address space and is easier to read and remember compared to binary representation. Dotted decimal notation, which is used for IPv4 addresses, is not suitable for IPv6 due to the significantly larger address space. Hexadecimal and octal are numerical systems used for representing numbers and are not specific to IPv6 addresses.

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  • 33. 

    (206) What notation is expressed in leading zero compression for IPv6?

    • A.

      A. 1234:1234:0:0:1234:0:0:1234.

    • B.

      B. 10AB::3:0:1234:5678.

    • C.

      C. 255.255.255.255.

    • D.

      D. 127.0.0.1.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. 1234:1234:0:0:1234:0:0:1234.
  • 34. 

    (206) What notation is expressed in zero compression for IPv6?

    • A.

      A. 1234:1234:0:0:1234:0:0:1234.

    • B.

      B. 10AB::3:0:1234:5678.

    • C.

      C. 255.255.255.255.

    • D.

      D. 127.0.0.1.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. 10AB::3:0:1234:5678.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is b. 10AB::3:0:1234:5678. This notation represents zero compression for IPv6. In IPv6, consecutive blocks of zeros can be compressed to "::". In this answer, "::" is used to compress the consecutive blocks of zeros between "10AB" and "3".

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  • 35. 

    (206) What Unicast address scope operates within a network segment, and will not originate from, or be destined to, an interface that requires a router to direct traffic?

    • A.

      A. Site-local.

    • B.

      B. Link-local.

    • C.

      C. Aggregatable Local.

    • D.

      D. Aggregatable Global.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Link-local.
    Explanation
    Link-local addresses are used for communication within a single network segment and do not require a router to direct traffic. They are automatically assigned to interfaces and are not meant to be routed outside of the local network. This makes them ideal for local network communication and for addressing devices that do not have access to a global or external network.

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  • 36. 

    (206) What Unicast address scope is designed to be private, internally routable addresses that do not route outside the site?

    • A.

      A. Site-local.

    • B.

      B. Link-local.

    • C.

      C. Aggregatable Local.

    • D.

      D. Aggregatable Global.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Site-local.
    Explanation
    Site-local Unicast addresses are designed to be private, internally routable addresses that do not route outside the site. These addresses are used within a specific site or organization and are not meant to be globally unique. They are typically used for internal communication and are not advertised or routed outside the site.

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  • 37. 

    (206) What Unicast address scope is publicly accessible with the Network ID portion of the address broken up into different areas allowing for hierarchical design and allocation?

    • A.

      A. Site-local.

    • B.

      B. Link-local.

    • C.

      C. Aggregatable Local.

    • D.

      D. Aggregatable Global.

    Correct Answer
    D. D. Aggregatable Global.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is d. Aggregatable Global. This address scope is publicly accessible with the Network ID portion of the address broken up into different areas, allowing for hierarchical design and allocation. This means that the address can be used globally and is designed to be aggregated and summarized at different levels of the network hierarchy. This allows for efficient routing and scalability in large networks.

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  • 38. 

    (207) The computing part of the computer is the central processing unit, also called the

    • A.

      A. control unit.

    • B.

      B. minicomputer.

    • C.

      C. microprocessor.

    • D.

      D. arithmetic logic unit.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. microprocessor.
    Explanation
    The computing part of a computer is referred to as the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU is responsible for executing instructions and performing calculations. The microprocessor is a key component of the CPU, as it is the integrated circuit that carries out the actual processing of data. Therefore, the correct answer is c. microprocessor.

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  • 39. 

    (207) What two main components make up the central processing unit?

    • A.

      A. Control unit and read-only memory.

    • B.

      B. Control unit and arithmetic logic unit.

    • C.

      C. Arithmetic logic unit and read-only memory.

    • D.

      D. Arithmetic logic unit and random access memory.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Control unit and arithmetic logic unit.
    Explanation
    The central processing unit (CPU) is made up of two main components: the control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). The control unit is responsible for coordinating and controlling the operations of the CPU, while the ALU performs arithmetic and logical operations. These two components work together to execute instructions and process data in a computer system.

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  • 40. 

    (207) What is the type of memory that retains data after power is removed or lost?

    • A.

      A. Volatile.

    • B.

      B. Nonvolatile.

    • C.

      C. Secured.

    • D.

      D. Unsecured.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Nonvolatile.
    Explanation
    Nonvolatile memory is the type of memory that retains data even after power is removed or lost. Unlike volatile memory, which requires a constant power supply to retain data, nonvolatile memory can store information even when power is not available. This type of memory is commonly used in devices such as solid-state drives (SSDs), USB flash drives, and memory cards, where data needs to be preserved even when the device is turned off.

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  • 41. 

    (207) Which landline transmission medium is the primary carrier of voice communications?

    • A.

      A. Twisted pair cable.

    • B.

      B. Fiber optic cable.

    • C.

      C. Coaxial cable.

    • D.

      D. Twinax cable.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Twisted pair cable.
    Explanation
    Twisted pair cable is the primary carrier of voice communications because it is a widely used and cost-effective transmission medium. It consists of two insulated copper wires twisted together, which helps to reduce electromagnetic interference and crosstalk. Twisted pair cable is capable of transmitting analog signals, making it suitable for carrying voice signals. It is commonly used in telephone systems and is able to support voice communication over long distances without significant loss of quality.

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  • 42. 

    (207) An optical communications system is comprised of a

    • A.

      A. transmitter, cable, and receiver.

    • B.

      B. transmitter, cable, and logic analyzer.

    • C.

      C. transmitter, transmission medium, and logic analyzer.

    • D.

      D. transmitter, transmission medium, and protocol analyzer.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. transmitter, cable, and receiver.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a. transmitter, cable, and receiver. In an optical communications system, the transmitter is responsible for converting electrical signals into optical signals, the cable is used to transmit the optical signals, and the receiver converts the optical signals back into electrical signals for further processing. The logic analyzer and protocol analyzer mentioned in the other options are not essential components of an optical communications system.

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  • 43. 

    (207) Which of the following is not one of the three advantages to using wireless technology?

    • A.

      A. Ease of installation.

    • B.

      B. Lower Cost.

    • C.

      C. Safety.

    • D.

      D. Mobility.

    Correct Answer
    C. C. Safety.
    Explanation
    Wireless technology offers several advantages, including ease of installation, lower cost, and mobility. However, safety is not one of these advantages. While wireless technology may have safety protocols in place, it is not inherently safer than other forms of technology. Safety concerns can still arise with wireless technology, such as security breaches or interference. Therefore, safety is not considered one of the three advantages of using wireless technology.

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  • 44. 

    (207) The ability to move about without being tethered by wires in wireless technology is called

    • A.

      A. mobility.

    • B.

      B. ease of installations.

    • C.

      C. war driving.

    • D.

      D. motion capture technology.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. mobility.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a. mobility. In wireless technology, the ability to move about freely without being restricted by wires is referred to as mobility. This allows users to access and use wireless devices and services from different locations, providing convenience and flexibility. Ease of installations (b) refers to the simplicity and efficiency of setting up wireless systems. War driving (c) is the act of searching for and exploiting wireless networks, often for malicious purposes. Motion capture technology (d) involves capturing and recording the movements of objects or individuals for various applications, such as animation or sports analysis.

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  • 45. 

    (207) Which of the following is not one the four security threats to Wireless Local Area Network?

    • A.

      A. Rogue Access Points.

    • B.

      B. Direct Connections.

    • C.

      C. War Drivers.

    • D.

      D. Hackers.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Direct Connections.
    Explanation
    Direct Connections is not one of the four security threats to Wireless Local Area Network. Rogue Access Points, War Drivers, and Hackers are all common security threats to wireless networks. Rogue Access Points refer to unauthorized access points that are set up by individuals with malicious intent. War Drivers are individuals who drive around with wireless devices to detect and exploit vulnerabilities in wireless networks. Hackers are individuals who attempt to gain unauthorized access to a network or system. Direct Connections, on the other hand, do not pose a specific security threat to wireless networks.

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  • 46. 

    (207) Who is an authorized client that may unknowingly or maliciously help outside parties gain access to a network?

    • A.

      A. Auditor.

    • B.

      B. Employee.

    • C.

      C. War Driver.

    • D.

      D. Hacker.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Employee.
    Explanation
    An employee is an authorized client who may unknowingly or maliciously help outside parties gain access to a network. Employees have legitimate access to the network and can be manipulated or exploited by external parties to gain unauthorized access. They may unknowingly share sensitive information, fall victim to social engineering attacks, or intentionally breach security protocols. Therefore, it is crucial for organizations to implement robust security measures and educate their employees about the potential risks and best practices to prevent unauthorized access.

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  • 47. 

    (207) What organization developed several wireless standards to meet the demands of security, speed, and flexibility of today’s wireless networks?

    • A.

      A. Institute of Electrical Electronics Engineers.

    • B.

      B. International Organization for Standardization.

    • C.

      C. Internet assigned numbers authority.

    • D.

      D. National Science Foundation network.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. Institute of Electrical Electronics Engineers.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a. Institute of Electrical Electronics Engineers. The Institute of Electrical Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is an organization that has developed several wireless standards to meet the demands of security, speed, and flexibility of today's wireless networks. They have developed standards such as IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) and IEEE 802.15 (Bluetooth), which have become widely adopted in the industry.

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  • 48. 

    (208) How many peripherals can a Universal Serial Bus handle at once?

    • A.

      A. 127.

    • B.

      B. 128.

    • C.

      C. 227.

    • D.

      D. 228.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. 127.
    Explanation
    A Universal Serial Bus (USB) can handle up to 127 peripherals at once. This is because USB uses a 7-bit address field to identify devices, allowing for a maximum of 127 unique addresses. Each peripheral connected to the USB is assigned a unique address, and the USB controller can communicate with all these peripherals simultaneously. Therefore, the correct answer is a. 127.

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  • 49. 

    (208) How many devices can connect to a FireWire bus?

    • A.

      A. 63.

    • B.

      B. 64.

    • C.

      C. 65.

    • D.

      D. 66.

    Correct Answer
    A. A. 63.
    Explanation
    A FireWire bus can support up to 63 devices. FireWire, also known as IEEE 1394, is a high-speed serial bus interface that allows for fast data transfer between devices. Each device connected to a FireWire bus is assigned a unique address, and the bus can handle a maximum of 63 addresses. Therefore, the correct answer is a. 63.

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  • 50. 

    (209) What do you apply across Liquid Crystal Display material to change the alignment and light polarizing property?

    • A.

      A. Current.

    • B.

      B. Voltage.

    • C.

      C. Resistance.

    • D.

      D. Inductance.

    Correct Answer
    B. B. Voltage.
    Explanation
    To change the alignment and light polarizing property of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) material, voltage is applied across it. This voltage helps in reorienting the liquid crystal molecules, which in turn changes the alignment and polarizing properties of the material. By applying voltage, the LCD material can control the passage of light and create the desired display.

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