# What Do You Know About Ringelâ€“hall Algebra?

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Studied and considered by German mathematician C. M. Ringel in the 1990s, a Ringel–Hall algebra is exclusively applicable in mathematics as a generalization of an associative algebra called the Hall algebra.

• 1.

### When was the Hall algebra rediscovered by Philip Hall?

• A.

1959

• B.

1950

• C.

1962

• D.

1977

A. 1959
Explanation
The Hall algebra was rediscovered by Philip Hall in 1959.

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• 2.

### What are the structure constants of the Hall algebra?

• A.

Hall numbers

• B.

Hall polynomials

• C.

Hall matrices

• D.

Hall vectors

B. Hall polynomials
Explanation
The structure constants of the Hall algebra are represented by Hall polynomials. Hall polynomials are a set of polynomials that arise in the study of Hall algebras, which are algebraic structures that encode information about representations of quivers. Hall polynomials are used to describe the multiplication of basis elements in the Hall algebra, and they play a fundamental role in understanding the structure and properties of the algebra. Therefore, Hall polynomials are the correct answer for the structure constants of the Hall algebra.

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• 3.

### What is an algebraic structure with compatible operations of addition and multiplication?

• A.

Dissociative algebra

• B.

Algebraic constant

• C.

Linear space

• D.

Associative algebra

D. Associative algebra
Explanation
An associative algebra is an algebraic structure that has both addition and multiplication operations that are compatible with each other. This means that the order in which the operations are performed does not affect the final result. In other words, for any elements a, b, and c in the algebra, the equation (a * b) * c = a * (b * c) holds true. This property is known as associativity and is a fundamental property of an associative algebra.

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• 4.

### What is a collection of objects which may be added together and multiplied by numbers?

• A.

Set

• B.

Vector space

• C.

Association

• D.

Matrix

B. Vector space
Explanation
A vector space is a collection of objects that can be added together and multiplied by numbers. This mathematical structure allows for the combination of vectors through addition and scalar multiplication. It satisfies certain properties such as closure under addition and scalar multiplication, as well as the existence of an additive identity and inverses. Therefore, a vector space is the correct answer as it accurately describes a collection of objects that can be added together and multiplied by numbers.

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• 5.

### What is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise for more arguments and reasoning?

• A.

Axiom

• B.

Logic

• C.

Argument

• D.

Law

A. Axiom
Explanation
An axiom is a statement that is taken to be true and serves as a premise for more arguments and reasoning. It is a fundamental principle or a self-evident truth that is accepted without proof. Axioms are used as the foundation of logical systems and mathematical theories, providing a starting point for further deductions and reasoning. They are considered to be universally true and are essential in constructing coherent and consistent arguments and theories.

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• 6.

### What are statements that are taken to be true within the system of logic they define?

• A.

Vector axioms

• B.

Logical axioms

• C.

Vector spaces

• D.

Logical vectors

B. Logical axioms
Explanation
Logical axioms are statements that are taken to be true within the system of logic they define. These axioms serve as the foundation for logical reasoning and form the basis for the development of logical systems. They are considered to be self-evident or fundamental truths within a particular logical framework and are used to derive further logical statements and proofs. Logical axioms help establish the rules and principles that govern logical reasoning and ensure the consistency and validity of logical arguments.

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• 7.

### What is the study of the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations (such as stretching and bending, but not tearing or gluing)?

• A.

Viscosity

• B.

Combination

• C.

Topology

• D.

Linearity

C. Topology
Explanation
Topology is the study of the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching and bending. It focuses on the intrinsic properties of space, rather than its specific geometric shape or measurements. Viscosity refers to the resistance of a fluid to flow, combination refers to the act of combining or joining things together, and linearity refers to a mathematical property of being straight or following a straight path.

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• 8.

### What is a sequence whose elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses?

• A.

Cauchy sequence

• B.

Banach sequence

• C.

Vector line

• D.

Vector sequence

A. Cauchy sequence
Explanation
A Cauchy sequence is a sequence in which the elements become arbitrarily close to each other as the sequence progresses. This means that for any desired level of closeness, there exists a point in the sequence beyond which all the elements are that close to each other. In other words, the elements of a Cauchy sequence eventually get closer and closer together, regardless of how small the desired distance between them is. This property is named after the French mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy, who made significant contributions to the field of analysis.

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• 9.

### What is a number system that extends complex numbers?

• A.

Quaternion

• B.

Right rule

• C.

Commutation

• D.

Levi symbol

A. Quaternion
Explanation
A quaternion is a number system that extends complex numbers. It is a four-dimensional number system that includes a real part and three imaginary parts. Quaternions are used in various fields such as computer graphics, robotics, and physics to represent rotations and orientations in three-dimensional space. They are an extension of complex numbers, which only have a real part and an imaginary part. Quaternions have additional properties and operations that make them useful for representing more complex mathematical concepts.

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• 10.

### What are used to explicitly specify the product of two basis vectors in the algebra as a linear combination?

• A.

Structure constants

• B.

Quaternions

• C.

Conjugate structures

• D.

Real structures

A. Structure constants
Explanation
Structure constants are used to explicitly specify the product of two basis vectors in the algebra as a linear combination. They provide a way to express the relationship between different basis vectors and determine how they combine to form a product. By defining the structure constants, the algebraic operations can be performed consistently and accurately.

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• Mar 19, 2023
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