Nursing Entrance Exam Trivia

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| By Emon Chatterjee
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Emon Chatterjee
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 105,733
Questions: 20 | Viewed: 106,113

1.

The outer layer of the kidney is the

Answer: Cortex
Explanation:
The correct answer is cortex. The cortex is the outer layer of the kidney. It contains the glomeruli, which are responsible for filtering the blood and producing urine. The cortex also contains the renal tubules, which reabsorb nutrients and water from the filtrate. The medulla, on the other hand, is the inner part of the kidney and contains the renal pyramids. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney, responsible for filtering and regulating the composition of urine. However, in this question, the outer layer of the kidney is specifically being referred to, which is the cortex.
2.

The middle layer of the kidney is the

Answer: Renal Medulla
Explanation:
The middle layer of the kidney is called the renal medulla. It is located between the outer layer called the cortex and the innermost part called the pyramids. The medulla contains structures called renal pyramids, which are responsible for collecting urine and transporting it to the renal pelvis. Additionally, the medulla plays a crucial role in regulating the concentration of urine and maintaining the balance of water and electrolytes in the body.
3.

Deficiency of this vitamin can lead to irritability, loss of appetite, beriberi: 

Answer: Vitamin B1
Explanation:
Deficiency of Vitamin B1 can lead to irritability, loss of appetite, and beriberi. Beriberi is a condition characterized by muscle weakness, nerve damage, and heart problems. Vitamin B1, also known as thiamine, is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system and the metabolism of carbohydrates. It is commonly found in foods such as whole grains, legumes, and nuts.
4.

Plasma-soluble substances that are secreted by gram-positive bacteria are called?

Answer: Exotoxin
Explanation:
Exotoxins are soluble substances that are secreted by gram-positive bacteria. These toxins are released into the surrounding environment by the bacteria and can cause damage to host cells or tissues. Unlike endotoxins, which are part of the bacterial cell wall and are released when the bacteria die, exotoxins are actively secreted by living bacteria. Therefore, the correct answer is exotoxin.
5.

Gram-negative bacterial cell wall components are called

Answer: Endotoxins
Explanation:
Gram-negative bacterial cell walls contain lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are known as endotoxins. These endotoxins are released when the bacterial cell wall is damaged or destroyed, and they can cause a strong immune response in the host organism. Exotoxins, on the other hand, are toxic substances secreted by bacteria that can cause damage to the host even in the absence of the bacteria themselves. Therefore, the correct answer is endotoxins.
6.

What causes direct damage to the cells?

Answer: Cytotoxins
Explanation:
Cytotoxins directly damage cells. They are substances that are toxic to cells and can cause cell death or dysfunction. These toxins can disrupt cellular processes, leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction. They can also trigger an immune response, causing inflammation and further damage to surrounding cells. Overall, cytotoxins have a direct harmful effect on cells and are responsible for causing cellular damage.
7.

What causes intestinal symptoms?

Answer: Enterotoxins
Explanation:
Enterotoxins cause intestinal symptoms. These toxins are produced by certain bacteria and are responsible for causing gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Enterotoxins work by disrupting the normal functioning of the intestinal cells, leading to increased fluid secretion and decreased absorption, resulting in the characteristic symptoms. These toxins are commonly produced by bacteria like Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus aureus, among others. Understanding the role of enterotoxins is crucial in diagnosing and treating bacterial infections that affect the gastrointestinal system.
8.

What is an organism with chloroplast in its cell?

Answer: Autotroph
Explanation:
An organism with chloroplast in its cell is probably an autotroph. Autotrophs are capable of producing their own food through photosynthesis, which requires chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, a pigment that captures sunlight and converts it into energy for the synthesis of organic compounds. This process allows autotrophs to convert inorganic substances, such as carbon dioxide and water, into organic molecules like glucose. Therefore, an organism with chloroplasts is likely to be an autotroph, capable of producing its own food.
9.

What property of water allows someone to fill a glass slightly above the rim without the water flowing over?

Answer: Surface tension
Explanation:
Surface tension is the property of water that allows someone to fill a glass slightly above the rim without the water flowing over. Surface tension is caused by the cohesive forces between water molecules, which create a "skin" or "film" on the surface of the water. This cohesive force creates a strong bond between water molecules at the surface, preventing the water from easily flowing over the rim of the glass.
10.

What are the spaces between neurons?

Answer: Synapses
Explanation:
Synapses are the correct answer because they refer to the spaces between neurons where communication occurs. Neurons transmit signals across these small gaps, allowing information to be transferred from one neuron to another. Synapses play a crucial role in the functioning of the nervous system, enabling the transmission of electrical and chemical signals that are essential for processes such as learning, memory, and coordination.
11.

Which group of chemicals is not normally found in most living things?

Answer: Silicates
Explanation:
Silicates are not normally found in most living things. Silicates are compounds that contain silicon and oxygen and are commonly found in minerals such as quartz and feldspar. While silicon is an essential element for some organisms, it is not typically found in the form of silicates within living organisms. Instead, living things primarily consist of carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids, which are the essential building blocks for various biological processes.
12.

The alimentary canal is associated with the

Answer: Digestive system
Explanation:
The alimentary canal refers to the entire pathway through which food passes in the body, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. It is responsible for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The digestive system is closely associated with the alimentary canal as it includes all the organs and structures involved in the process of digestion, such as the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Therefore, the correct answer is digestive system.
13.

The numerous villi in the small intestine serve to

Answer: Provide greater surface for absorption
Explanation:
The numerous villi in the small intestine provide a greater surface area for absorption. Villi are small finger-like projections that line the walls of the small intestine. Their purpose is to increase the surface area available for the absorption of nutrients from digested food. This increased surface area allows for a more efficient absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream, ensuring that the body receives the necessary energy and nutrients from the food we consume.
14.

As light passes obliquely from air to water, it is bent. This bending is called

Answer: Refraction
Explanation:
When light passes obliquely from air to water, it changes direction due to the change in its speed. This phenomenon is called refraction. Refraction occurs because light travels at different speeds in different mediums, and when it enters a medium with a different optical density, it bends. In this case, as light enters water from air, it slows down and changes direction, causing the bending effect. Diffraction refers to the spreading out of light waves when they encounter an obstacle or pass through a narrow opening. Reflection is the bouncing back of light waves when they hit a surface. Dispersion refers to the separation of white light into its constituent colors.
15.

Which of the following organelles is not involved in protein synthesis?

Answer: Mitochondrion
Explanation:
Mitochondria, while they do have their own ribosomes and can synthesize some proteins, these are mostly mitochondrial-specific proteins. They are not traditionally involved in the general cellular protein synthesis pathway that uses mRNA produced by the nucleus. Therefore, among the options given, the mitochondrion is the correct answer as it is least involved in the broader context of cellular protein synthesis described here.
16.

To be absorbed by cells, proteins must be changed to:

Answer: Amino acids
Explanation:
Proteins are large molecules made up of amino acids. In order for cells to absorb and utilize proteins, they must be broken down into their individual amino acid components. This process is carried out by enzymes in the digestive system. Once proteins are broken down into amino acids, they can be transported into cells and used for various cellular functions such as building new proteins, repairing damaged tissues, and providing energy. Therefore, the correct answer is amino acids.
17.

A neuron that transmits impulses from the receptors to the spinal cord is called

Answer: Sensory neuron
Explanation:
A sensory neuron is responsible for transmitting impulses from the receptors to the spinal cord. These neurons are specialized to detect and transmit sensory information from various parts of the body to the central nervous system. They play a crucial role in allowing us to perceive and respond to different stimuli such as touch, temperature, pain, and pressure. Sensory neurons are essential for our ability to sense and interact with the world around us.
18.

Which group of organisms helps prevent the accumulation of organic waste in nature?

Answer: Bacteria
Explanation:
Bacteria help prevent the accumulation of organic waste in nature. Bacteria play a crucial role in the decomposition process, breaking down organic matter and recycling nutrients back into the ecosystem. They are responsible for breaking down dead plants, animals, and other organic materials, converting them into simpler compounds that can be used by other organisms. Without bacteria, organic waste would accumulate, leading to imbalances in ecosystems and nutrient deficiencies. Therefore, bacteria are essential for maintaining a healthy and sustainable environment.
19.

As the eardrum is made to vibrate more rapidly , the sound is perceived as:

Answer: Higher in pitch
Explanation:
When the eardrum vibrates more rapidly, it means that the sound waves have a higher frequency. The frequency of a sound wave determines its pitch. Therefore, when the eardrum vibrates more rapidly, the sound is perceived as higher in pitch.
20.

In a field of pure white asters, a grower noticed a single blue aster. How could the grower test whether this change affected the gamete-producing cells of the plant?

Answer: Self pollinate the flower and plant the resulting seeds
Explanation:
The grower can test whether the change affected the gamete-producing cells of the plant by self-pollinating the flower and planting the resulting seeds. If the blue color trait is inherited in the offspring, it indicates that the change affected the gamete-producing cells and is heritable. This method allows for the observation of the trait in subsequent generations, providing evidence of its presence in the gametes.
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