A period of creativity and inventions
A long period of increased conflict and uncertainty
Greater peace and prosperity, since the Empire had been brutal and oppressive
The establishment of new libraries and centres of culture
The fleas on black rats; the blood of infected people
The blood of infected people; the fleas on black rats
The fleas on black rats; the droplets of infected people
The droplets of infected people; the fleas on black rats
The outcome of the ordeal was presumed to represent the will of the King
Ordeals were based on the assumption that you were guilty until proven innocent
Ordeals were based on the assumption that you were innocent until proven guilty
The nature of your ordeal was determined by a jury of your peers
A reenactment of the Battle of Crécy, intended as a way of investigating the power of longbows in medieval warfare
A description of the Bayeux Tapestry by Simon Schama, a famous English historian
A picture of a scold's bridle that was used in the Middle Ages as a punishment for "nagging women"
A biography of Jean Froissart based on his writings
This is a primary source showing the simple cottages in which peasants lived in the Middle Ages.
This is a primary source showing a medieval motte and bailey castle.
This is a secondary source showing a wattle and daub cottage inhabited by a lord in the Middle Ages.
This is a secondary source showing a wattle and daub cottage inhabited by a peasant in the Middle Ages.
House, man, brother, Tuesday
Rotten, freckles, anger, mire
Justice, melancholy, solitude, joy
Priest, wine, angel, bishop
This is a motte and bailey castle, a kind of fortification that required substantial building time but was almost impregnable.
This a moat and bailey castle, a short-term fortification that was relatively easy to build but also easily burnt.
The buildings in the bailey are called the keep and they were the last retreat when the castle was under attack.
This is a motte and bailey castle, a kind of fortification that was relatively easy to build but also vulnerable to attack by fire.
A serf was bonded to his/her master, had to work on the lord's land and is sometimes described in modern accounts as a "semi-slave".
A serf was a free peasant whose life was difficult and harsh, but who retained the right to work for wages and travel from place to place.
A serf was valued highly in the medieval hierarchy, since his/her work provided the food needed by all.
Another name for a "serf" is a "thrall", a person who became a slave through being a prisoner of war or because of unpaid debts.
The Tower of London; Harold Godwinson; defending
A motte and bailey castle; William the Conqueror; subjugating
The Tower of London; William the Conqueror; subjugating
A motte and bailey castle; Harold Godwinson; defending
A series of battles between England and Spain, lasting from 1237 until 1353 and entailing mostly military encounters between trained knights.
A series of battles between England and France, including those at Crécy, London and Paris, which were dominated by the French crossbow
A series of battles between England and France, including those at Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt; despite early English successes, the War ended with the French controlling nearly all French land.
A series of battles between England and France, including those at Crécy, Poitiers and Agincourt; despite early French successes, the War ended with the English controlling nearly all French land.
It is believed that about a third of the European population succumbed to it.
It is believed that about two-thirds of the European population succumbed to it.
The main groups who were struck by this plague were the poor and the clergy.
The septicaemic plague led to the slowest and most torturous form of death.
The most telling and significant weapon in the first battles was the French crossbow.
The knights on both sides followed the code of chivalry, which involved protecting the weak and acting in the interests of universal justice.
The French peasant girl, Joan of Arc, led the French army to victory over the English at Orleans, only to be burned as a "heretic".
Chain mail gradually replaced plate mail, because chain mail was lighter and more protective.
A well trained longbow archer could shoot several arrows a minute.
Since Jean Froissart was a Frenchman, his view of events cannot be considered accurate.
The crossbowmen were also knights.
The longbow was the most significant and devastating weapon in this battle.
This battle was one of those fought during the Norman Conquest.
This is a primary source.
A longbow arrow could not pierce armour.
Men; public humiliation was frowned upon in medieval Europe
Women; torture and humiliation were often considered acceptable in the law and order systems of medieval Europe
Women; public humiliation was frowned upon in medieval Europe
Men; torture and humiliation were often considered acceptable in the law and order systems of medieval Europe
Wheat, barley and rye
Sugar, tomatoes, potatoes
Onions, leeks, peas and cabbage
Meat from wild boar, hare and elk
The great hall could be used for banquets, meeting places and even as a communal bedroom.
The toilet often opened directly onto the moat of the castle.
The portcullis was a wooden drawbridge that could be lowered to allow people to cross the moat.
The barbican was the iron grid that could be raised and lowered to protect the gate.
Until the introduction of gunpowder, this kind of fortification was the most effective defensive measure for holding land.
A stone castle was more vulnerable to attack than a motte and bailey castle.
Castles were a symbol of wealth and power.
Building castles was one of the methods used by William the Conqueror to consolidate his conquest of England.
Castles were not important during the Hundred Years War, since gunpowder was commonly used by this time.
Younger than Judaism, but older than Christianity
The Islamic word for a holy war is a jihad.
The great Muslim general during the Third Crusade was called Richard the Lionheart.
The five "pillars" of Islam include praying five times a day and making a pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Islamic civilisation was more advanced in science and medicine than Europeans Christians during the Middle Ages.
Jerusalem is a holy city for Christians and Jews, but has no significance to Muslims.