The first writing systems developed in this period of human history.
Paleolithic people used stone rather than metal tools.
Paleolithic people made a living by gathering and hunting, rather than producing food.
Paleolithic people developed rituals to help them deal with human existence.
The study of modern Paleolithic peoples for comparison
The study of written ritual texts
The study of Paleolithic art, such as cave paintings and engraving
The study of Paleolithic remains, such as stone tools and fossils
The heavier rainfall of the Ice Age's weather fluctuations made it possible for them to grow crops
Ice served as an important preservative for food, making it possible for them to settle in the same place for extended periods.
The cold weather killed off most large mammals that had been predatory on early human beings.
The lower sea levels associated with the Ice Age created land bridges, allowing human beings to travel to many regions of the earth.
Paleolithic societies failed to innovate, stubbornly refusing to change in response to new situations or environments.
Paleolithic societies regularly relied on trade to secure items needed to survive.
Paleolithic societies often developed elaborate and complex outlooks on the world.
Paleolithic societies were technologically complex, relying on a surprisingly wide array of tools and weapons made from both stone and metal.
They had a significant impact on their new environments, unlike earlier migrants.
They were more recent than other migrants, beginning only about 3,500 years ago
They were waterborne, using oceangoing canoes.
They were already agriculturists when the migration began.
They were small, consisting of bands of 25–50 people.
They had clearly defined social hierarchies.
They were seasonally mobile or nomadic.
Relationships between women and men were far more equal than in later societies.
They tamed and kept certain species of animals for their meat and wool.
They built walls to protect themselves from wild animals and their neighbors.
They cleared fields and planted simple crops.
They deliberately set fire to encourage the growth of particular plants.
Humans learned to sew, instead of wearing simple animal skins as clothing.
Some gathering and hunting communities established permanent settlements.
Society became more unequal, as some people were able to acquire more goods than others.
People became increasingly unequal, as some proved better or more fortunate at accumulating goods.
Societies became more complex, as people settled together in larger numbers than before.
On the whole, people had to work fewer hours per week, and could devote the time they gained to artistic and technological development.
Both a and b
Near the sea, because the sea provided a permanent food supply
On the edge of a desert, where enemies would be more likely to leave them alone
In the mountains, where caves were available for storage and shelter
In a forest region, because of the presence of large mammals
Population pressure that placed a heavy demand on the environment
Desire to acquire goods
Living in settled communities, which made heavier demands on the environment than gathering and hunting could supply
A and c only
Paleolithic peoples enjoyed much greater gender equality.
Paleolithic people had an ideal diet of wild plants and animals that is well-suited to human physiology.
Paleolithic societies valued sharing and equality rather than competition and materialism.
All of the above
To migrate and settle outside of Africa.
Deliberately to cultivate plants.
To tame and breed wild animals.
Both b and c
Creating generally drier conditions especially in temperate and tropical regions.
Permitting cereal grasses to flourish.
Contributing to the flourishing of the large mammals upon which Paleolithic peoples had relied for food.
None of the above
The impact of human beings on the environment declined.
Many plants and animals became reliant on human action or protection to reproduce successfully.
Humans consciously directed the process of evolution in both plants and animals.
It became impossible for humankind to return to gathering/hunting both because of the loss of skills and the growth in human numbers.
Only the Fertile Crescent domesticated grain crops.
Only sub-Saharan Africa domesticated cattle.
In sub-Saharan Africa crops were domesticated in a greater variety of environments.
Fertile Crescent crops spread across Eurasia, while no crop from sub-Saharan Africa spread beyond Africa.
The lack of rich cereal grains to domesticate
The lack of other crops with which to supplement a diet of maize
The north/south orientation of the Americas
The lack of large mammals suitable for domestication
To fertilize fields.
To develop plow technology.
To rely less on hunting and fishing.
All of the above
Resulted in the spread of language groups.
Always benefited the gatherer-hunter peoples with whom migrants came into contact.
Resulted in India receiving crops only from Southwest Asia.
resulted in the widespread dissemination of crops from New Guinea.
Regions of particular natural abundance
All of the above
Uniformly enjoyed a greater life expectancy than gatherer-hunters.
Didn't suffer from famines.
Suffered from deadly diseases caught from domesticated animals.
Had more leisure time than their gatherer-hunter counterparts.
Creation of pottery
Stone axes and scrapers
Weaving of textiles
Lessened the impact of humans on the natural environment.
Resulted in a uniform improvement in the health of the population.
Resulted in significant technological developments.
Lessened the impact of smallpox and other diseases on the human population.
Were usually organized in terms of kinship groups or lineages.
Formed through the leadership of strong kings and aristocracies.
Developed hierarchical societies with large disparities between elites and commoners.
Formed a strong sense of patriarchy in which men dominated trades and positions of authority.