Confucianism was discredited by the disunity that occurred, leading many among the elite to adopt Buddhism and Daoism
China enjoyed its most rapid economic development before 1400 C.E.
Chinese migrants spread into the Yangzi River valley, beginning a major transformation of the Chinese environment
Many northern nomads settled in China and adopted Chinese language and customs
Major voyages of exploration sponsored by the emperors, giving the Chinese access to a new range of trade goods and wealth
The invention of new forms of weaponry that assured peace by giving China a new military advantage over its neighbors
The development of democratic institutions that gave more people a say in government
Major artistic, literary, and scholarly advances, including the creation of Neo-Confucianism
Sophisticated commercial networks that included paper money and letters of credit
A complex network of internal waterways that allowed cheap transportation
The import of large numbers of slaves to work in agriculture and industry
A major increase in industrial production
The threat of foreign invasion, which made male military skills highly valued
The spread of Daoism, whose female deities offended mainstream Chinese notions of proper behavior
A reaction against the misrule of several strong empresses, who gave all women a bad name
A revival of Confucianism, which emphasized patriarchal control over women
Women became more important as industries developed to perform traditionally female tasks such as weaving, since the factories preferred to hire skilled female workers.
Women gained property rights, including the ability to inherit property from their families
Women were closed out from the service sector of Chinese cities, because the practice of foot binding made it nearly impossible for them to move around in society.
Women had almost no opportunities to gain a formal education, because of fear that learning would make them less subordinate to their husbands or fathers.
The belief that the Chinese were an inherently superior race and that "barbarians" could never become truly civilized
The belief that Chinese society was self-sufficient, while "barbarians" craved Chinese wealth and learning
The belief that the various peoples outside of China were "barbarians"
The belief that one of China's tasks was to enlighten "barbarians" by teaching them the ways of civilization
The tribute system operated at the end of wars of conquest and was designed to humiliate the conquered peoples
China's neighbors in the premodern period often refused to submit to the rituals of the tribute system and resented China's assumption of superiority
The tribute system was an exploitative "one-way street," with foreign states paying tribute to China but the Chinese government offering nothing in return
The Chinese government often gave other states gifts that were in fact worth more than the tribute that those states paid to China.
The Chinese converted large numbers of the northern nomads to Chinese cultural ways
Interaction with the nomads encouraged the spread of Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Manichaeism in China
In northern China, a mixed Chinese/Turkic culture evolved that produced the founder of the Tang dynasty
Elite Chinese adopted music, clothing, and artistic styles brought to them by the nomads.
The Xiongnu confederacy
Chinese culture deeply influenced Korean society at every level, including the lives of peasants and slaves.
The Korean elite adopted many elements of Chinese culture, importing many Chinese goods and customs while sending thousands of students to China
Korea was a subject state that for most of its history was ruled by China.
To give themselves legitimacy, the rulers of the Korean Silla, Koryo, and Yi dynasties emphasized their connection to Korean legend, in an effort to distance themselves from the Chinese
Korea, Vietnam, and Japan all adopted Chinese cultural attitudes toward women
Korea, Vietnam, and Japan were all ruled, at least for a time, by China.
Korea, Vietnam, and Japan all adopted numerous elements of Chinese culture
Korea, Vietnam, and Japan all continue to use Chinese writing to the present day
Buddhists made a serious effort to present their religion in terms that were meaningful to the Chinese
With its emphasis on ritual, morality, and contemplation, Buddhism provided a satisfying response to the violence and disunity of the times.
Buddhism was forcibly imposed on the population by a number of rulers who sponsored the new religion
Buddhism, as a foreign religion, was appealing to the nomadic rulers of northern China
Government officials wanted the wealth of tax-exempt Buddhist monasteries.
Buddhists led the failed An Lushan rebellion of 755–763, discrediting their religion in the eyes of government administrators.
Buddhism was foreign, and therefore was caught up in the reaction against foreign influence that marked seventh- and eighth-century China
Some saw the Buddhist monasteries as a potential "state within a state" that could challenge imperial authority
Was more politically unified
had a Christian church more firmly under the control of political authorities
possessed no city that could compare to the splendor of Constantinople
Was more integrated into the Silk Roads