Water SySTEM, Drainage Basins & Flooding

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Water System, Drainage Basins & Flooding - Quiz

Quiz to assess recall and understanding of key terms & concepts covered in the first topics of Freshwater: Issues & conflicts


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following components is not a part of the global hydrological cycle?

    • A.

      Precipitation

    • B.

      Evaporation

    • C.

      Insolation

    • D.

      Condensation

    Correct Answer
    C. Insolation
    Explanation
    Insolation refers to the incoming solar radiation that reaches the Earth's surface. While it plays a crucial role in the Earth's climate system, it is not considered a direct component of the global hydrological cycle. The hydrological cycle involves the continuous movement of water between the atmosphere, land, and oceans through processes like evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. Insolation, on the other hand, is the primary source of energy that drives these processes but is not directly involved in the movement of water.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following correctly describes the distribution of the Earth's water?

    • A.

      Oceans 94.7%, Ice & Glaciers 2.3%, Underground 3.0%, remainder in fresh surface water.

    • B.

      Oceans 97.4%, Ice & Glaciers 0.6%, Underground 1.9%, remainder in fresh surface water.

    • C.

      Oceans 97.4%, Ice & Glaciers 2.0%, Underground 0.59%, remainder in fresh surface water.

    • D.

      Oceans 94.7%, Ice & Glaciers 2.0%, Underground 0.59%, remainder in fresh surface water.

    Correct Answer
    C. Oceans 97.4%, Ice & Glaciers 2.0%, Underground 0.59%, remainder in fresh surface water.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Oceans 97.4%, Ice & Glaciers 2.0%, Underground 0.59%, remainder in fresh surface water. This answer accurately describes the distribution of the Earth's water, with the majority (97.4%) being found in the oceans, followed by a smaller percentage (2.0%) in ice and glaciers, and an even smaller percentage (0.59%) underground. The remaining water is found in fresh surface water sources.

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  • 3. 

    Eustatic refers to .....

    • A.

      Expansion of water

    • B.

      Increased elevation of land

    • C.

      Greater evaporation

    • D.

      Changes in sea level

    Correct Answer
    D. Changes in sea level
    Explanation
    The term "Eustatic" refers to changes in sea level. It is used to describe the global, uniform rise or fall in the level of the Earth's oceans. Eustatic sea level changes can be caused by various factors such as the melting of glaciers and ice caps, thermal expansion of seawater due to global warming, or tectonic movements. These changes affect the overall sea level worldwide, rather than being localized to specific regions.

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  • 4. 

    The following list of drainage basin components are all classified as stores

    • A.

      Groundwater, Water table, Percolation

    • B.

      Interception, Soil Moisture, Groundwater

    • C.

      Stemflow, Interception, Evapotranspiration

    • D.

      Infiltration, Surface Storage, Percolation

    Correct Answer
    B. Interception, Soil Moisture, Groundwater
    Explanation
    Interception, Soil Moisture, and Groundwater are all classified as stores in a drainage basin. Interception refers to the process of water being caught and stored by vegetation, such as trees and plants. Soil Moisture refers to the water that is held within the soil, which can be used by plants or eventually contribute to runoff. Groundwater refers to the water that is stored beneath the Earth's surface in aquifers. These three components play a crucial role in the water cycle and contribute to the overall water balance in a drainage basin.

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  • 5. 

    The following list of drainage basin components are all classified as flows/transfers

    • A.

      Infiltration, Percolation, Stemflow, Surface Runoff

    • B.

      Precipitation, Interflow, Surface Runoff, Channel Flow

    • C.

      Throughflow, Baseflow, Interception, Transpiration

    • D.

      Percolation, Soil Moisture, Evaporation, Isostatic adjustment

    Correct Answer
    A. Infiltration, Percolation, Stemflow, Surface Runoff
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Infiltration, Percolation, Stemflow, Surface Runoff. These components are all classified as flows/transfers within a drainage basin. Infiltration refers to the process of water soaking into the ground, percolation is the movement of water through soil and rock layers, stemflow is the flow of water down plant stems, and surface runoff is the movement of water over the land surface. All of these processes involve the movement of water within the drainage basin.

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  • 6. 

    Soil moisture deficit is the situation where;

    • A.

      Evaporation rates have begun to exceed precipitation and draws off excess moisture in the soil that accumulated when precipitation was higher.

    • B.

      Rates of evaporation have exceeded precipitation, and surplus soil moisture has been all used up.

    • C.

      Having experienced a period where precipitation exceeds evaporation and moisture deficits have been made up, the soil accrues more moisture than it can hold.

    • D.

      Having experienced a period where evaporation has exceeded precipitation and moisture in the soil has been depleted, precipitation becomes greater than evaporation and the soil starts filling up again.

    Correct Answer
    B. Rates of evaporation have exceeded precipitation, and surplus soil moisture has been all used up.
    Explanation
    Soil moisture deficit refers to a situation where the rates of evaporation have surpassed the amount of precipitation, leading to the depletion of surplus soil moisture. This means that the soil has lost all the excess moisture that had accumulated when precipitation was higher.

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  • 7. 

    Soil moisture recharge is the situation where;

    • A.

      Rates of evaporation have exceeded precipitation, and surplus soil moisture has been all used up.

    • B.

      Having experienced a period where precipitation exceeds evaporation and moisture deficits have been made up, the soil accrues more moisture than it can hold.

    • C.

      Evaporation rates have begun to exceed precipitation and draws off excess moisture in the soil that accumulated when precipitation was higher.

    • D.

      Having experienced a period where evaporation has exceeded precipitation and moisture in the soil has been depleted, precipitation becomes greater than evaporation and the soil starts filling up again.

    Correct Answer
    D. Having experienced a period where evaporation has exceeded precipitation and moisture in the soil has been depleted, precipitation becomes greater than evaporation and the soil starts filling up again.
    Explanation
    Soil moisture recharge occurs when there has been a period of time where evaporation has been greater than precipitation, leading to a depletion of moisture in the soil. However, when precipitation becomes greater than evaporation, the soil starts to fill up again, replenishing its moisture content. This process allows the soil to regain its moisture levels after a period of deficit.

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  • 8. 

    Soil moisture surplus is the situation where;

    • A.

      Evaporation rates have begun to exceed precipitation and draws off excess moisture in the soil that accumulated when precipitation was higher.

    • B.

      Rates of evaporation have exceeded precipitation, and surplus soil moisture has been all used up.

    • C.

      Having experienced a period where precipitation exceeds evaporation and moisture deficits have been made up, the soil accrues more moisture than it can hold.

    • D.

      Having experienced a period where evaporation has exceeded precipitation and moisture in the soil has been depleted, precipitation becomes greater than evaporation and the soil starts filling up again.

    Correct Answer
    C. Having experienced a period where precipitation exceeds evaporation and moisture deficits have been made up, the soil accrues more moisture than it can hold.
    Explanation
    Soil moisture surplus occurs when there has been a period of higher precipitation than evaporation, resulting in the soil accumulating more moisture than it can hold. This means that the soil has already made up for any previous moisture deficits and is now experiencing an excess of moisture.

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  • 9. 

    Soil moisture utilization is the situation where: 

    • A.

      Evaporation rates have begun to exceed precipitation and draws off excess moisture in the soil that accumulated when precipitation was higher.

    • B.

      Having experienced a period where precipitation exceeds evaporation and moisture deficits have been made up, the soil accrues more moisture than it can hold.

    • C.

      Rates of evaporation have exceeded precipitation, and surplus soil moisture has been all used up.

    • D.

      Having experienced a period where evaporation has exceeded precipitation and moisture in the soil has been depleted, precipitation becomes greater than evaporation and the soil starts filling up again.

    Correct Answer
    A. Evaporation rates have begun to exceed precipitation and draws off excess moisture in the soil that accumulated when precipitation was higher.
    Explanation
    Soil moisture utilization refers to the situation where evaporation rates start to exceed precipitation. This causes the excess moisture in the soil, which had accumulated when precipitation was higher, to be drawn off. In other words, the soil starts losing the extra moisture that it had gained during a period of higher precipitation.

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  • 10. 

    On the soil moisture budget graph below soil moisture deficit can be seen in which months?

    • A.

      January, February, March, April

    • B.

      August, September, October, November

    • C.

      April, May, June, July

    • D.

      June, July, August, September

    Correct Answer
    D. June, July, August, September
    Explanation
    The soil moisture deficit can be seen in the months of June, July, August, and September. This is indicated by the lower values on the graph during these months, suggesting that the soil moisture is below the optimal level.

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  • 11. 

    On the soil moisture budget graph below, soil moisture recharge can be seen in which months?

    • A.

      July & August

    • B.

      September & October

    • C.

      November & December

    • D.

      February & March

    Correct Answer
    A. July & August
    Explanation
    The soil moisture budget graph shows the amount of moisture in the soil over time. Recharge refers to the replenishment of moisture in the soil. Based on the graph, it can be observed that there is an increase in soil moisture levels during the months of July and August. Therefore, the correct answer is July & August.

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  • 12. 

    On the Flood Hydrograph below, Peak Discharge is labelled -

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    • F.

      F

    Correct Answer
    C. C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is C because it represents the highest point on the flood hydrograph, indicating the peak discharge. This is the point where the river or stream reaches its maximum flow rate during a flood event.

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  • 13. 

    On the Flood Hydrograph below, Lag Time is labelled as -

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    • F.

      F

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B because lag time refers to the time interval between the peak rainfall and the peak discharge of a river. In this case, B is the point on the hydrograph that represents the peak discharge, and it is labeled as the lag time. Therefore, B is the correct answer for the labeled lag time on the flood hydrograph.

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  • 14. 

    In the graph below, both Locations experience the same precipitation event.  The urban area is likely to be -

    • A.

      Location B, because streams in urban areas typically don't have as much discharge as streams in the countryside

    • B.

      Location A, because there is a long lag time due to high rates of infiltration.

    • C.

      Location B, because the water takes longer to drain away

    • D.

      Location A, because urban areas with their hard surfaces produce high peak discharge quite rapidly.

    Correct Answer
    D. Location A, because urban areas with their hard surfaces produce high peak discharge quite rapidly.
  • 15. 

    Which of the following is not a type of erosion?

    • A.

      Attrition

    • B.

      Traction

    • C.

      Corrasion

    • D.

      Hydraulic Action

    Correct Answer
    B. Traction
    Explanation
    Traction is not a type of erosion. Traction refers to the process of large particles being rolled or dragged along the riverbed by the force of the water. It is a transportation process rather than an erosional process. The other options, attrition, corrasion, and hydraulic action, are all types of erosion. Attrition is the process of particles colliding and breaking into smaller pieces, corrasion is the process of wearing away the riverbed by the abrasive action of sediment, and hydraulic action is the process of water forcefully dislodging and eroding sediment.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is not a type of transportation?

    • A.

      Solution

    • B.

      Traction

    • C.

      Saltation

    • D.

      Corrosion

    Correct Answer
    D. Corrosion
    Explanation
    Corrosion is not a type of transportation. It is a natural process of deterioration that occurs when metals are exposed to certain environmental conditions. Transportation refers to the movement of people, goods, or materials from one place to another. Traction and saltation are types of transportation, as they involve the movement of objects or particles through a medium, such as the movement of a vehicle on a surface or the movement of sand particles by wind or water.

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  • 17. 

    The fluvial landform in the picture below would be best described as a

    • A.

      Levee

    • B.

      Oxbow Lake

    • C.

      Meander

    • D.

      Terrace

    Correct Answer
    C. Meander
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Meander because the landform in the picture exhibits a winding, curved shape commonly associated with meandering rivers. Meanders are formed by the erosive forces of the flowing water, which causes the river to carve out loops and bends in its course. The image shows a sinuous pattern, indicating the presence of a meandering river.

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  • 18. 

    The fluvial landform in the picture below would be best described as a

    • A.

      Delta

    • B.

      Meander

    • C.

      Flood plain

    • D.

      Braided Stream

    Correct Answer
    D. Braided Stream
    Explanation
    The fluvial landform in the picture appears to have multiple channels that are interconnected and braided, suggesting a braided stream. A braided stream typically occurs in areas with high sediment load and variable flow conditions. The multiple channels are formed due to the deposition of sediment bars, which divide and redirect the flow of water. This landform is different from a delta, meander, or flood plain, as it does not exhibit the characteristic features of these landforms.

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  • 19. 

    The fluvial landform in the picture below would be best described as a

    • A.

      Arcuate Delta

    • B.

      Birdsfoot Delta

    • C.

      Cuspate Delta

    • D.

      Southern Delta

    Correct Answer
    A. Arcuate Delta
    Explanation
    The fluvial landform in the picture is best described as an Arcuate Delta. This type of delta has a curved or semi-circular shape, resembling an arc. It is formed when a river deposits sediment in a fan-like pattern, creating a gently sloping landform. The curved shape is often a result of wave and current patterns in the body of water where the river meets, causing the sediment to accumulate in a specific shape.

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  • 20. 

    The fluvial landform shown in the picture below would be best described as

    • A.

      V-Shaped Valley

    • B.

      Interlocking spurs

    • C.

      Meanders

    • D.

      Flood plain

    Correct Answer
    B. Interlocking spurs
    Explanation
    The fluvial landform shown in the picture is best described as interlocking spurs. Interlocking spurs are formed when a river cuts through a landscape that is too hard to erode quickly. The river is forced to meander around these resistant features, creating a series of ridges that interlock with each other. In the picture, we can see a river flowing through a narrow valley with steep sides and ridges that appear to interlock with each other. This indicates that the river has not yet eroded through the resistant features, forming interlocking spurs.

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  • 21. 

    The fluvial landform shown in the picture below would be best described as

    • A.

      Meander

    • B.

      Terrace

    • C.

      Floodplain

    • D.

      Oxbow Lake

    Correct Answer
    D. Oxbow Lake
    Explanation
    The fluvial landform shown in the picture is best described as an oxbow lake. Oxbow lakes are formed when a meandering river cuts off a meander bend, creating a U-shaped body of water that is separated from the main channel. The picture likely shows a curved body of water that was once part of a river but is now isolated due to the cutoff of the meander bend. This is characteristic of an oxbow lake.

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  • 22. 

    Competence in a stream is

    • A.

      A measure of the volume of load a stream is able to transport.

    • B.

      A measure of a stream's ability to erode its bed and banks.

    • C.

      A measure of the combined velocity and volume of water.

    • D.

      A measure of the size of load a stream is able to transport.

    Correct Answer
    D. A measure of the size of load a stream is able to transport.
    Explanation
    Competence in a stream refers to its ability to transport sediment or load. It is a measure of the size of particles or sediment that a stream can carry. A stream with high competence can transport larger and heavier particles, while a stream with low competence can only carry smaller and lighter particles. Therefore, the correct answer is that competence is a measure of the size of load a stream is able to transport.

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  • 23. 

    On the flow chart below, infiltration is labelled as -

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    • E.

      E

    Correct Answer
    C. C
  • 24. 

    On the flow chart below, the component labelled E would be,

    • A.

      Stem flow

    • B.

      Groundwater flow

    • C.

      Throughflow

    • D.

      Surface Runoff

    Correct Answer
    D. Surface Runoff
    Explanation
    The component labelled E on the flow chart would be surface runoff. This is because surface runoff refers to the movement of water over the land's surface, usually as a result of precipitation. It occurs when the ground is saturated or cannot absorb any more water, causing the excess water to flow over the surface and eventually into streams, rivers, or other bodies of water.

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  • 25. 

    Use the graph below to help you answer the following question. For a particle of sand that is 0.5mm across, what process is likely to be happening if the stream is flowing at 10cm/sec?

    • A.

      Attrition

    • B.

      Traction

    • C.

      Suspension

    • D.

      Corrasion

    Correct Answer
    C. Suspension
    Explanation
    The process likely happening if the stream is flowing at 10cm/sec and a particle of sand that is 0.5mm across is in suspension. Suspension occurs when the water flow is strong enough to keep particles of sand or sediment suspended in the water column, rather than settling on the bottom or being transported by other processes like traction or corrasion. In this case, the particle of sand is small enough to be carried by the water flow and remains suspended in the stream.

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  • Mar 16, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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    Quiz Created by
    Jenkinsmg77
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