San Francisco – Rocky Mountains San Francisco – Rocky Mountains San Francisco – Rocky Mountains San Francisco – Rocky Mountains San Francisco – Rocky Mountains San Francisco – Rocky Mountains San Francisco – Rocky Mountains
New Orleans – Mississippi River New Orleans – Mississippi River
Pittsburgh – Hudson River
Cleveland – Atlantic Coastal Plain
The Great Plains and Texas
The Northeast and southern California
The South and the Rocky Mountain states
The Appalachian states and the Midwest
States in the Union
Senators from each state
Electoral college votes from each state
Supreme Court justices
Scarcity of flat land on which to build factories
Shortages of timber and coal
Desire of workers to live in mild climates
Availability of waterpower to operate machines
Colonial attempts to build a strong national government
Efforts by the British to strengthen their control over the colonies
Steps in the growth of representative democracy
Early social reform movements
Is a limited monarchy
Violates natural rights
Becomes involved in entangling alliances
Favors one religion over another
The government should guarantee every citizen economic security.
The central government and state governments should have equal power.
If the government denies its people certain basic rights, that government can be overthrown.
Rulers derive their right to govern from God and are therefore bound to govern in the nation’s best interest.
Lack of debate over the ratification of the United States Constitution
Plan of government set up by the Articles of Confederation
Development of a Federal court system
Constitutional provision for a strong President
Limitations of the principles underlying most European governments of the 1700’s.
Adaptations of the laws of Spanish colonial governments in North America.
Adoptions of rules used by the Holy Roman Empire.
Reflections of the philosophies of the European Enlightenment.
House of Representatives
The free speech rights of Communists have often been violated.
During wartime, limitations on civil rights have been upheld by judicial action.
The rights of protestors have been preserved even in times of national stress.
Economic interests of foreign nations are frequently upheld in United States courts.
The power of the Supreme Court does not extend to cases of race
Congress could not pass a law depriving territorial residents of their property
A national vote should be held to decide the legality of slavery
The economic well-being of the western states depended on slave labor
Voting rights of minorities
Guarantees of free speech and press
Principle of separation of church and state
Rights of accused persons
Some aspects of the New Deal were declared unconstitutional
State governments took over relief agencies
Congress was forced to abandon efforts to improve the economy
The constitutional authority of the President was greatly expanded
Reluctance to overturn state laws
Insistence on restricting freedom of speech to spoken words
Expansion of individual rights in criminal cases
Refusal to reconsider the issues of the Plessy v. Ferguson case
The National Government
State and local governments
Trusts and monopolies
The elastic clause
Guarantees to the States
The Bill of Rights
Encourage foreign trade
Help the nation’s manufacturers
Reduce the cost of consumer goods
Improve the quality of goods
Power granted to the President to make treaties
President’s power as Commander in Chief
Authority of Congress to declare war
Senate’s duty to approve the appointment of ambassadors
Enactment of protective tariffs
Extension of slavery
Voting rights for minorities
Universal public education
Reduced British control of North America
Focused the United States on westward expansion
Extended United States control over Mexico
Decreased tensions with Native American Indians
Slavery was not profitable
The government was a union of people and not of states.
The Southern States did not permit their people to vote on secession.
As the Commander in Chief, he had the duty to defend the United States against foreign invasion.
Succeeded without causing major controversy
Developed significant popular support
Achieved their goals without government action
Failed to affect the nation as a whole
As an abolitionist, President Lincoln wanted to end slavery in the United States.
President Lincoln wanted to keep the South economically dependent on the industrial North.
President Lincoln’s oath of office required him to defend and preserve the Union.
To keep the support of Great Britain and France, President Lincoln had to try to end slavery immediately.
Economic system of the South came to dominate the United States economy
Federal Government’s power over the States was strengthened
Members of Congress from Southern States gained control of the legislative branch
Nation’s industrial development came to a standstill
The best solution for African Americans was to return to Africa.
Social equality for African Americans would be easier to achieve than legal rights.
The way to dissolve the barriers of segregation and bring about an end to Jim Crow laws was by active, violent resistance.
The most immediate means for African Americans to achieve equality was to expand their opportunities for vocational education.
They differed as to the best way that African Americans could effectively achieve equality.
Both demanded programs that would provide for immediate social equality.
Both believed that vocational training would provide the most important kind of education for African Americans.
Neither wanted the Federal Government to play a major role in protecting the civil rights of African Americans.
Encourage reform of the political system
Encourage Mississippi residents to learn about their state’s legal system
Prevent African Americans from exercising a basic right
Enforce the provisions of the United States Constitution
Severe economic depression
Widespread support for groups promoting international anarchy
Great growth in art, literature, and music
Persecution of people suspected of holding anti-American political views
Immigrants to the United States are consistently denied equal protection under the law.
A person’s best protection from persecution rests with the Supreme Court.
Civil rights are sometimes compromised by the public’s fear of radical political groups
Violent protests in the United States are usually met with a violent response from the government.
Success of the Communist Party in congressional and Presidential elections
Race riots in Los Angeles and the revival of the Ku Klux Klan
Failure of the United States to join the League of Nations and the unpaid German war debts
The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 in Russia and workers’ strikes in the United States
Many immigrants were settling in the west and competing with the farmers.
The Federal Government reduced the number of acres on which farmers could grow subsidized crops.
Farmers could not produce enough to keep up with demand.
Overproduction and competition caused falling prices.
Left the United States in large numbers to settle in Nigeria
Created noteworthy works of art and literature
Migrated to the West in search of land and jobs
Used civil disobedience to fight segregation in the Armed Forces
Mississippi River Valley
Provided protection from attacks by the Spanish
Provided migrant workers for river valley farms
Served as a port for American agricultural goods
Served as the cultural center for the nation
Increased use of mass transit systems
Growing prosperity of inner-city areas
Rapid development of suburbs
Return of city dwellers to farm areas
A shortage of traditional labor created new opportunities in the workplace
More educational opportunities increased the number of skilled workers in these groups
Labor unions successfully demanded equal opportunities for these groups
New civil rights legislation forced businesses to change their hiring practices
National segregation policies
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Warren Harding’s Return to Normalcy
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal
Ronald Reagan’s New Federalism
George Bush’s Thousand Points of Light
An all-volunteer military
Deregulation of business
Reduced defense spending
Spread of communism
President’s political opposition
United States refusal to send economic aid to European nations
Soviet domination of Eastern Europe
Competition between the superpowers to explore outer space
Continuation of the pre-World War II balance of power
Provide loans to industrialists
End the Great Depression
Provide for a balanced budget
Regulate the money supply
Returned control of social welfare programs to the states
Relied on individual initiative to improve the economy
Were supported by Congress over the objections of the majority of state governments
Increased the role of the Federal Government in dealing with social and economic problems
Freedom of the press
Right to bear arms
Ban on unreasonable searches
Freedom from double jeopardy
Foreign nations would reject an independent American government
The British government would be impossible to overthrow
America was dependent on British trade and protection
The American colonies should break away from England
Place too much power in the hands of Congress
Violate protections in the Bill of Rights
Increase foreign influence in the United States
Require a loose interpretation of the Constitution
Law passed by Congress
Precedent started by George Washington
Ruling of the United States Supreme Court
Racism and prejudice
Nationalism and patriotism
Abolition and temperance
Militarism and colonialism
Form an alliance between Germany and the United States
Convince several western states to secede from the United States
Bring Mexico into World War I on the side of Great Britain and France
Enlist Mexican support for Germany if the United States declared war
Failed to punish Germany for its involvement in World War I
Excluded reparations for European allies
Could draw the United States into future conflicts
Placed blame for World War I on all the warring countries
Sponsor free elections in North and South Korea
Reduce tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union
Negotiate an end to the Arab-Israeli conflict
Build support for recognition of the Nationalist government of Taiwan