Unit 9: World War II Test (Spring 2017)

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Unit 9:  World War II Test (Spring 2017) - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In Korematsu v. United States (1944), the Supreme Court upheld the military order excluding Japanese-Americans from the West Coast on the basis that the action was considered…  

    • A.

      A matter of national security

    • B.

      A necessity for the economy

    • C.

      An attempt to limit immigration from Japan

    • D.

      A way to protect Japanese Americans from anti-Japanese hysteria

    Correct Answer
    A. A matter of national security
    Explanation
    The Supreme Court upheld the military order excluding Japanese-Americans from the West Coast on the basis that it was a matter of national security. This suggests that the court believed the action was necessary to protect the country from potential threats during World War II. The court likely viewed the presence of Japanese-Americans on the West Coast as a potential risk, and therefore justified the exclusion as a means to safeguard national security.

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  • 2. 

      The major reason for President Harry Truman’s decision to use atomic bombs against Japan was the… 

    • A.

      Potential loss of American lives from an invasion of Japan

    • B.

      Need to defeat Japan before defeating Germany

    • C.

      Plan to bring democratic government to Japan after the war

    • D.

      Failure of the island-hopping campaign against Japan

    Correct Answer
    A. Potential loss of American lives from an invasion of Japan
    Explanation
    President Harry Truman's decision to use atomic bombs against Japan was primarily driven by the potential loss of American lives from an invasion of Japan. By dropping the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Truman aimed to force Japan's surrender and avoid the need for a costly and bloody invasion. The bombings were seen as a way to quickly end the war and save American lives that would have been lost in a ground invasion of Japan.

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  • 3. 

    What was the major purpose of the Lend-Lease Act (1941)? 

    • A.

      Sending United States troops to defend France

    • B.

      Keeping the Soviet Union from invading Chine

    • C.

      Helping Great Britain without going to war

    • D.

      Profiting from Germany’s demand for steel and oil from the United States

    Correct Answer
    C. Helping Great Britain without going to war
    Explanation
    The major purpose of the Lend-Lease Act (1941) was to help Great Britain without going to war. The act allowed the United States to provide military aid, including weapons, equipment, and supplies, to countries fighting against the Axis powers, particularly Great Britain. This assistance was crucial in supporting the British war effort and strengthening their ability to resist German aggression. By providing aid without directly engaging in combat, the United States aimed to support its allies and maintain its neutrality for as long as possible.

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  • 4. 

    President Franklin D. Roosevelt referred to December 7, 1941, as “a date which will live in infamy” because on that day… 

    • A.

      Germany invaded Poland

    • B.

      Japan attacked Pearl Harbor

    • C.

      Italy declared war on the United States

    • D.

      The United States dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima

    Correct Answer
    B. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
    Explanation
    On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, a naval base in Hawaii. This event marked the entry of the United States into World War II. The surprise attack resulted in significant damage to the US Pacific Fleet, including the sinking of several battleships and the loss of many lives. President Franklin D. Roosevelt referred to this day as "a date which will live in infamy" because it was a treacherous act of aggression that led to the loss of American lives and ultimately changed the course of history.

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  • 5. 

    The G.I. Bill provided World War II veterans with...

    • A.

      Free housing and medical care

    • B.

      Student loans for education

    • C.

      Free education and loans to buy homes, farms, and small businesses

    • D.

      A guaranteed job within the US government

    • E.

      Low-cost education in return for two more years of service in the armed forces

    Correct Answer
    C. Free education and loans to buy homes, farms, and small businesses
    Explanation
    The G.I. Bill provided World War II veterans with free education and loans to buy homes, farms, and small businesses. This legislation was passed in 1944 to support returning veterans in their transition to civilian life. It aimed to provide opportunities for further education and training, enabling veterans to pursue higher education without financial burden. Additionally, the bill offered low-interest loans to help veterans purchase homes, farms, and small businesses, allowing them to establish themselves economically after the war.

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  • 6. 

    During World War II, the need for the United States for more war materials resulted in the… 

    • A.

      Easing of government controls on the economy

    • B.

      Use of lengthy strikes by labor unions

    • C.

      Rationing of some consumer goods

    • D.

      Reduction in profits for defense industries

    Correct Answer
    C. Rationing of some consumer goods
    Explanation
    During World War II, the United States needed to allocate resources towards producing war materials. To ensure that enough resources were available for the war effort, the government implemented rationing of some consumer goods. This means that certain items, such as food, gasoline, and clothing, were limited in quantity and distributed fairly among the population. Rationing helped to conserve resources and ensure that essential supplies were available for the military. It also promoted a sense of shared sacrifice among the American people during the war.

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  • 7. 

    The Nuremberg War Crimes trials of 1945-1949 established the international precedent that…  ​​

    • A.

      The United States should avoid commitments with foreign nations

    • B.

      Military leaders cannot be held responsible for wartime actions

    • C.

      Individuals may be tried for crime against humanity

    • D.

      Soldiers must obey an order even if it conflicts with basic humanitarian values

    Correct Answer
    C. Individuals may be tried for crime against humanity
    Explanation
    The Nuremberg War Crimes trials of 1945-1949 were significant in establishing the international precedent that individuals may be held accountable and tried for crimes against humanity. These trials were held to prosecute Nazi officials and military leaders for their roles in the Holocaust and other war crimes committed during World War II. The trials marked a shift from traditional notions of immunity for state actors and established the principle that individuals can be held responsible for their actions, even during times of war. This precedent has since been used to hold individuals accountable for war crimes and crimes against humanity in various international tribunals.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following was LEAST likely a factor in the decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

    • A.

      Hope that a quick victory in the Pacific would hasten an Allied victory in Europe

    • B.

      Fear that the USSR would soon enter the war with Japan

    • C.

      Concern that a land war in Japan would result in massive American casualties

    • D.

      Awareness that Japanese forces were numerous and spread throughout Asia

    • E.

      Desire to demonstrate to other world powers the potency of America’s new weapon

    Correct Answer
    A. Hope that a quick victory in the Pacific would hasten an Allied victory in Europe
    Explanation
    The decision to drop atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was least likely influenced by the hope for a quick victory in the Pacific that would hasten an Allied victory in Europe. The main factors that influenced the decision were the fear that the USSR would soon enter the war with Japan, the concern of massive American casualties in a land war in Japan, the awareness of the numerous and spread-out Japanese forces in Asia, and the desire to demonstrate the potency of America's new weapon to other world powers.

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  • 9. 

    Use the following to answer the question below            A.  Japan attacks Pearl Harbor            B.  Germany invades Poland            C.  MacArthur dictates a democratic constitution to Japan            D.  Allies invade Europe on D-Day Which sequence of these events related to World War II is in the correct chronological order? 

    • A.

      D, B, A, and C

    • B.

      B, A, D, and C

    • C.

      C, A, B and D

    • D.

      A, B, C, and D

    Correct Answer
    B. B, A, D, and C
  • 10. 

    The internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II illustrates that… 

    • A.

      The Supreme Court can be relied on to defend civil rights

    • B.

      Threats to national security are often ignored by the government

    • C.

      Minorities are not allowed to enlist in the United States military

    • D.

      Civil liberties are sometimes limited during times of national crisis

    Correct Answer
    D. Civil liberties are sometimes limited during times of national crisis
    Explanation
    The internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II serves as evidence that civil liberties can be restricted during times of national crisis. This historical event involved the forced relocation and imprisonment of over 120,000 Japanese-Americans, most of whom were U.S. citizens, based solely on their ethnic background. The government justified this action as a necessary measure to protect national security. The internment camps were a clear violation of the civil liberties of Japanese-Americans, demonstrating that during times of crisis, the government may prioritize security over individual rights and freedoms.

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  • 11. 

    Guadalcanal was the turning point of the Pacific Theater.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "Guadalcanal was the turning point of the Pacific Theater" is false. While the Battle of Guadalcanal was a significant event in World War II, it was not the turning point of the Pacific Theater. The turning point is often attributed to the Battle of Midway, which took place in June 1942. The American victory at Midway halted Japanese expansion and marked a turning point in the war in the Pacific. Guadalcanal, which occurred later in 1942, was an important step in the Allied campaign to push the Japanese out of the Solomon Islands, but it was not the decisive turning point.

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  • 12. 

    Stalingrad was one of the turning points in the European Theater.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Stalingrad was indeed one of the turning points in the European Theater of World War II. The Battle of Stalingrad, which took place from August 1942 to February 1943, was a major confrontation between German and Soviet forces. The Soviet victory at Stalingrad marked a significant turning point in the war, as it halted the German advance into the Soviet Union and marked the first major defeat for the German army. The battle also boosted the morale of the Soviet Union and its allies, while weakening the German military and its allies. This shift in momentum ultimately contributed to the Allied victory in Europe.

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  • 13. 

    Joseph Stalin is responsible for breaking the Non-Aggression Pact with Germany.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Joseph Stalin is not responsible for breaking the Non-Aggression Pact with Germany. The Non-Aggression Pact, also known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, was signed between the Soviet Union and Germany in 1939. It was actually Germany, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, that violated the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Stalin was taken by surprise by the German invasion and it marked the beginning of the Eastern Front in World War II. Therefore, the statement that Joseph Stalin is responsible for breaking the Non-Aggression Pact with Germany is false.

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  • 14. 

    What is the most likely explanation for the changes in income shown in the chart?

    • A.

      World War II veterans benefited from an economic boom following the war

    • B.

      Conversion to a wartime economy created new jobs

    • C.

      New laws were passed that permitted child labor in wartime

    • D.

      Membership in labor unions was prohibited during wartime

    Correct Answer
    B. Conversion to a wartime economy created new jobs
    Explanation
    The most likely explanation for the changes in income shown in the chart is that the conversion to a wartime economy created new jobs. This is supported by the fact that during World War II, many industries shifted their focus to producing goods and services for the war effort, leading to an increase in employment opportunities. As a result, more people were able to find jobs and earn income, which is reflected in the chart.

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  • 15. 

     A key purpose of this World War II poster was to?

    • A.

      Illustrate the nature of modern warfare

    • B.

      Influence the Axis powers to end the war

    • C.

      Gain support for the war effort

    • D.

      Encourage protest against the war

    Correct Answer
    C. Gain support for the war effort
    Explanation
    The key purpose of this World War II poster was to gain support for the war effort. The poster was likely designed to rally the public and encourage them to support the war through various means, such as buying war bonds, conserving resources, or volunteering for the military. It may have used persuasive imagery or slogans to evoke patriotism and a sense of duty among the population. The goal was to unite the country and ensure widespread support for the war in order to increase morale and ultimately achieve victory.

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  • 16. 

    This World War II poster recognizes the…

    • A.

      Role of women as military officers

    • B.

      Contribution of women to wartime defense

    • C.

      Legal equality of women

    • D.

      Return of women to the workforce after the war

    Correct Answer
    B. Contribution of women to wartime defense
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Contribution of women to wartime defense". This World War II poster recognizes the important role that women played in supporting the war effort and defending their country during the war. It highlights the contributions of women in various capacities, such as working in factories, joining auxiliary forces, and taking on other non-traditional roles to support the war. The poster aims to acknowledge and appreciate the significant contribution of women to the defense of their nation during the wartime period.

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  • 17. 

    What type of items did many Americans ration during World War II?*Check that all that apply*

    • A.

      Cigaretts

    • B.

      Gas

    • C.

      Coffee

    • D.

      Food

    • E.

      Rubber

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cigaretts
    B. Gas
    C. Coffee
    D. Food
    E. Rubber
    Explanation
    During World War II, many Americans rationed cigarettes, gas, coffee, food, and rubber. Rationing was a system implemented by the government to ensure that essential items were distributed fairly and to conserve resources for the war effort. Cigarettes were rationed to control tobacco consumption, gas was rationed to conserve fuel for military use, coffee was rationed due to limited availability, food was rationed to ensure everyone had access to necessary supplies, and rubber was rationed to support the production of military vehicles and equipment.

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  • 18. 

    The Allied military strategy used in the Pacific Theater was called...

    • A.

      Island Hopping

    • B.

      Leap Frog

    • C.

      War

    Correct Answer
    A. Island Hopping
    Explanation
    Island Hopping was the Allied military strategy used in the Pacific Theater during World War II. It involved selectively capturing certain islands while bypassing others in order to establish forward bases and cut off Japanese supply lines. This strategy allowed the Allies to gradually move closer to Japan and weaken their defenses, ultimately leading to their defeat.

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  • 19. 

    African Americans aided and serviced in WWII in numerous ways.  Check all of the possible answers choices which African Americans aided during WWII.

    • A.

      Tuskgee Airmen

    • B.

      Joined the Armed Forces

    • C.

      Completed Special Mission operations

    • D.

      Became spies

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Tuskgee Airmen
    B. Joined the Armed Forces
    C. Completed Special Mission operations
    Explanation
    During WWII, African Americans played a significant role in aiding the war effort. The Tuskegee Airmen, a group of African American pilots, provided crucial air support and conducted missions against enemy forces. Additionally, many African Americans joined the Armed Forces and served in various capacities, contributing to the overall war effort. Some African Americans also completed special mission operations, demonstrating their dedication and bravery. However, there is no evidence to suggest that African Americans became spies during WWII.

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  • 20. 

    Benito Mussolini and Italy wanted to return the country to its glory days of the Roman Empire.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    During his rule, Benito Mussolini aimed to revive Italy's past glory by emulating the success and power of the Roman Empire. He sought to establish a fascist regime that would restore Italy's influence and dominance in the world. Mussolini's policies and propaganda often drew parallels between his leadership and the greatness of ancient Rome. He emphasized the importance of national unity, militarism, and expansionism, all of which were reminiscent of the Roman Empire's values. Therefore, the statement that Mussolini and Italy wanted to return the country to its glory days of the Roman Empire is true.

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  • 21. 

    Which countries were to aid Germany temporarily following World War II?

    • A.

      USA

    • B.

      France

    • C.

      Great Britain

    • D.

      Soviet Union

    • E.

      Spain

    • F.

      Canada

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. USA
    B. France
    C. Great Britain
    D. Soviet Union
    Explanation
    After World War II, Germany was in need of assistance to rebuild and recover from the devastation caused by the war. The USA, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union were the countries that provided temporary aid to Germany. These countries recognized the importance of helping Germany recover in order to stabilize Europe and prevent the rise of another global conflict. Spain and Canada, although not mentioned in the question, did not provide temporary aid to Germany after World War II.

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  • 22. 

    What/who is the main different between the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Conference?

    • A.

      FDR died so Harry Truman is now the American presdient

    • B.

      Hitler committed suicide

    • C.

      The USSR pulled out of the war and Spain stepped in

    • D.

      The ideas on how to deal with the end of the war when it came

    Correct Answer
    A. FDR died so Harry Truman is now the American presdient
    Explanation
    The main difference between the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Conference is that FDR died, so Harry Truman became the American president. This change in leadership had a significant impact on the dynamics and decision-making process of the conferences. Truman had a different approach and perspective compared to FDR, which influenced the discussions and outcomes of the Potsdam Conference.

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  • 23. 

    During World War II, the federal government dealt with the problem shown in this cartoon by...

    • A.

      Rationing gasoline used by American drivers

    • B.

      Ending the use of tanks by the military

    • C.

      Increasing imports of oil from the Dutch East Indies

    • D.

      Setting higher mileage standards for car manufacturers

    Correct Answer
    A. Rationing gasoline used by American drivers
    Explanation
    During World War II, the federal government dealt with the problem shown in this cartoon by rationing gasoline used by American drivers. This was done to conserve resources and ensure that enough fuel was available for military use. Rationing was a common practice during the war to manage scarce resources and prioritize essential needs. By limiting the amount of gasoline available to civilians, the government could allocate more fuel for military vehicles and operations. This measure aimed to support the war effort and maintain a steady supply of fuel for essential purposes.

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  • 24. 

    During World War II, the federal government was accused of violating constitutional rights by...

    • A.

      Signing the Yalta Agreement

    • B.

      Implementing a draft to expand the armed forces

    • C.

      Relocating Japanese Americans to internment camps

    • D.

      Initiating the secret Manhattan Project

    Correct Answer
    C. Relocating Japanese Americans to internment camps
    Explanation
    During World War II, the federal government relocated Japanese Americans to internment camps. This action was a violation of their constitutional rights because it deprived them of their freedom and property without due process of law. The government justified this action by claiming that it was necessary for national security, but it was later recognized as a grave injustice. The internment camps were a result of racial prejudice and fear, rather than any legitimate threat posed by Japanese Americans.

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  • 25. 

    “Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. . . .” —President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Address to Congress, December 8, 1941In this statement, President Roosevelt was addressing Congress about the....

    • A.

      D-Day invasion of France

    • B.

      Sinking of merchant ships in the Atlantic Ocean

    • C.

      Bombing of Pearl Harbor

    • D.

      Air raids on the Panama Canal

    Correct Answer
    C. Bombing of Pearl Harbor
    Explanation
    President Roosevelt was addressing Congress about the bombing of Pearl Harbor. This event took place on December 7, 1941, when the United States was attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike that led to the United States' entry into World War II. Roosevelt's speech was a call to action and a declaration of war against Japan.

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  • 26. 

    Which standard of justice was applied to Nazi leaders who were tried at Nuremberg after World War II?

    • A.

      Military attacks on civilian populations are legal

    • B.

      Individuals can be held personally responsible for war crimes

    • C.

      Military officers are not accountable for crimes if they were obeying orders

    • D.

      Only the League of Nations can determine international law

    Correct Answer
    B. Individuals can be held personally responsible for war crimes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Individuals can be held personally responsible for war crimes. This is because the Nuremberg Trials established the principle that individuals, including military leaders, can be held accountable for their actions during times of war, even if they were following orders. This principle was a significant development in international law and has since been used as a basis for prosecuting war crimes and crimes against humanity.

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  • 27. 

    Which conclusion about the United States economy during World War II is most clearly supported by the information in the graph?

    • A.

      Organized labor conducted frequent strikes during the war years

    • B.

      The war led to improved economic conditions

    • C.

      The Gross National Product (GNP) steadily declined during the war years

    • D.

      Unemployment increased throughout the war

    Correct Answer
    B. The war led to improved economic conditions
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "The war led to improved economic conditions." This conclusion is supported by the information in the graph because it shows a steady increase in the Gross National Product (GNP) during the war years. An increase in GNP indicates that the overall economic output and productivity of the country improved during this time.

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  • 28. 

    The scientists working on the Manhattan Project during World War II were responsible for...

    • A.

      Designing weapons for the D-Day invasion

    • B.

      Building satellites to spy on the Axis nations

    • C.

      Creating materials for biological and chemical warfare

    • D.

      Developing the atomic bomb

    Correct Answer
    D. Developing the atomic bomb
    Explanation
    The scientists working on the Manhattan Project during World War II were responsible for developing the atomic bomb. The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that aimed to produce the first nuclear weapons. It involved many scientists, engineers, and other professionals who worked together to harness the power of nuclear fission and create a weapon of immense destructive capability. The successful development of the atomic bomb led to its use in the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ultimately bringing an end to the war with Japan.

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  • 29. 

    …It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin. This policy shall be put into effect as rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time required to effectuate [implement] any necessary changes without impairing efficiency or morale.…— Section 1, Executive Order 9981 36The purpose of Executive Order 9981, issued by President Harry Truman, was to 

    • A.

      Encourage women to join the armed services

    • B.

      End racial segregation in the military

    • C.

      Ensure adequate manpower to fight the Korean War

    • D.

      Establish war crimes tribunals in Western Europe

    Correct Answer
    B. End racial segregation in the military
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "end racial segregation in the military." This can be inferred from the statement that "there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin." The purpose of Executive Order 9981 was to eliminate racial discrimination and promote equality within the military.

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