# Structural January 2000 Board Exam

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Quizzes Created: 18 | Total Attempts: 56,798
Questions: 146 | Attempts: 298  Settings  Structural January 2000 Board Exam quiz helps mathematics, other students and other related parties to revise on geometry. The use of geometrical tools is tested in the quiz. Find out how you are fairing. All the best.

• 1.

### It is the effect on the structure due to extreme lateral (earthquake) motions acting in directions other than parallel to the direction of resistance under consideration. (NSCP Sec. 2.2.2)

• A.

A. Orthogonal effect

• B.

B. P-delta effect

• C.

C. Centroidal effect

• D.

D. None of the above

A. A. Orthogonal effect
Explanation
The correct answer is A. Orthogonal effect. The explanation provided states that the effect being referred to is the impact on the structure caused by extreme lateral (earthquake) motions acting in directions other than parallel to the direction of resistance. This aligns with the definition of the orthogonal effect, which refers to the impact of lateral forces acting perpendicular to the direction of resistance.

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• 2.

### force applied parallel to the longitudinal axis of a structural member but not to the centroid of he cross section, producing bending and uneven distribution of stresses in the section.

• A.

CONCENTRIC FORCE

• B.

ECCENTRIC FORCE

• C.

COMPRESSIVE FORCE

• D.

TENSILE FORCE

B. ECCENTRIC FORCE
Explanation
An eccentric force refers to a force that is applied parallel to the longitudinal axis of a structural member but not to the centroid of the cross-section. This results in bending and uneven distribution of stresses in the section. In other words, the force is not applied at the center of the member, causing it to experience both tension and compression on different parts of the cross-section. This can lead to structural instability and failure if not properly accounted for in the design and construction of the member.

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• 3.

### 1.  A portion of the wall which projects on one or both sides and acts as a vertical beam, a column or both. (NSCP 6.2)

• A.

A. pedestal

• B.

B. post

• C.

C. leg

• D.

D. pilaster

D. D. pilaster
Explanation
A pilaster is a portion of the wall that projects on one or both sides and acts as a vertical beam, a column, or both. It is a decorative architectural element that resembles a flattened column and is often used to give the appearance of support or to add visual interest to a wall.

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• 4.

### Where you will see the details for the foundation anchor bolts

• A.

Foundation plan

• B.

Base plate plan

• C.

Framing plan

B. Base plate plan
Explanation
The base plate plan is where you will see the details for the foundation anchor bolts. This plan provides specific information on the placement and design of the base plates that will be used to secure the foundation anchor bolts. It includes details such as the size, shape, and spacing of the anchor bolts, as well as any additional reinforcement that may be required. The base plate plan is an important document for ensuring the stability and integrity of the foundation.

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• 5.

### When a beam is in its yield point, which among the situation below would most likely happen

• A.

Beam will continue to deform with slight load

• B.

Beam will break eventually after some time

• C.

Beam will continue to deform without load

• D.

Beam will come back to its original state

C. Beam will continue to deform without load
Explanation
When a beam is in its yield point, it means that it has reached its maximum stress limit and has started to deform permanently. In this state, even without any additional load, the beam will continue to deform due to the stress it has already undergone. This deformation will not revert back to its original state because the beam has exceeded its elastic limit. Therefore, the correct answer is that the beam will continue to deform without load.

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• 6.

### When a beam is in its proportional limit, which among the situation below would most likely happen

• A.

Beam will continue to deform with slight load

• B.

Beam will break eventually after some time

• C.

Beam will continue to deform without load

• D.

Beam will come back to its original state

D. Beam will come back to its original state
Explanation
When a beam is in its proportional limit, it means that it is being loaded within the range where the stress and strain are directly proportional to each other. This indicates that the beam is still within its elastic deformation range. In this situation, when the load is removed, the beam will be able to return to its original state without any permanent deformation. This is because the material is able to recover its original shape and dimensions due to the elastic properties of the material.

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• 7.

### When a beam is in its elastic limit, which among the situation below would most likely happen

• A.

Beam will continue to deform with slight load

• B.

Beam will continue to deform without load

• C.

Beam will break eventually after some time

• D.

Beam will come back to its original state

A. Beam will continue to deform with slight load
Explanation
When a beam is in its elastic limit, it means that it is being subjected to a load that is within its elastic range. In this situation, the beam will continue to deform with a slight load. This means that the beam will experience some level of deformation or bending, but it will still retain its ability to return to its original shape once the load is removed. It will not break or permanently deform under this slight load, as it is still within its elastic limit.

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• 8.

### What is the best location of support for a one way slab?

• A.

End of slab

• B.

Middle third of slab

• C.

Top of slab

A. End of slab
Explanation
The best location of support for a one-way slab is at the end of the slab. This is because the end support provides the maximum amount of stability and prevents the slab from sagging or deflecting excessively. Placing the support at the end also helps distribute the load evenly and ensures that the slab remains structurally sound. Supporting the slab at the middle third or the top of the slab may lead to increased deflection and potential structural issues.

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• 9.

### What is the weight of 1 cu. m. of concrete?

• A.

A. 2400 N

• B.

B. 2400 KN

• C.

C. 2400 kg

• D.

D. 2400 lbs

C. C. 2400 kg
Explanation
The weight of 1 cubic meter of concrete is 2400 kg. This is because the density of concrete is typically around 2400 kg/m³. Density is a measure of how much mass is contained in a given volume, so in this case, 1 cubic meter of concrete would weigh 2400 kg.

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• 10.

### What is not included  in the computation of reinforced concrete load

• A.

Slab

• B.

Floor finish

• C.

Beam

• D.

Column

B. Floor finish
Explanation
Floor finish is not included in the computation of reinforced concrete load. The load calculation for reinforced concrete takes into account the weight of the structural elements such as the slab, beam, and column. However, the floor finish, which refers to the materials used to cover the surface of the floor, such as tiles or carpet, is not considered in the load calculation as it is not a structural element and does not contribute significantly to the overall load on the structure.

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• 11.

### What do you call the act/process of enlarging an existing foundation

• A.

• B.

Under pinning

• C.

Refoundation

B. Under pinning
Explanation
Underpinning refers to the act or process of strengthening or enlarging an existing foundation. It involves adding support or reinforcement to an existing structure to prevent settling or collapse. This can be done by excavating and extending the foundation, adding new footings or piers, or using other methods to stabilize the structure.

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• 12.

### WEIGHT OF WATER IS

• A.

1000 kg/ m3

• B.

7850 kg/ m3

• C.

2400 kg/ m3

A. 1000 kg/ m3
Explanation
The weight of water is 1000 kg/m3 because this is the density of pure water at standard temperature and pressure. Density is defined as mass per unit volume, so a density of 1000 kg/m3 means that 1 cubic meter of water has a mass of 1000 kg.

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• 13.

### WEIGHT OF STEEL

• A.

1000 kg/ m3

• B.

7850 kg/ m3

• C.

2400 kg/ m3

B. 7850 kg/ m3
Explanation
The correct answer is 7850 kg/m3. This is the weight of steel per unit volume. Steel is a dense material and has a high density compared to other materials such as water or wood. The density of steel is commonly measured in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3). A density of 7850 kg/m3 means that for every cubic meter of steel, it weighs 7850 kilograms.

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• 14.

### WEIGHT OF CONCRETE

• A.

1000 kg/ m3

• B.

7850 kg/ m3

• C.

2400 kg/ m3

C. 2400 kg/ m3
Explanation
The given answer, 2400 kg/m3, represents the weight of concrete. Concrete is a composite material made up of cement, water, and aggregates such as sand and gravel. The weight of concrete can vary depending on the specific composition and density of the aggregates used. In this case, the density of the concrete is given as 2400 kg/m3, indicating that for every cubic meter of concrete, it weighs 2400 kilograms.

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• 15.

### This wall will be used to protect different levels

• A.

Retaining wall

• B.

• C.

Brick wall

A. Retaining wall
Explanation
A retaining wall is a structure that is specifically designed to hold back soil or other materials and prevent erosion or movement. It is commonly used in areas where there are different levels of elevation, such as hills or slopes. The purpose of a retaining wall is to provide stability and support to the surrounding land, preventing it from collapsing or sliding. Therefore, in the given context, a retaining wall would be the most suitable option for protecting different levels of elevation.

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• 16.

### These are used to connect shafts

• A.

Welds

• B.

Steel bolts

• C.

Splices

• D.

Flanged bolt couplings

D. Flanged bolt couplings
Explanation
Flanged bolt couplings are used to connect shafts. They consist of two flanges that are bolted together, creating a secure connection between the shafts. This type of coupling is commonly used in various applications, such as in machinery and vehicles, where a strong and reliable connection is required. The flanged bolt couplings provide stability and allow for the transmission of torque and rotational movement between the shafts.

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• 17.

### The weakening or failure of a material at a stress below the elastic limit when subjected   to a repeated series of stresses

• A.

FATIGUE

• B.

DEFLECTION

• C.

STRESS

• D.

CREEP

A. FATIGUE
Explanation
Fatigue refers to the weakening or failure of a material when it is subjected to repeated stresses below its elastic limit. This occurs over time as the material is unable to withstand the repeated stress, leading to cracks, fractures, or deformation. Fatigue is different from creep, which is the gradual deformation of a material under a constant load over an extended period. Deflection refers to the bending or displacement of a material under load, while stress is the force applied to an object per unit area.

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• 18.

### The water cement ratio in concrete is

• A.

The ratio of weight of water to the volume of cement

• B.

The ratio of the volume of water to the volume of cement

• C.

The ratio of the weight of water of the weight of cement

C. The ratio of the weight of water of the weight of cement
Explanation
The correct answer is the ratio of the weight of water to the weight of cement. This is because the water cement ratio is a measure of the amount of water used in relation to the amount of cement in a concrete mixture. It is an important factor in determining the strength and durability of the concrete.

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• 19.

### The vertical or horizontal face in a concrete structure where concreting has been stopped and continued later

• A.

Construction joint

• B.

Contraction joint

• C.

Expansion joint

A. Construction joint
Explanation
A construction joint is a vertical or horizontal face in a concrete structure where concreting has been stopped and continued later. This joint is created intentionally to allow for the construction process to be carried out in stages or phases. It is used to separate different parts of the concrete structure that are poured at different times, ensuring that the overall structure is cohesive and structurally sound. The construction joint provides a point of connection between the two sections of concrete, allowing for the continuity of the construction process.

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• 20.

### The twisting of an elastic body about its longitudinal axis caused by two equal and opposite torques, producing shearing stresses in the body

• A.

TORSION

• B.

TORQUE

• C.

BENDING

• D.

SHEAR

A. TORSION
Explanation
Torsion refers to the twisting of an elastic body around its longitudinal axis due to two equal and opposite torques. This twisting action generates shearing stresses within the body. Torsion is different from bending, which involves the application of a bending moment to a body, and shear, which refers to the parallel sliding of one layer of a material relative to another.

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• 21.

### The top of a cantilever beam is in

• A.

Compression

• B.

Tension

• C.

Axial

• D.

Stress

B. Tension
Explanation
A cantilever beam is a structural element that is fixed at one end and free at the other end. In this configuration, the top of the beam is subjected to bending forces, causing it to experience tension. This tension is a result of the beam's resistance to bending and is necessary to maintain the stability and equilibrium of the structure. Therefore, the correct answer is tension.

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• 22.

### The stress wherein the deformation increases without any increase in the load. The material at some portion shows a decrease in its cross section

• A.

Elastic limit

• B.

Proportional limit

• C.

Yield point

• D.

Ultimate strength

C. Yield point
Explanation
The yield point is the stress at which a material begins to show permanent deformation, even without an increase in the load. This occurs when the material reaches its maximum ability to withstand stress and starts to undergo plastic deformation. At the yield point, the material may also experience a decrease in its cross section, indicating that it has reached its limit of elastic behavior and is transitioning into a plastic state.

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• 23.

### The stress induced as a result of restrained deformation due to changes in temperature

• A.

Rupture stress

• B.

Thermal stress

• C.

Yield stress

• D.

Creep

B. Thermal stress
Explanation
Thermal stress refers to the stress induced in a material due to changes in temperature. When a material is restrained from expanding or contracting freely as it heats up or cools down, it experiences thermal stress. This stress can lead to deformation or even fracture of the material. Therefore, the correct answer is thermal stress.

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• 24.

### The stress developed when the applied load causes adjacent sections within a body to slide past each other

• A.

Axial stress

• B.

Bearing stress

• C.

Shearing stress

• D.

Flexural stress

C. Shearing stress
Explanation
Shearing stress refers to the stress that occurs when adjacent sections within a body slide past each other due to an applied load. This type of stress is specifically related to the deformation caused by shear forces. It is different from axial stress, which occurs along the longitudinal axis of a body, bearing stress, which occurs when a load is applied perpendicular to the surface of contact, and flexural stress, which occurs when a body is subjected to bending.

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• 25.

### The steel ratio for spiral columns ranges from

• A.

0.10-0.80

• B.

0.01-0.08

• C.

0.001-0.008

• D.

0.0001-0.0008

B. 0.01-0.08
Explanation
The correct answer is 0.01-0.08. The steel ratio for spiral columns refers to the ratio of the cross-sectional area of steel reinforcement to the cross-sectional area of the column. This range of 0.01-0.08 indicates that the amount of steel reinforcement in the column should be between 1% and 8% of the total cross-sectional area. This range is commonly used in structural design to provide adequate strength and stability to the column while also allowing for ease of construction and cost-effectiveness.

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• 26.

### The ratio of the effective length of a column to its least ratio of gyration  The higher of this ratio, the lower is the critical stress that will cause buckling A primary objective  in the design of a column is to reduce this ratio by minimizing its effective length or maximizing its effective length or maximizing the radius of gyration of its cross section

• A.

Column ratio

• B.

Slenderness ratio

• C.

Poisson's ratio

• D.

Stress strain ratio

B. Slenderness ratio
Explanation
The slenderness ratio refers to the ratio of the effective length of a column to its least radius of gyration. A higher slenderness ratio indicates a longer column or a smaller radius of gyration, which in turn means that the column is more susceptible to buckling. Therefore, the primary objective in column design is to reduce the slenderness ratio by either minimizing the effective length of the column or maximizing the radius of gyration of its cross section.

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• 27.

### The radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that axis. For a   structural section, this  is equal to the square root of the quotient of the moment of inertia and the area

• A.

• B.

• C.

Explanation
The correct answer is "Radius of Gyration". The radius of gyration is the radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that axis. It is a measure of how the mass is distributed around an axis and is calculated as the square root of the quotient of the moment of inertia and the area. In the context of a structural section, the radius of gyration provides information about the section's resistance to bending and torsional forces.

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• 28.

### The property of material that causes it to rupture suddenly under stress with little evident       deformation. Since this property of materials lack the plastic behavior of ductile materials, they can give no warning of impending material

• A.

BRITLENESS

• B.

DUCTILITY

• C.

ELASTICITY

• D.

MALLEABILITY

A. BRITLENESS
Explanation
Brittleness is the correct answer because it refers to the property of a material that causes it to rupture suddenly under stress with little deformation. Unlike ductile materials, brittle materials do not exhibit plastic behavior and cannot give any warning of impending material failure.

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• 29.

### The property of a material that enables it to undergo plastic deformation after being stressed beyond the elastic limit and before rupturing. this is a desirable property of a structural material since plastic behavior is an indicator of reserve strength  and can serve as a visual warning of impending failure.

• A.

MALLEABILITY

• B.

DUCTILITY

• C.

ELASTICITY

• D.

BRITLENESS

B. DUCTILITY
Explanation
The given explanation describes the property of a material that allows it to undergo plastic deformation after being stressed beyond the elastic limit and before rupturing. This property is desirable in structural materials because it indicates reserve strength and can visually warn of impending failure. Ductility is the correct answer as it refers to the ability of a material to be stretched or drawn into a wire without breaking, which aligns with the described property.

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• 30.

### The property of a material that enables it to deform in response to an applied force and to recover its original size and shape upon removal of the force

• A.

BRITLENESS

• B.

ELASTICITY

• C.

MALLEABILITY

• D.

DUCTILITY

B. ELASTICITY
Explanation
Elasticity is the property of a material that allows it to deform when a force is applied and then return to its original shape and size when the force is removed. This means that the material can stretch or compress under the force, but it does not permanently deform or break. Brittle materials, on the other hand, do not have this ability and will break or fracture when a force is applied. Malleability and ductility refer to the ability of a material to be shaped or stretched without breaking, but they do not specifically address the material's ability to return to its original shape.

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• 31.

### The property of a material that enables it to absorb energy before rupturing, represented  by the area under the stress- strain curve derived from a tensile test of the material. this materials are tougher than brittle materials.

• A.

DUCTILITY

• B.

TOUGHNESS

• C.

ELASTICITY

• D.

MALLEABILITY

B. TOUGHNESS
Explanation
Toughness is the correct answer because it refers to the property of a material that allows it to absorb energy before rupturing. This is represented by the area under the stress-strain curve derived from a tensile test. Tough materials are able to withstand greater forces and are less likely to break or fracture, making them tougher than brittle materials.

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• 32.

### The perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under   transverse loading, increasing with load and span, and decreasing with an increase in the moment of inertia of the section of the modulus of elasticity of the material

• A.

CRACK

• B.

CREEP

• C.

DEFLECTION

• D.

DEFORMATION

C. DEFLECTION
Explanation
Deflection refers to the perpendicular distance that a spanning member deviates from its true course under transverse loading. It increases with the load and span of the member and decreases with an increase in the moment of inertia of the section or the modulus of elasticity of the material. This means that as the load and span increase, the member will deflect more, but if the moment of inertia or modulus of elasticity increases, the deflection will be reduced. Therefore, deflection is the correct answer in this context.

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• 33.

### The normal force exerted by a smooth horizontal surface towards a 100-lb block acting on it is

• A.

100 n

• B.

100 kg

• C.

100 lb

C. 100 lb
Explanation
The correct answer is 100 lb because the normal force exerted by a smooth horizontal surface is equal to the weight of the object resting on it. In this case, the block weighs 100 lb, so the normal force exerted by the surface is also 100 lb.

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• 34.

### The moment of a force system that causes or tends to cause rotation or torsion

• A.

TORQUE

• B.

BENDING

• C.

COMPRESSION

• D.

TENSION

A. TORQUE
Explanation
Torque is the correct answer because it refers to the moment of a force system that causes or tends to cause rotation or torsion. It is a measure of the force's effectiveness in causing an object to rotate around an axis. Bending, compression, and tension are not directly related to rotation or torsion, making them incorrect answers.

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• 35.

### The modulus elasticity of structural steel is

• A.

100 gpa

• B.

200 gpa

• C.

200 mpa

• D.

450 gpa

B. 200 gpa
Explanation
The correct answer is 200 GPa. The modulus of elasticity refers to a material's ability to deform under stress and return to its original shape when the stress is removed. It is a measure of how stiff or rigid a material is. Structural steel is known for its high modulus of elasticity, which allows it to withstand large amounts of stress without permanent deformation. A modulus of elasticity of 200 GPa indicates that structural steel has a high stiffness and can handle significant loads without breaking or bending.

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• 36.

### The minimum reinforcing steel for spiral columns allowed by the aci code

• A.

4-16mm- diameter bars

• B.

4-20mm- diameter bars

• C.

4-25mm- diameter bars

• D.

4-36mm- diameter bars

A. 4-16mm- diameter bars
Explanation
The ACI code allows for a minimum reinforcing steel of 4-16mm diameter bars for spiral columns. This means that the smallest size of reinforcing steel bars that can be used in spiral columns according to the ACI code is 16mm in diameter.

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• 37.

### The minimum size of fillet weld

• A.

6mm

• B.

3mm

• C.

8mm

• D.

10mm

B. 3mm
Explanation
The minimum size of a fillet weld refers to the minimum thickness or width of the weld. In this case, the correct answer is 3mm, which means that the minimum size for the fillet weld is 3mm. This implies that any fillet weld must have a thickness or width of at least 3mm to meet the required standards or specifications.

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• 38.

### The minimum bend diameters for 10mm through 25mm diameter bars

• A.

12db

• B.

6db

• C.

10db

• D.

8db

B. 6db
Explanation
The correct answer is 6db. The term "db" in this context refers to the minimum bend diameter for bars of different diameters. The question is asking for the minimum bend diameter for bars ranging from 10mm to 25mm in diameter. Out of the given options, 6db is the correct answer. This means that the minimum bend diameter for these bars is 6 times their diameter.

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• 39.

### The maximum unit stress permitted for a material in the design of a structural member, usually a fraction of the material’s elastic limit, yield strength, or ultimate strength.  Also called ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESS, WORKING STRESS.

• A.

ALLOWABLE STRESS

• B.

ALLOWABLE DEFORMATION

• C.

ALLOWABLE STRENGTH

• D.

ALLOWABLE STRAIN

A. ALLOWABLE STRESS
Explanation
The correct answer is ALLOWABLE STRESS. This term refers to the maximum unit stress that is allowed for a material in the design of a structural member. It is typically a fraction of the material's elastic limit, yield strength, or ultimate strength. This concept is important in ensuring that the structural member does not exceed its capacity and fail under the applied loads. It helps to ensure the safety and reliability of the structure.

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• 40.

### The maximum spacing of vertical reinforcement (flexural reinforcement) of a wall is: (NSCP Sec. 5.7.6.5 and NSCP Sec

• A.

A. 3 times wall thickness, not more than 18”

• B.

B. 4 times wall thickness, not more than 20”

• C.

C. 5 times wall thickness, not more than 18”

• D.

D. 6 times wall thickness, not more than 20”

A. A. 3 times wall thickness, not more than 18”
Explanation
The maximum spacing of vertical reinforcement (flexural reinforcement) of a wall is determined by the NSCP (National Structural Code of the Philippines). According to NSCP Sec. 5.7.6.5, the maximum spacing should be 3 times the wall thickness, but it should not exceed 18 inches. This means that the reinforcement bars should be placed at intervals that are no greater than 3 times the wall thickness, and the spacing should not exceed 18 inches. This ensures that the wall has sufficient reinforcement to withstand flexural forces and maintain its structural integrity.

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• 41.

### The maximum moment of a simply supported beam whose span length is L, in meter carrying uniformly distributed load of w in N/m is

• A.

Wl squared / 2

• B.

Wl squared / 4

• C.

Wl squared / 8

• D.

Wl squared / 10

C. Wl squared / 8
Explanation
The maximum moment of a simply supported beam can be calculated using the formula Mmax = wl^2/8. This formula takes into account the span length (L) of the beam and the uniformly distributed load (w) it is carrying. By plugging in these values into the formula, we can determine the maximum moment of the beam.

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• 42.

### The maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it to buckle

• A.

Critical buckling stress

• B.

• C.

• D.

Ultimate buckling stress

Explanation
The critical buckling load refers to the maximum axial load that a column can withstand before it buckles. When a column is subjected to compressive forces, it may buckle or deform laterally. The critical buckling load represents the point at which this buckling occurs. It is an important factor to consider in structural engineering as it helps determine the maximum load that a column can safely bear without failing.

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• 43.

### The lateral deformation produced in a body by an external force that causes one part of the body to slide relative to an adjacent part in a direction parallel to their plane contact.

• A.

SHEAR

• B.

STRAIN

• C.

• D.

FORCE

A. SHEAR
Explanation
Shear is the correct answer because it refers to the lateral deformation that occurs in a body when an external force causes one part of the body to slide relative to an adjacent part. This deformation happens in a direction parallel to the plane of contact between the two parts. Shear strain, load, and force are related to the concept of shear, but they do not specifically describe the lateral deformation caused by the external force.

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• 44.

### The general relationships between stress and strain is frequently reffered to as

• A.

Poisson's ratio

• B.

Hooke's law

• C.

Slenderness law

B. Hooke's law
Explanation
The correct answer is Hooke's Law. Hooke's Law states that the strain in a material is directly proportional to the stress applied to it, as long as the material remains within its elastic limit. This means that when stress is applied to a material, it will deform or stretch in proportion to the amount of stress applied. Hooke's Law is commonly used to describe the behavior of linear elastic materials.

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• 45.

### The commercial size designation of width and depth, in standard sawn lumber glued lumber grades, somewhat larger than the standard net size of dressed lumber

• A.

Dressed size

• B.

Nominal size

• C.

Normal size

• D.

Rough size

B. Nominal size
Explanation
The correct answer is "nominal size." In the context of standard sawn lumber glued lumber grades, the nominal size refers to the commercial size designation of width and depth. It is slightly larger than the standard net size of dressed lumber. The nominal size is used to categorize and label lumber products, but it may not accurately represent the actual dimensions of the lumber due to factors like shrinkage and planing.

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• 46.

### The bottom of the footing is in

• A.

Compression

• B.

Tension

• C.

Axial

• D.

Stress

A. Compression
Explanation
The correct answer is compression because when the bottom of the footing is in compression, it means that the force acting on it is pushing it together, causing it to compress or shorten in length. This is a desirable condition for the footing as it helps to provide stability and support to the structure above. Compression is generally preferred over tension, which is when the force is pulling the footing apart, as tension can lead to structural failure.

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• 47.

### The bottom of the footing is in

• A.

Compression

• B.

Tension

• C.

Axial

• D.

Stress

B. Tension
Explanation
The bottom of the footing is in tension because tension refers to a pulling or stretching force. In the context of a footing, tension would occur if there is a force pulling the bottom of the footing away from the surface it is resting on. This could happen if there is a load or force acting on the footing that is causing it to be pulled upwards.

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• 48.

### The bottom of a cantilever beam is in

• A.

Compression

• B.

Tension

• C.

Axial

• D.

Stress

A. Compression
Explanation
A cantilever beam is a structure that is supported at one end and extends freely in space. When a load is applied to the free end of the beam, it causes bending. In this case, the bottom of the cantilever beam is in compression. Compression occurs when a force is applied to an object, causing it to be pushed or squeezed together. In the case of the cantilever beam, the load applied at the free end creates a compressive force on the bottom of the beam, causing it to be compressed.

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• 49.

• A.

Axial stress

• B.

Bending stress

• C.

Allowable stress

• D.

Working stress

D. Working stress
Explanation
Working stress refers to the maximum stress that a material can withstand under a given loading condition without causing failure. It takes into account factors such as safety margins, material properties, and design considerations. Unlike axial stress, bending stress, and allowable stress, which focus on specific types of stress or limits, working stress provides an overall assessment of the material's capacity to handle the applied load. It is commonly used in engineering and design to ensure that structures and components operate within safe limits and have an acceptable level of reliability.

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• 50.

### The actual strain by which a concrete fails is

• A.

0.004

• B.

0.002

• C.

0.003

• D.

0.001

A. 0.004
Explanation
The correct answer is 0.004. This suggests that the actual strain at which concrete fails is 0.004.

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