SQL And Relational Database Management

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SQL And Relational Database Management - Quiz


This quiz covers chapter 1 of The Practical SQL Handbook.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A relational Database management system must:Represent all information in the database as _______.

    Correct Answer(s)
    tables
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must represent all information in the database as tables. Tables are used to organize and store data in a structured manner, with each table representing a specific entity or concept. This allows for efficient storage, retrieval, and manipulation of data, as well as the establishment of relationships between different tables through keys. By representing information in tables, a relational database management system ensures data integrity, consistency, and flexibility in handling complex data structures.

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  • 2. 

    A relational Database management system must:Keep the logical representation of data independent from its ________ storage characteristics.

    Correct Answer(s)
    physical
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must keep the logical representation of data independent from its physical storage characteristics. This means that the way the data is physically stored, such as on disk or in memory, should not affect how the data is logically organized and accessed. This separation allows for flexibility and scalability, as the physical storage can be changed or optimized without impacting the logical structure of the data.

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  • 3. 

    A relational Database management system must:Support _____, which allow the user to specify alternative ways of looking at data in tables.

    Correct Answer(s)
    views
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must support views, which allow the user to specify alternative ways of looking at data in tables. Views are virtual tables that are based on the result of a query. They allow users to retrieve and manipulate data from multiple tables as if it were a single table. Views provide a layer of abstraction and security by controlling the data that users can access and the operations they can perform on it. They also simplify complex queries by predefining commonly used joins and aggregations.

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  • 4. 

    A relational Database management system must:Provide a method for differentiating between unknown values (____) and ____ or _____.

    Correct Answer(s)
    nulls, zero, blank
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must provide a method for differentiating between unknown values (nulls) and zero or blank. This is important because null represents the absence of a value, while zero and blank are actual values. Being able to differentiate between these allows for accurate data representation and analysis in the database system.

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  • 5. 

    A relational Database management system must:Support mechanisms for _______ and authorization

    Correct Answer(s)
    security
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must support mechanisms for security and authorization to ensure that only authorized users can access and modify the data stored in the database. This includes implementing user authentication to verify the identity of users, as well as access control mechanisms to define what actions each user is allowed to perform on the database. Additionally, the DBMS should provide encryption and data integrity features to protect the confidentiality and integrity of the data.

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  • 6. 

    A relational Database management system must:Support mechanisms for security and ____________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    authorization
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must support mechanisms for security and authorization to ensure that only authorized users can access and manipulate the data stored in the database. This includes implementing user authentication, role-based access control, and permissions management to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data. By having proper authorization mechanisms in place, the database system can enforce access restrictions and prevent unauthorized actions, ensuring the overall security of the database.

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  • 7. 

    A relational Database management system must:Support the main relational operations (selection, projection, and join) and set operations such as _____, ____________, __________, and __________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    union, intersection, difference, division
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must support the main relational operations such as selection, projection, and join. In addition, it should also support set operations such as union, intersection, difference, and division. These set operations allow for combining, comparing, and manipulating data from different tables or queries. The union operation combines the result sets of two or more queries, the intersection operation returns the common rows between two result sets, the difference operation returns the rows that are present in one result set but not in the other, and the division operation is used to retrieve rows from one table that match all values in another table.

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  • 8. 

    A relational Database management system must:Protect data-________ through ___________ and __________ procedures.

    Correct Answer(s)
    integrity, transactions, recovery
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must protect data through integrity, transactions, and recovery procedures. Integrity ensures that the data is accurate and consistent by enforcing rules and constraints. Transactions allow multiple operations to be grouped together as a single unit, ensuring that either all changes are made or none at all. Recovery procedures ensure that in the event of a failure, the database can be restored to a consistent state by using backups and transaction logs.

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  • 9. 

    Most relational databases support features needed in the commercial world: stored ________, _______, and SQL _________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    procedures, triggers, functions
    Explanation
    Most relational databases support stored procedures, triggers, and SQL functions. These features are essential in the commercial world as they allow for the execution of complex operations and logic within the database itself. Stored procedures provide a way to store and execute sets of SQL statements, allowing for reusable and efficient code. Triggers are used to automatically perform actions based on specific events or conditions in the database. SQL functions, on the other hand, are reusable code blocks that can accept parameters and return a value, providing additional functionality and flexibility in querying and manipulating data.

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  • 10. 

    ___ is the language in which one "_______" ________ database.

    Correct Answer(s)
    SQL, speaks, relational
    Explanation
    SQL is the language used to communicate with and manipulate relational databases. It allows users to create, retrieve, update, and delete data from a relational database. The term "speaks" is metaphorically used to imply that SQL is the language through which users interact with the database. By using SQL commands, users can perform various operations on the data stored in a relational database. Therefore, the correct answer is SQL, speaks, relational.

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  • 11. 

    Relational expert C.J. Date gives this informal definition of a relational database management system, or DBMS: It represents all information in the database as ________.It supports the three ________ operations, known as _________, ____________, and _______, for specifying exactly what data you want to see (and it can carry out these operations without requiring the system to store its data _________ in any particular form.

    Correct Answer(s)
    tables, relational, selection, projection, join, physically
    Explanation
    A relational database management system (DBMS) represents all information in the database as tables. It supports three operations: selection, projection, and join. These operations allow users to specify exactly what data they want to see. The DBMS can carry out these operations without requiring the system to store its data physically in any particular form.

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  • 12. 

    Dr. E. F. Codd, the inventor of the relational model has 12 rules that the relational model must meet, known as "Codd's rules".  To be considered fully relational, a relational database management system must:1) Represent all information in the database as ______2) Keep the logical representation of the data independent from its __________ storage characteristics3) Use one ____-level language for structuring, querying, and changing the information in the database4) Support the main relational operations (_________, ______, _____) and set operations such as _______, ____________, _________, and _________.5) Support _____, which allow the user to specify alternative ways of looking at data in tables6) Provide a method for differentiating between unknown values (____) and ____ or ______.7) Support mechanisms for s_______ and a__________8) Protect data integrity through __________ and ________ procedures

    Correct Answer(s)
    tables, physical, high, selection, projection, join, union, intersection, difference, division, views, nulls, zero, blank, security, authorization, transactions, recovery
    Explanation
    Dr. E. F. Codd's 12 rules for the relational model state that a fully relational database management system must meet certain criteria. These criteria include representing all information in the database as tables, keeping the logical representation of the data independent from its physical storage characteristics, using one high-level language for structuring, querying, and changing the information, supporting main relational operations such as selection, projection, and join, as well as set operations like union, intersection, difference, and division. The system should also support views, which allow the user to specify alternative ways of looking at data in tables. It should provide a method for differentiating between unknown values (nulls) and zero or blank values. Additionally, it should support mechanisms for security and authorization, as well as transactions and recovery to protect data integrity.

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  • 13. 

    A primary key is also known as a _______ ____________

    Correct Answer(s)
    unique identifier
    Explanation
    A primary key is a field or combination of fields in a database table that uniquely identifies each record in the table. It ensures that each record has a unique value, which helps in uniquely identifying and accessing specific records in the table. Therefore, a primary key is also known as a unique identifier.

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  • 14. 

    A unique identifier is also known as a ________ ____.

    Correct Answer(s)
    primary key
    Explanation
    A unique identifier is also known as a primary key because it is a field or combination of fields that uniquely identifies each record in a database table. The primary key ensures that each record in the table is unique and serves as a reference point for linking and retrieving data from other tables. By using a primary key, it becomes easier to manage and organize data in a database system.

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  • 15. 

    A set of related tables forms a __________

    Correct Answer(s)
    database
    Explanation
    A set of related tables forms a database. A database is a structured collection of data that is organized and stored in a way that allows for efficient retrieval, management, and manipulation of the data. Tables within a database are used to store and organize specific types of data, and they are related to each other through relationships defined by keys and foreign keys. By grouping related tables together, a database provides a comprehensive and organized system for storing and managing large amounts of data.

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  • 16. 

    Each table consists of a set of _____ and ________.  Each row describes one occurrence of an ______ - a person, a company, a sale or some other thing.  Each column describes one _____________ of the entity -- a person's name or address.

    Correct Answer(s)
    rows, columns, entity, characteristic
    Explanation
    Tables are used to organize and store data in a structured manner. In this case, the given answer correctly identifies the components of a table. Rows represent individual occurrences or instances of an entity, such as a person or a sale. Columns, on the other hand, describe the characteristics or attributes of the entity, such as a person's name or address. By organizing data into rows and columns, tables provide a systematic way to store and retrieve information.

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  • 17. 

    Each data element or ______, can be identified as the ___________ of a row and a column.

    Correct Answer(s)
    value, intersection
    Explanation
    In a table or matrix structure, each data element is referred to as a value. These values can be identified by their position, which is the intersection of a specific row and column. Therefore, the correct answer is "value, intersection."

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  • 18. 

    There are two types of tables in a relational database: ______ tables and ________ tables.  ________ tables contain the information.  __________ tables, also known as the _______ catalog contain the database description.

    Correct Answer(s)
    user, system, user, system, system
    Explanation
    In a relational database, there are two types of tables: user tables and system tables. User tables contain the actual information stored in the database, while system tables, also known as the system catalog, contain the description of the database.

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  • 19. 

    You may want to improve performance, efficiency, or ease of use by changing the method by which the system locates the physical data.  These methods are referred to generically as ________ strategies, which often make use of ________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    access. indexes
    Explanation
    The question is asking about the methods used to improve performance, efficiency, or ease of use in locating physical data in a system. These methods are referred to as "access" strategies, and they often make use of "indexes". Indexes are data structures that store pointers to the physical location of data, allowing for faster retrieval and manipulation of data.

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  • 20. 

    ________ independence means that relationships among tables, columns, and rows can change without impairing the function of application programs and ad hoc (on-the-fly) queries.

    Correct Answer(s)
    logical
    Explanation
    Logical independence refers to the ability to modify the structure and organization of the database without affecting the functionality of application programs and ad hoc queries. This means that changes to the relationships between tables, columns, and rows can be made without breaking or disrupting the existing applications and queries that rely on the database. In other words, logical independence allows for flexibility and adaptability in the database design, ensuring that modifications can be made without causing any negative impact on the overall system.

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  • 21. 

    ________ _____ independence means that the representation of the data - the user's eye view - is completely independent of how the data is physically stored.

    Correct Answer(s)
    physical, data
    Explanation
    Data independence refers to the concept that the way data is stored physically should not affect how it is represented to the user. In other words, the user's perspective or view of the data should remain consistent regardless of any changes in the physical storage of the data. This ensures that modifications or alterations in the physical structure of the data do not impact the way it is accessed, manipulated, or interpreted by the user. Therefore, "physical" and "data" independence refers to the idea that the representation of the data remains unaffected by its physical storage.

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  • 22. 

    The definition of a relational system and Codd's rules require that a single language -- sometimes called a ___________ ___ sublanguage -- be able to handle all communications with the database.  In the commercial world of relational database management, that language is ___.

    Correct Answer(s)
    comprehensive, data, SQL
    Explanation
    In a relational system, a single language known as a comprehensive sublanguage is required to handle all communications with the database, as per Codd's rules. In the commercial world of relational database management, this language is SQL (Structured Query Language). SQL allows users to interact with the database by querying and manipulating data, defining database structures, and performing various other tasks. It is a widely used language in the field of database management systems.

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  • 23. 

    SQL is used for three kinds of operations:

    • A.

      Data Manipulation

    • B.

      Data definition

    • C.

      Data administration

    • D.

      Data projection

    • E.

      Data Selection

    • F.

      Data Convergence

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Data Manipulation
    B. Data definition
    C. Data administration
    Explanation
    SQL is a programming language used for managing and manipulating relational databases. Data Manipulation refers to operations that modify or retrieve data from the database, such as inserting, updating, or deleting records. Data definition involves creating and modifying the structure of the database, including tables, views, and indexes. Data administration refers to tasks related to managing and controlling access to the database, such as creating user accounts and setting permissions. Therefore, the correct answer includes all three of these operations.

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  • 24. 

    Every manipulation, definition, or administrative operation is expressed as a SQL ________ or ___________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    statement, command
    Explanation
    In SQL, every manipulation, definition, or administrative operation is expressed as a SQL statement or command. These statements or commands are used to perform various actions on a database, such as retrieving data, inserting records, updating data, deleting records, creating tables, altering table structures, and managing user permissions. They provide a way to interact with the database and perform operations based on the desired outcome.

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  • 25. 

    There are two varieties of ____ _________ operation, collectively called DML, ____ _______ language:Data _________ : finding the particular data you wantData __________: adding, removing, or changing the data

    Correct Answer(s)
    data, manipulation, retrieval, modification
    Explanation
    The question is asking for the two varieties of a specific type of operation, known as DML, in a data language. The first variety is data manipulation, which involves adding, removing, or changing the data. The second variety is data retrieval, which focuses on finding the particular data that is desired. Therefore, the correct answer is "data, manipulation, retrieval, modification."

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  • 26. 

    Data retrieval operations (often called _______) search the database.All SQL queries are expressed using the keyword _______.

    Correct Answer(s)
    queries, SELECT
    Explanation
    Data retrieval operations in databases are commonly referred to as queries. These queries are used to search and retrieve specific data from the database. In SQL, all queries are expressed using the keyword SELECT. This keyword is used to specify which columns and rows of data should be retrieved from the database. Therefore, the correct answer is queries, SELECT.

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  • 27. 

    Other SQL commands, classified as ____ _________ language or DDL, perform data definition operations, such as creating or removing objects like tables, indexes and views.

    Correct Answer(s)
    data, definition
    Explanation
    Other SQL commands, classified as data definition language or DDL, perform data definition operations, such as creating or removing objects like tables, indexes, and views. These commands are used to define the structure of the database and its objects, rather than manipulating or retrieving data. Examples of DDL commands include CREATE, ALTER, and DROP, which are used to create, modify, and delete database objects respectively. These commands are essential for managing the database schema and ensuring the integrity and organization of the data.

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  • 28. 

    Data __________, or data _________ commands allow you to coordinate the use of the database and maintain it in its most efficient state.

    Correct Answer(s)
    administration, control
    Explanation
    Data administration and data control commands are used to manage and regulate the use of a database, ensuring that it is maintained in an efficient state. Data administration involves tasks such as creating and managing user accounts, defining data access permissions, and monitoring database performance. On the other hand, data control commands are used to manipulate and organize the data within the database, ensuring data integrity and consistency. By coordinating both data administration and data control, database administrators can effectively manage and optimize the database system.

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  • 29. 

    Three specific data retrieval (or query) operations are part of the definition of a relational database management system.  The relational operations allow you to tell the system exactly what data you want to see.________ selects columns________ (also called restriction) chooses rows_____ brings together data in related tables

    Correct Answer(s)
    projection, selection, join
    Explanation
    The question is asking for the three specific data retrieval operations that are part of the definition of a relational database management system. The correct answer is "projection, selection, join". Projection refers to selecting specific columns of data from a table. Selection, also known as restriction, involves choosing specific rows of data based on certain conditions. Join is used to combine data from multiple related tables into a single result set. These three operations are essential in querying and retrieving data from a relational database.

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  • 30. 

    Views are also called ______ tables, or ______ tables.

    Correct Answer(s)
    virtual, derived
    Explanation
    Views are also known as virtual tables or derived tables. This is because views are not physical tables stored in the database, but rather virtual representations of data that are derived from other tables. Views can be created by selecting specific columns and rows from one or more tables, and they provide a way to simplify complex queries and provide a logical abstraction of the underlying data. By using views, users can access and manipulate data as if they were working with actual tables, without needing to know the underlying structure or complexity of the database.

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  • 31. 

    In order to preserve the integrity of your data, the relational model, and Codd's rules, use the concept of ______ to handle missing information.

    Correct Answer(s)
    nulls
    Explanation
    Nulls are used in the relational model to handle missing information. Nulls represent the absence of a value or the unknown value for a particular attribute in a database table. They allow for the preservation of data integrity by indicating that a specific value is not known or not applicable. By using nulls, the relational model adheres to Codd's rules, which emphasize the importance of accurately representing missing or unknown information in a database.

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  • 32. 

    In most SQL implementations, access and data modification _________ can be controlled on the levels of both tables and columns.

    Correct Answer(s)
    permissions
    Explanation
    In most SQL implementations, access and data modification can be controlled on the levels of both tables and columns. This means that users can be granted or denied permissions to perform certain actions, such as reading, writing, updating, or deleting data, on specific tables or columns within a database. By controlling permissions at these granular levels, database administrators can ensure that only authorized users have the necessary privileges to perform specific operations, enhancing security and data integrity.

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  • 33. 

    The privileged users who bestow permissions are the _______ of databases and database objects (tables and views)

    Correct Answer(s)
    owners
    Explanation
    The term "owners" refers to the privileged users who have the authority to grant permissions on databases and their associated objects such as tables and views. These owners have the ability to control access to the database and determine who can perform certain actions on the data. They hold the responsibility of managing and maintaining the security and integrity of the database by granting appropriate permissions to other users.

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  • 34. 

    Most multiuser systems designate another privileged user, higher on the totem pole than owners, who is often called the ________ administrator, or ___________ administrator.

    Correct Answer(s)
    system, database
    Explanation
    In most multiuser systems, there is a privileged user who has more authority than the owners. This user is known as the system administrator. Similarly, in the context of a database, there is also a privileged user who has higher authority than the owners, known as the database administrator. These administrators play a crucial role in managing and maintaining the system or database, ensuring its smooth operation and security.

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  • 35. 

    _________, is a serious and complex issue in relational database management.  In general, it means the consistency of the data in the database.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Integrity
    Explanation
    Integrity is a serious and complex issue in relational database management. It refers to the consistency of the data in the database. This means that the data in the database is accurate, reliable, and valid. Maintaining data integrity is crucial for ensuring the quality and reliability of the database. It involves implementing constraints, such as primary keys, foreign keys, and check constraints, to prevent invalid or inconsistent data from being stored in the database. Data integrity ensures that the database remains trustworthy and that the information stored within it can be relied upon for decision-making and analysis.

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  • 36. 

    The 1992 ANSI SQL standard provides for _________ in the CREATE TABLE statements that can enforce referential integrity and business rules.

    Correct Answer(s)
    constraints
    Explanation
    The 1992 ANSI SQL standard provides for constraints in the CREATE TABLE statements that can enforce referential integrity and business rules. Constraints are rules that are applied to the data in a database table, ensuring that it meets certain requirements or conditions. By using constraints, it is possible to enforce relationships between tables, define uniqueness of values, and enforce business rules, such as data validation or data integrity. These constraints help maintain the integrity and consistency of the data in the database.

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  • 37. 

    The parallel relational model terms to table, row and column are:________, _______ and ___________The related general data processing terms are:_____, _______, and _______

    Correct Answer(s)
    relation, tuple, attribute, file, record, field
    Explanation
    In the parallel relational model, the terms used to refer to a table, row, and column are "relation," "tuple," and "attribute" respectively. These terms are used to describe the structure and organization of data in a parallel database system. In general data processing, the corresponding terms used are "file," "record," and "field." These terms are commonly used in various data processing systems to represent the storage and manipulation of data.

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  • 38. 

    A relational Database management system must:Use one high-level language for __________, _________, and ________ the information in the database.

    • A.

      Structuring

    • B.

      Querying

    • C.

      Restrict

    • D.

      Changing

    • E.

      Querying

    • F.

      Join

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Structuring
    D. Changing
    E. Querying
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must use one high-level language for structuring, changing, and querying the information in the database. This means that the system should have a consistent and standardized language that allows users to define the structure of the database, make changes to the data, and retrieve specific information through queries. This ensures that the database is organized, updated, and accessible for efficient data management and retrieval.

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  • 39. 

    A relational Database management system must:Support the main relational operations (_________, _________, ______) and set operations such as union, intersection, difference, and division.

    • A.

      Selection

    • B.

      Null

    • C.

      Projection

    • D.

      Zero

    • E.

      Merge

    • F.

      Join

    • G.

      Union

    • H.

      Intersection

    • I.

      Difference

    • J.

      Division

    • K.

      Viewing

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Selection
    C. Projection
    F. Join
    G. Union
    H. Intersection
    I. Difference
    J. Division
    Explanation
    A relational Database management system must support the main relational operations (selection, projection, join) and set operations such as union, intersection, difference, and division. These operations are fundamental for manipulating and retrieving data from a relational database. Selection allows for filtering rows based on a specified condition, projection selects specific columns from a table, and join combines rows from two or more tables based on a related column. Set operations like union, intersection, difference, and division allow for combining, comparing, and dividing data sets.

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  • Mar 14, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 10, 2010
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    Pettettc

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