Research Methods And Statistics Midterm

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Research Method Quizzes & Trivia

Midterm practice


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is an example of a business decision maker?

    • A.

      Politician's election consultant

    • B.

      Church pastor

    • C.

      Manager of a non-profit program

    • D.

      Business manager of a consumer goods product

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed in the question can be considered examples of business decision makers. A politician's election consultant makes decisions on campaign strategies and tactics, which can be seen as a business-like approach. A church pastor may make decisions regarding the management and operations of the church, similar to a business manager. The manager of a non-profit program is responsible for making decisions related to the program's goals, budget, and operations. Lastly, a business manager of a consumer goods product is directly involved in making decisions related to the product's marketing, sales, and profitability. Therefore, all of these individuals can be classified as business decision makers.

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  • 2. 

    The acronym, RFP, stands for _____ and refers to the document used to invite research firms to propose ideas for addressing the research needs of the organization.

    • A.

      Request for proposal

    • B.

      Recency frequency population

    • C.

      Research firm proposal

    • D.

      Recognition of problem

    • E.

      Recently formed protocols

    Correct Answer
    A. Request for proposal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Request for proposal". RFP is an acronym that stands for Request for Proposal. It is a document used by organizations to invite research firms to propose ideas for addressing their research needs. The RFP outlines the requirements, objectives, and scope of the research project, and research firms are expected to submit their proposals based on these guidelines.

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  • 3. 

    The problem or opportunity that requires a business decision on the part of the decision maker is called a _____.

    • A.

      Management dilemma

    • B.

      Research problem

    • C.

      Challenge

    • D.

      Measurement approach

    • E.

      Return on business investment

    Correct Answer
    A. Management dilemma
    Explanation
    A management dilemma refers to a situation where a decision maker is faced with a problem or opportunity that requires a business decision. It is a challenging situation that requires careful consideration and analysis in order to make the best decision for the business. This term emphasizes the complexity and importance of the decision-making process in business management.

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  • 4. 

    Northwest Airlines applied mathematical models to determine which customers in its database were currently responsible for most of its profitability and which customers were not currently profitable but had similar characteristics to the most profitable customers. Northwest Airlines utilized _____ to identify these customers.

    • A.

      Computer programming

    • B.

      Data warehousing

    • C.

      Customer relationships management

    • D.

      Data mining

    • E.

      Intervention

    Correct Answer
    D. Data mining
    Explanation
    Northwest Airlines used data mining to identify customers who were currently responsible for the majority of its profitability and also to identify customers who were not currently profitable but shared similar characteristics with the most profitable customers. Data mining involves analyzing large sets of data to discover patterns, trends, and relationships that can be used to make informed business decisions. By utilizing data mining techniques, Northwest Airlines was able to gain valuable insights into its customer base and tailor its strategies accordingly.

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  • 5. 

    The main purpose of a(n) _____ is to share company information and computing resources among internal audiences.

    • A.

      Decision support system

    • B.

      Intranet

    • C.

      Extranet

    • D.

      Internet

    • E.

      Data warehouse

    Correct Answer
    B. Intranet
    Explanation
    An intranet is a private network that is used by an organization to share information and resources among its internal audience. It is designed to be accessible only to employees or authorized users within the organization. Unlike the internet, which is a public network, an intranet provides a secure and controlled environment for sharing company information and computing resources. It allows employees to access internal websites, databases, documents, and other resources necessary for their work. Therefore, an intranet is the most suitable option for the given scenario.

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  • 6. 

    A private network that uses internet protocols and the public telecommunication system to share an organization's information, data or operations the external suppliers, vendors, or customers is called a(n) ____.

    • A.

      Decision support system

    • B.

      Intranet

    • C.

      Extranet

    • D.

      Internet

    • E.

      Data warehouse

    Correct Answer
    C. Extranet
    Explanation
    An extranet is a private network that uses internet protocols and the public telecommunication system to share an organization's information, data, or operations with external suppliers, vendors, or customers. It allows authorized individuals outside of the organization to access specific resources and collaborate with the organization. Unlike the internet, which is open to the public, an extranet is restricted to authorized users only. It provides a secure and controlled environment for sharing sensitive information with external parties while maintaining the organization's privacy and security.

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  • 7. 

    The question, "Should we do business research?" is often stimulated by data from a(n) _____.

    • A.

      Data warehouse

    • B.

      Intelligence system

    • C.

      Decision support system

    • D.

      Intranet

    • E.

      Both b and c

    Correct Answer
    E. Both b and c
    Explanation
    The question "Should we do business research?" is often stimulated by data from both intelligence systems and decision support systems. Intelligence systems provide valuable insights and information about the market, competitors, and industry trends, which can prompt the need for further research. Decision support systems, on the other hand, offer analytical tools and data that can help in making informed business decisions, which may also require conducting research. Therefore, both intelligence systems and decision support systems contribute to the motivation for conducting business research.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is not a possible source of business intelligence?

    • A.

      Competitor web sites

    • B.

      Government reports

    • C.

      Business research reports

    • D.

      Clipping services

    • E.

      All of the above are possible sources

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are possible sources
    Explanation
    All of the options listed in the question, including competitor web sites, government reports, business research reports, and clipping services, are possible sources of business intelligence. This means that none of these options can be considered as not a possible source of business intelligence.

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  • 9. 

    Recordings of public proceedings, speeches by elected officials, and information on agency web sites are all examples of business intelligence available from _____ sources.

    • A.

      Competitive

    • B.

      Cultural

    • C.

      Government

    • D.

      Demographic

    • E.

      Tecnological

    Correct Answer
    C. Government
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Government." This is because recordings of public proceedings, speeches by elected officials, and information on agency websites are all examples of business intelligence that can be obtained from government sources. These sources provide valuable information about government activities, policies, and decisions, which can be used by businesses to gain insights and make informed decisions.

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  • 10. 

    Intuitive decision makers tend to base business decisions on _____.

    • A.

      Business research

    • B.

      Secondary data

    • C.

      Primary data

    • D.

      Proprietary research

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Secondary data
    Explanation
    Intuitive decision makers tend to base business decisions on secondary data. Secondary data refers to information that has already been collected and analyzed by someone else, such as market reports, industry studies, or government statistics. Intuitive decision makers rely on this existing data to make decisions quickly and trust their instincts rather than conducting their own research or relying on primary data, which involves collecting new data specifically for the decision at hand. Proprietary research, primary data, and business research may also be considered, but the emphasis here is on the use of secondary data by intuitive decision makers.

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  • 11. 

    Visionary decision makers tend to base business decisions on _____.

    • A.

      Proprietary business research

    • B.

      Instinct

    • C.

      Secondary data

    • D.

      Past experience

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Proprietary business research
    Explanation
    Visionary decision makers tend to base business decisions on proprietary business research because this type of research provides unique and specific insights that are tailored to the company's needs. It allows decision makers to gather exclusive data and information about the market, competitors, and customer preferences, which can help them make informed and strategic decisions. Relying on proprietary business research ensures that decision makers have access to the most accurate and up-to-date information, increasing the chances of making successful and forward-thinking business decisions.

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  • 12. 

    Which tier in the hierarchy of business decision makers sees research as the fundamental first step in any business venture?

    • A.

      Base tier

    • B.

      Middle tier

    • C.

      Top tier

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Top tier
    Explanation
    The top tier in the hierarchy of business decision makers sees research as the fundamental first step in any business venture. This is because top-level executives are responsible for making strategic decisions that have a significant impact on the overall direction and success of the company. Research provides them with valuable insights and data that they can use to make informed decisions and mitigate risks. By conducting thorough research, top-tier decision makers can assess market trends, customer preferences, and competitive landscapes, enabling them to develop effective business strategies and allocate resources efficiently.

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  • 13. 

    Minute Maid sees research as the fundamental first step in any business decision and it created proprietary methods for conducting research. At what level of the hierarchy of business decision makers does Minute Maid operate?

    • A.

      Top tier

    • B.

      Middle tier

    • C.

      Base tier

    • D.

      Foundation tier

    • E.

      Information tier

    Correct Answer
    A. Top tier
    Explanation
    Minute Maid operates at the top tier of the hierarchy of business decision makers. This is because they see research as the fundamental first step in any business decision, indicating that they prioritize gathering information and conducting research before making any decisions. This suggests that they are in a position of authority and have the power to make strategic decisions that impact the entire organization.

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  • 14. 

    Some organizations make decisions based on past experience, instincts, or qualitative data collection. These organizations are operating at the _____ tier of the hierarchy of business decision makers.

    • A.

      Top

    • B.

      Middle

    • C.

      Base

    • D.

      Pinnacle

    • E.

      Information

    Correct Answer
    A. Top
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "top." This is because organizations that make decisions based on past experience, instincts, or qualitative data collection are typically led by senior executives or top-level management who have the authority and responsibility to make strategic decisions for the entire organization. These decision-makers are at the highest level of the hierarchy and have the most influence over the direction and success of the organization.

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  • 15. 

    Business research may be considered unnecessary when _____.

    • A.

      Management has insufficient resources to conduct an appropriate study

    • B.

      The risk associated with the decision at hand is low

    • C.

      The information is applicable to the critical decision

    • D.

      Both A and B

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A and B
    Explanation
    Business research may be considered unnecessary when management has insufficient resources to conduct an appropriate study and when the risk associated with the decision at hand is low. In such cases, conducting extensive research may not be cost-effective or beneficial for the organization. If management lacks the necessary financial, human, or time resources to conduct a thorough study, it may be more practical to make a decision based on available information or intuition. Similarly, if the decision carries a low level of risk, the potential benefits of conducting extensive research may not outweigh the costs involved.

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  • 16. 

    When a business research firm provides both quantitative and qualitative methodology expertise and conducts all phases of research from planning to execution and reporting, the firm is considered a(n) _____ firm.

    • A.

      Internal

    • B.

      Interactive

    • C.

      Proprietary

    • D.

      Omnibus

    • E.

      Full-service

    Correct Answer
    E. Full-service
    Explanation
    A full-service research firm is one that offers a comprehensive range of services, including both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. They are involved in all stages of the research process, from planning to execution and reporting. This means that they have the expertise and capabilities to handle all aspects of a research project, making them a reliable and comprehensive resource for businesses in need of research services.

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  • 17. 

    Which term below refers to a research program or technique that is owned by a single firm?

    • A.

      Proprietary

    • B.

      Omnibus

    • C.

      Full-service

    • D.

      Limited service

    • E.

      Internal

    Correct Answer
    A. Proprietary
    Explanation
    The term "proprietary" refers to a research program or technique that is owned by a single firm. This means that the program or technique is exclusive to that particular firm and is not available for use or ownership by any other entity. It implies that the firm has developed and owns the rights to the program or technique, giving them a competitive advantage in the market.

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  • 18. 

    All of the following terms except _____ can be used to describe custom full-service business research firms?

    • A.

      Ad hoc research

    • B.

      Custom-designed research

    • C.

      Custom researchers

    • D.

      Syndicated panel

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Syndicated panel
    Explanation
    The term "Syndicated panel" cannot be used to describe custom full-service business research firms. While ad hoc research, custom-designed research, and custom researchers all refer to the customized nature of the services provided by these firms, a syndicated panel refers to a pre-existing group of individuals or businesses who have agreed to participate in ongoing research studies. This is different from the customized approach of full-service business research firms.

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  • 19. 

    What type of research firm dominates the small research firms operated by a single person or a small staff?

    • A.

      Proprietary

    • B.

      Syndicated

    • C.

      Full-service

    • D.

      Specialty

    • E.

      Internal

    Correct Answer
    D. Specialty
    Explanation
    Specialty research firms typically dominate the small research firms operated by a single person or a small staff. These firms specialize in a specific area or industry, allowing them to provide specialized and niche research services to clients. Unlike full-service research firms that offer a wide range of research services, specialty firms focus on a specific expertise, making them well-suited for smaller operations with limited resources. They can provide in-depth knowledge and insights in their specialized field, making them an attractive choice for clients seeking targeted research solutions.

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  • 20. 

    Specialty firms can establish expertise in all of the following areas except _____.

    • A.

      Methodology

    • B.

      Process

    • C.

      Industry

    • D.

      Incentives

    • E.

      Geographic region

    Correct Answer
    D. Incentives
    Explanation
    Specialty firms can establish expertise in methodology, process, industry, and geographic region because these areas are directly related to their core business operations. However, they may not be able to establish expertise in incentives as it is not a typical area of focus for specialty firms. Incentives are often determined by external factors such as government policies or market conditions, which may not align with the firm's specialization. Therefore, establishing expertise in incentives may not be a priority for specialty firms.

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  • 21. 

    Researchers who study retail shoppers by tracing their footsteps and recording the amount of time a shopper spends reading labels are conducting _____ studies.

    • A.

      Survey

    • B.

      Interviewing

    • C.

      Observation

    • D.

      Focus groups

    • E.

      Empathic

    Correct Answer
    C. Observation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is observation because researchers are tracing the footsteps of shoppers and recording the amount of time they spend reading labels. This suggests that the researchers are observing the shoppers' behavior in a retail setting rather than conducting surveys, interviews, focus groups, or empathic studies.

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  • 22. 

    Specialty research suppliers who provide the screening and recruiting of probability samples for a wide range of survey studies are called _____.

    • A.

      Sampling specialists

    • B.

      Field business specialists

    • C.

      Head hunters

    • D.

      Screeners

    • E.

      Syndicators

    Correct Answer
    A. Sampling specialists
    Explanation
    Sampling specialists are specialty research suppliers who provide the screening and recruiting of probability samples for a wide range of survey studies. They are experts in selecting representative samples from a population and ensuring that the sample accurately reflects the characteristics of the target population. Sampling specialists play a crucial role in the research process by helping researchers obtain reliable and valid data for their studies.

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  • 23. 

    A _____ study combines one or a few questions from several business decision makers who need information from the same population.

    • A.

      Syndicated

    • B.

      Proprietary research

    • C.

      Omnibus

    • D.

      Sampling

    • E.

      Full service

    Correct Answer
    C. Omnibus
    Explanation
    An omnibus study combines one or a few questions from several business decision makers who need information from the same population. This type of study allows multiple parties to gather data efficiently and cost-effectively by sharing the same survey. It is a convenient way to collect information from a diverse group of individuals without conducting separate surveys for each party involved.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is an advantage of using an omnibus study?

    • A.

      Ability to reach a convenience sample of consumers

    • B.

      Cost of less than $2000 per question

    • C.

      Ability to receive full-service research services

    • D.

      Ability to receive results in 24-48 hours

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Ability to receive results in 24-48 hours
    Explanation
    An advantage of using an omnibus study is the ability to receive results in a relatively short time frame of 24-48 hours. This quick turnaround allows for timely decision-making and the ability to gather insights and make informed decisions in a timely manner.

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  • 25. 

    What type of research do trade associations generally conduct?

    • A.

      Basic

    • B.

      Practical

    • C.

      Ad hoc

    • D.

      Applied

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Basic
    Explanation
    Trade associations generally conduct basic research. Basic research is a type of research that is conducted for the purpose of expanding knowledge and understanding a particular subject. It is often exploratory in nature and focuses on theoretical concepts rather than practical applications. Trade associations may conduct basic research to gather information and insights about their industry, market trends, consumer behavior, and other relevant factors. This research helps them to stay informed, make informed decisions, and develop strategies for the benefit of their members.

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  • 26. 

    Which term below refers to norms or standards of behavior that guide moral choices about research behavior?

    • A.

      Politics

    • B.

      Ethics

    • C.

      Standards

    • D.

      Philosophy

    • E.

      Integrity

    Correct Answer
    B. Ethics
    Explanation
    Ethics refers to the norms or standards of behavior that guide moral choices about research behavior. It involves principles and values that determine what is right or wrong in conducting research. Ethics ensures that research is conducted with integrity, respect for participants, and adherence to professional standards. It is important in maintaining the trust and credibility of the research community and ensuring the well-being and rights of participants are protected.

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  • 27. 

    The goal of ethics in research is to _____

    • A.

      To ensure that no one is harmed

    • B.

      To protect researchers from legal liability

    • C.

      Identify what behavior is appropriate

    • D.

      Ensure research sponsors fulfill their legal obligations

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. To ensure that no one is harmed
    Explanation
    The goal of ethics in research is to ensure that no one is harmed. This means that researchers must prioritize the well-being and safety of all individuals involved in the research process, including participants, researchers themselves, and any other stakeholders. Ethical guidelines and protocols are put in place to prevent any physical, psychological, or emotional harm that could result from the research. This includes obtaining informed consent, maintaining confidentiality, and conducting the research in a responsible and ethical manner.

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  • 28. 

    All of the following are unethical activities except _____.

    • A.

      Violating nondisclosure agreements

    • B.

      Revealing the names of research participants

    • C.

      Stating that a survey will take 10 minutes to complete when the actual time is 15 minutes

    • D.

      Invoicing for time that was not spent on the project

    • E.

      Providing incentives for respondents

    Correct Answer
    E. Providing incentives for respondents
    Explanation
    Providing incentives for respondents is not considered an unethical activity. In fact, it is a common practice in research and surveys to offer incentives to encourage participation and ensure accurate data collection. Incentives can include rewards such as gift cards, cash, or discounts, and they are used to motivate individuals to take part in the study. This helps researchers gather a representative sample and enhances the validity of the findings.

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  • 29. 

    Which approach to ethics advocates that ethical behavior should be directed by "duties" regardless of the positive circumstances that might result from behavior that is in contradiction to the duty?

    • A.

      Relativism

    • B.

      Deontology

    • C.

      Empiricism

    • D.

      Utilitarian

    • E.

      Scientology

    Correct Answer
    B. Deontology
    Explanation
    Deontology is an approach to ethics that advocates for ethical behavior to be guided by "duties" rather than the consequences or circumstances that may arise from that behavior. This means that individuals should act morally and fulfill their obligations regardless of any potential positive outcomes that may result from acting in contradiction to their duty. Deontologists believe that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of the consequences they may bring.

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  • 30. 

    When a person follows his belief that one should not lie, and then tells the truth even when it hurts another person, he has illustrated the _____ approach to ethics.

    • A.

      Ethical relativism

    • B.

      Deontology

    • C.

      Empiricism

    • D.

      Utilitarian

    • E.

      Scientology

    Correct Answer
    B. Deontology
    Explanation
    Deontology is an ethical approach that focuses on following moral rules and duties. In this scenario, the person adheres to the belief of not lying, regardless of the consequences or harm it may cause to another person. This aligns with the principles of deontology, as the person prioritizes their moral duty to tell the truth over the potential negative impact on others.

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  • 31. 

    The approach to ethics that relies upon each individual's own sense of morality is known as _____.

    • A.

      Ethical relativism

    • B.

      Deontology

    • C.

      Empiricism

    • D.

      Utilitarian

    Correct Answer
    A. Ethical relativism
    Explanation
    Ethical relativism is the approach to ethics that relies upon each individual's own sense of morality. It suggests that there are no universal moral truths and that moral judgments are subjective and vary from person to person or culture to culture. This means that what is considered morally right or wrong can differ based on personal beliefs, cultural norms, or societal values. Ethical relativism emphasizes the importance of understanding and respecting different perspectives and allows for moral diversity.

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  • 32. 

    Research should be designed such that participants do not experience _____.

    • A.

      Physical harm

    • B.

      Discomfort

    • C.

      Embarrassment

    • D.

      Loss of privacy

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Research should be designed such that participants do not experience physical harm, discomfort, embarrassment, or loss of privacy. This is important to ensure the ethical treatment of participants and to maintain their trust and willingness to participate in research studies. By avoiding these negative experiences, researchers can create a safe and respectful environment for participants, which is crucial for obtaining valid and reliable data.

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  • 33. 

    To ensure the ethical treatment of participants, researchers should do all of the following except _____.

    • A.

      Explain the benefits of the study

    • B.

      Provide incentives to participants

    • C.

      Explain the participants rights

    • D.

      Explain what steps have been taken to protect participants

    • E.

      Obtain informed consent

    Correct Answer
    B. Provide incentives to participants
    Explanation
    Researchers should provide incentives to participants in order to encourage their participation in a study. Incentives can include monetary compensation, gift cards, or other rewards. Providing incentives helps to ensure that participants are willing to take part in the study and that they are not being coerced or unduly influenced. However, it is important for researchers to explain the benefits of the study, explain participants' rights, explain the steps taken to protect participants, and obtain informed consent. These measures are necessary to ensure the ethical treatment of participants and protect their rights and well-being.

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  • 34. 

    Inducements offered to participants as encouragement to participate in research that are disproportionate to the task are considered _____.

    • A.

      Persuasive

    • B.

      Informative

    • C.

      Appropriate

    • D.

      Coercive

    • E.

      Illegal

    Correct Answer
    D. Coercive
    Explanation
    Inducements that are disproportionate to the task can be considered coercive. Coercion involves the use of force or pressure to make someone do something against their will. In this context, offering excessive inducements can be seen as a form of coercion because it may unduly influence participants to participate in research, even if they may not want to or if it poses risks to them. Therefore, the correct answer is "coercive."

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  • 35. 

    _____ occurs when the participants are told only part of the truth or when the truth is fully compromised.

    • A.

      Coercion

    • B.

      Deception

    • C.

      Informed consent

    • D.

      Debriefing

    • E.

      Manipulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Deception
    Explanation
    Deception refers to the act of deliberately misleading or withholding information from participants, either by telling only part of the truth or by fully compromising the truth. This can occur in various situations, such as in research studies where participants are not fully informed about the true purpose or nature of the study. Deception can also be used in interpersonal relationships or in negotiations to manipulate or control others by distorting the truth.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is an appropriate use of deception in research?

    • A.

      To collect data to compile lists for selling something

    • B.

      Develop competitive intelligence

    • C.

      To collect personal information for fraudulent purposes

    • D.

      To prevent biasing the respondents

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. To prevent biasing the respondents
    Explanation
    The appropriate use of deception in research is to prevent biasing the respondents. This means that researchers may use deception in order to gather unbiased and genuine responses from participants. By not revealing the true purpose of the study or the specific hypotheses being tested, researchers can ensure that participants provide their honest opinions and behaviors, without being influenced by their knowledge of the research objectives. This approach helps to maintain the validity and reliability of the research findings.

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  • 37. 

    Deception is considered inappropriate unless _____.

    • A.

      The study's value justifies the use of deception

    • B.

      No alternatives to justification are feasible

    • C.

      It is necessary to protect a third party

    • D.

      The respondents would be biased

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Deception is considered inappropriate unless there are valid justifications for its use. These justifications can include situations where the study's value outweighs the ethical concerns associated with deception, when there are no feasible alternatives to achieve the research objectives, when it is necessary to protect a third party involved in the study, or when the respondents' bias could significantly impact the results. Therefore, all of the above reasons can be valid justifications for the use of deception in certain research contexts.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following situations does not require signed consent forms from participants?

    • A.

      A study of cereal preferences among children ages 9-12

    • B.

      A study of the effectiveness of prescription arthritis medications

    • C.

      A study of travel preferences among frequent fliers

    • D.

      A study that requires information about the medical history of participants

    • E.

      All of the above require consent

    Correct Answer
    C. A study of travel preferences among frequent fliers
    Explanation
    A study of travel preferences among frequent fliers does not require signed consent forms from participants because it does not involve any sensitive or personal information. It is a study that focuses on gathering information about travel preferences, which is not considered a sensitive topic. Therefore, obtaining signed consent forms may not be necessary for this particular study.

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  • 39. 

    Anne is introducing a group of research participants to the study at hand. To ensure adequate oral consent, she should include all of the following components in her introduction except _____.

    • A.

      Research organization

    • B.

      Promise of anonymity and confidentiality

    • C.

      Sponsoring organization

    • D.

      Purpose of the research

    • E.

      Estimate of when the research study will be published

    Correct Answer
    E. Estimate of when the research study will be published
    Explanation
    Anne should include all of the following components in her introduction except an estimate of when the research study will be published. This is because providing an estimate of when the research study will be published is not necessary for obtaining oral consent from research participants. The other components, such as the research organization, promise of anonymity and confidentiality, sponsoring organization, and purpose of the research, are important for participants to understand before giving their consent.

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  • 40. 

    Organizations receiving federal support are required to have a(n) _____ review all research proposals.

    • A.

      Advisory board

    • B.

      Institutional review board

    • C.

      Health and human service board

    • D.

      Scientific methods board

    • E.

      Lawyer

    Correct Answer
    B. Institutional review board
    Explanation
    Organizations receiving federal support are required to have an institutional review board review all research proposals. An institutional review board (IRB) is a committee that ensures the protection of human subjects in research studies. They review research proposals to ensure that they comply with ethical guidelines and federal regulations. The IRB evaluates the potential risks and benefits of the research and ensures that informed consent is obtained from participants. This review process is essential to protect the rights and welfare of individuals involved in research studies.

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  • 41. 

    Institutional Review Boards concentrate on two key areas. One is the guarantee of obtaining complete, informed consent from participants. The other is _____.

    • A.

      Risk/benefit analysis

    • B.

      Value assessment

    • C.

      Scientific importance

    • D.

      Assessment of the fit between the research question and proposed research design

    • E.

      Evaluation of the proposed budget

    Correct Answer
    A. Risk/benefit analysis
    Explanation
    Institutional Review Boards concentrate on two key areas. One is the guarantee of obtaining complete, informed consent from participants. The other key area is risk/benefit analysis. This means that the boards assess the potential risks and benefits of the research being conducted to ensure that the benefits outweigh the potential harm or discomfort to the participants. This analysis helps to protect the welfare and rights of the participants involved in the research.

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  • 42. 

    The guarantee of informed consent can be traced to the first ten points in the _____.

    • A.

      Consumer Bill of Rights

    • B.

      Nuremberg Code

    • C.

      Constitution

    • D.

      5th Amendment

    • E.

      Kyoto Treaty

    Correct Answer
    B. Nuremberg Code
    Explanation
    The Nuremberg Code is a set of ethical principles that emerged from the Nuremberg Trials after World War II. It specifically addresses the issue of informed consent in medical research involving human subjects. The code emphasizes the importance of voluntary consent, the need for adequate information, and the requirement for subjects to have the ability to withdraw from the study at any time. Therefore, the guarantee of informed consent can be traced back to the Nuremberg Code.

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  • 43. 

    All of the following are characteristics of complete informed consent except _____.

    • A.

      The participant must be competent to give consent

    • B.

      Consent must be voluntary

    • C.

      Participants must be adequately informed to make a decision

    • D.

      Participants must be able to consult legal counsel if they wish

    • E.

      Participants should know the possible risks associated with the research

    Correct Answer
    D. Participants must be able to consult legal counsel if they wish
    Explanation
    Complete informed consent requires that participants are competent to give consent, that consent is voluntary, that participants are adequately informed to make a decision, and that participants know the possible risks associated with the research. However, participants do not necessarily need to be able to consult legal counsel if they wish. Legal counsel is not a requirement for informed consent, but participants should still have the opportunity to ask questions and seek clarification about the research.

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  • 44. 

    IRBs exist in order to _____

    • A.

      Guarantee complete, informed consent is obtained from participants

    • B.

      Apply knowledge gained from research

    • C.

      Evaluate the research design chosen

    • D.

      Evaluate the allocation of expenses in the project

    • E.

      Protect the researchers from legal liability

    Correct Answer
    A. Guarantee complete, informed consent is obtained from participants
    Explanation
    IRBs, or Institutional Review Boards, are responsible for ensuring ethical standards are upheld in research studies. One of the key aspects of ethical research is obtaining complete, informed consent from participants. This means that participants must fully understand the purpose, risks, and benefits of the study before agreeing to participate. By guaranteeing complete, informed consent, IRBs protect the rights and well-being of participants, ensuring they are not coerced or misled into participating in research. This helps maintain the integrity and ethical standards of the research process.

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  • 45. 

    When participants are intentionally or accidentally deceived, they should be _____ once the research is complete.

    • A.

      Paid

    • B.

      Debriefed

    • C.

      Thanked

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Debriefed
    Explanation
    When participants are intentionally or accidentally deceived during research, it is important to debrief them once the research is complete. Debriefing involves providing participants with a detailed explanation of the study, including any deception that may have occurred, and addressing any questions or concerns they may have. This allows participants to fully understand the purpose and procedures of the study, and helps to ensure their well-being and trust in the research process. Therefore, debriefing is the appropriate action to take in such situations.

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  • 46. 

    _____ involves explaining any deception, describing the purpose of the study, sharing the results after the study, and providing any medical or psychological attention.

    • A.

      Informed consent

    • B.

      IRB review

    • C.

      Debriefing

    • D.

      Interviewing

    • E.

      Nondisclosure

    Correct Answer
    C. Debriefing
    Explanation
    Debriefing involves explaining any deception, describing the purpose of the study, sharing the results after the study, and providing any medical or psychological attention. This process is essential in research studies to ensure that participants are fully informed about the study and its outcomes. It allows participants to understand the reasons behind any deception used, provides closure after their involvement, and offers any necessary support or follow-up care. Debriefing helps maintain ethical standards and promotes transparency in research.

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  • 47. 

    Debriefing differs from informed consent in that _____.

    • A.

      Debriefing occurs after the study while informed consent occurs before

    • B.

      Debriefing discloses any deception while informed consent does not

    • C.

      Informed consent discloses the purpose of the study while a debriefing does not

    • D.

      Individuals who are not competent to give consent and simply be debriefed

    • E.

      Debriefing guidelines are based on the Nuremberg Code while informed consent guidelines are based on the American Psychological Association's code of ethics

    Correct Answer
    A. Debriefing occurs after the study while informed consent occurs before
    Explanation
    Debriefing occurs after the study while informed consent occurs before. This means that informed consent is obtained from participants before they take part in a study, ensuring that they understand the purpose, procedures, and potential risks involved. Debriefing, on the other hand, takes place after the study is completed and involves providing participants with additional information about the study's objectives, any deception that may have been used, and addressing any concerns or questions they may have. Debriefing is an important ethical practice to ensure that participants are fully informed and treated respectfully throughout the research process.

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  • 48. 

    In a restaurant complaint study, Dr. Jackson used deception to avoid biasing the participants. In this situation, what should Dr. Jackson do once the research is complete?

    • A.

      Apologize

    • B.

      Pay the participants

    • C.

      Debrief the participants

    • D.

      Seek psychological attention for the participants

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Debrief the participants
    Explanation
    After using deception in the restaurant complaint study to avoid biasing the participants, Dr. Jackson should debrief the participants once the research is complete. Debriefing involves providing the participants with a full explanation of the study, including any deception that was used, and addressing any concerns or questions they may have. This is important for ethical reasons, as it allows participants to fully understand the study and ensures their well-being. Apologizing and paying the participants may also be appropriate in certain cases, but debriefing is necessary regardless. Seeking psychological attention for the participants may be necessary if any negative effects were caused by the deception.

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  • 49. 

    How does debriefing interact with the effects of deception?

    • A.

      Debriefing is associated with more positive feelings about the value of research

    • B.

      Debriefing is associated with resentment among those who have been deceived

    • C.

      Debriefing has no effect

    • D.

      Debriefing is associated with dissatisfaction among those who have been deceived

    • E.

      Debriefing negatives any effects of deception

    Correct Answer
    A. Debriefing is associated with more positive feelings about the value of research
    Explanation
    Debriefing is associated with more positive feelings about the value of research because it allows participants to understand the purpose and significance of the study. By providing a thorough explanation of the research objectives and procedures, participants are more likely to appreciate the importance of their involvement and feel that their contribution was meaningful. This can help foster a sense of satisfaction and positive attitudes towards the research process.

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  • 50. 

    Which law was the first to guarantee Americans the right to privacy?

    • A.

      The Bill of Rights

    • B.

      Privacy protection act

    • C.

      Privacy act

    • D.

      Civil rights act

    Correct Answer
    C. Privacy act
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the privacy act. The privacy act was the first law to guarantee Americans the right to privacy. This act was enacted in 1974 and it establishes certain privacy rights for individuals, such as the right to access and correct personal information held by the government. It also regulates the collection, use, and disclosure of personal information by federal agencies. The Bill of Rights, privacy protection act, and civil rights act do not specifically guarantee the right to privacy.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 25, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Nyssa007
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