Quiz One- 3 Major Sociological Theories:

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QUIZ ONE- 3 MAJOR SOCIOLOGICALTHEORIES:


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _________: Ways of looking (a theoretical framework through which scientists study the world.

    Explanation
    A paradigm is a theoretical framework or a set of beliefs and assumptions that guide scientists in their study of the world. It provides a lens or a way of looking at the world, shaping the questions they ask, the methods they use, and the interpretations they make. By adopting a particular paradigm, scientists are able to focus their research efforts and develop a common language and understanding within a specific field of study.

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  • 2. 

    ___________ (defines society as a system of interrelated parts)

    Explanation
    Functionalism is a sociological perspective that defines society as a system of interrelated parts. It views society as a complex organism where each part has a specific function that contributes to the overall stability and functioning of society. Functionalists believe that social institutions and structures exist to fulfill certain functions and maintain social order. They emphasize the interdependence and harmony between different parts of society, and how they work together to meet the needs of individuals and maintain social cohesion.

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  • 3. 

    Adapted from Biology

    Explanation
    Functionalism is a theoretical perspective in biology that focuses on the functions and purposes of biological systems and structures. It emphasizes the idea that organisms are made up of interconnected parts that work together to perform specific functions, contributing to the overall survival and success of the organism. Functionalism understands organisms as complex systems that have evolved to fulfill specific roles and adapt to their environment. This perspective is often used to explain the presence and characteristics of various biological traits and behaviors.

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  • 4. 

    Stresses cooperation, harmony

    Explanation
    Functionalism is a sociological perspective that emphasizes the importance of cooperation and harmony in society. It suggests that society is like an organism, with different parts working together to maintain stability and order. Functionalists believe that social institutions and norms serve a purpose in maintaining social cohesion and fulfilling the needs of individuals and society as a whole. This perspective focuses on the positive functions that different aspects of society serve and how they contribute to the overall functioning and well-being of society.

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  • 5. 

    Family roles = family and economy run smoothly

    Explanation
    Functionalism is a sociological perspective that focuses on the ways in which different aspects of society work together to maintain social order and stability. In the context of family roles, functionalism suggests that when each member of a family performs their assigned roles effectively, it contributes to the smooth functioning of the family unit and the overall economy. This perspective emphasizes the importance of social harmony and cooperation in maintaining the well-being of society as a whole.

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  • 6. 

    Male-instrumental (work, hunting)

    Explanation
    Functionalism is a sociological perspective that focuses on the functions and purposes of social structures and institutions in society. In this context, the answer suggests that the male-instrumental role, which involves work and hunting, serves a specific function within society. This perspective views gender roles as functional for the smooth functioning of society, with each role contributing to the overall stability and well-being of the community.

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  • 7. 

    Female- expressive (nurture, gathering)

    Explanation
    Functionalism is a sociological perspective that focuses on the functions and purposes of social institutions and structures in society. It views society as a system where different parts work together to maintain social order and stability. In the context of the given answer, functionalism suggests that females have a natural inclination towards expressive roles, such as nurturing and gathering, which contribute to the overall functioning and stability of society. This perspective emphasizes the importance of gender roles and how they contribute to the smooth functioning of social institutions.

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  • 8. 

    It’s conservative, and it ignores other options. (critisism)

    Explanation
    Functionalism is a theoretical perspective in sociology that focuses on the functions and contributions of different social institutions to the overall stability and functioning of society. This perspective emphasizes the importance of social order and stability, often overlooking other perspectives and alternative explanations for social phenomena. Therefore, the criticism that it is conservative and ignores other options is valid.

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  • 9. 

    Society is a collection of competing groups

    Explanation
    Conflict theory is a sociological perspective that views society as a collection of competing groups. According to this theory, social order is maintained through power struggles and conflicts between these groups, which arise due to the unequal distribution of resources and opportunities. Conflict theorists argue that social change occurs through these conflicts, as marginalized groups challenge the dominant ones for a more equitable society. This perspective emphasizes the role of power, inequality, and social change in shaping society.

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  • 10. 

                 When you hear this theory, think KARL MARX

    Explanation
    The correct answer is conflict theory. Conflict theory, often associated with Karl Marx, suggests that society is characterized by ongoing conflict and competition between different social groups. It argues that social order is maintained through the dominance of one group over another, and that societal change occurs as a result of this conflict. This theory emphasizes the role of power, inequality, and social change in shaping society.

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  • 11. 

                  Culture and social structures created by ruling class

    Explanation
    Conflict theory is a sociological perspective that suggests that society is characterized by ongoing conflict and competition between different groups and classes. In this context, the given answer suggests that the culture and social structures created by the ruling class are influenced by conflict theory. This means that the ruling class, which holds power and resources, creates a culture and social structures that maintain and perpetuate their dominance, while also creating conflict and inequality with other social groups. This explanation aligns with the principles of conflict theory, which focuses on power struggles and social inequality in society.

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  • 12. 

              Ideas of an age are ideas of the ruling class

    Explanation
    Conflict theory suggests that the ideas and beliefs prevalent in a society are shaped by the dominant ruling class. According to this perspective, the ruling class uses their power and influence to promote ideas that serve their own interests and maintain their position of power. These ideas often perpetuate inequality and social conflict. Therefore, the statement "Ideas of an age are ideas of the ruling class" aligns with the principles of conflict theory, as it implies that the ruling class has a significant influence over the dominant ideas and beliefs of a society.

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  • 13. 

    _______ ______ (views society as being in a constant struggle over scarce resources)

    Explanation
    Conflict theory views society as being in a constant struggle over scarce resources. This perspective emphasizes the role of power and inequality in shaping social relationships and institutions. According to conflict theory, social order is maintained through the dominance of certain groups who control resources and use their power to exploit and oppress others. This theory highlights the inherent conflicts and tensions within society and focuses on the ways in which these conflicts shape social change and inequality.

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  • 14. 

                 Society is built to serve interests of ruling class

    Explanation
    Conflict theory is a sociological perspective that suggests that society is built to serve the interests of the ruling class. According to this theory, social order is maintained through the dominance and control of the ruling class over the working class. This perspective emphasizes the role of power, inequality, and social conflict in shaping society. It argues that the ruling class uses their power and resources to maintain their privileged position, while the working class is exploited and oppressed. Conflict theory highlights the inherent conflicts and tensions between different social groups and the unequal distribution of resources and opportunities in society.

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  • 15. 

                                    Focus on meaning and individual experiences

    Explanation
    Conflict theory is a sociological perspective that focuses on the power struggles and inequalities within society. It suggests that society is made up of different groups with conflicting interests, such as the rich versus the poor or employers versus employees. According to conflict theory, these conflicts and inequalities are the driving forces behind social change. This perspective emphasizes the importance of understanding the meaning individuals attach to their experiences and how these experiences are shaped by social structures and power dynamics.

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  • 16. 

                                              Interplay between individuals and groups

    Explanation
    Conflict theory is a sociological perspective that focuses on the interplay between individuals and groups. It suggests that society is characterized by inherent conflicts and inequalities, particularly between social classes. According to conflict theory, these conflicts arise from the competition for limited resources and power. It argues that social order is maintained through the dominance of certain groups over others, leading to social change and the potential for revolution. Conflict theory emphasizes the role of conflict and power dynamics in shaping social structures and institutions.

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  • 17. 

        ________ ___________ (focuses on how individual interactions between people influence them and how these interactions can impact society)

    Explanation
    Symbolic interaction is a sociological perspective that emphasizes the importance of individual interactions and how they shape individuals and society. It examines how people use symbols, such as language and gestures, to create meaning and interpret the world around them. This perspective suggests that individuals develop their sense of self through social interactions and that these interactions can have a significant impact on society as a whole. Symbolic interaction focuses on the micro-level of analysis, looking at the everyday interactions between individuals rather than broader social structures.

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  • 18. 

    Social reality is what we agree it to be

    Explanation
    Symbolic interaction is a sociological perspective that emphasizes the importance of symbols and language in shaping social reality. It suggests that social reality is not an objective reality that exists independently of individuals, but rather a subjective reality that is constructed through social interactions and shared meanings. According to symbolic interactionism, our understanding of the world is based on the meanings we assign to symbols, such as words, gestures, and objects. Therefore, social reality is what we agree it to be through our interactions and interpretations of symbols.

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  • 19. 

    Culture is created and maintained by how we interact and negotiate

    Explanation
    Symbolic interaction is a theoretical perspective in sociology that emphasizes the role of symbols and language in shaping social interactions and creating shared meanings. It suggests that culture is not something static or fixed, but rather something that is constantly created and maintained through our interactions and negotiations with others. This perspective highlights the importance of communication, interpretation, and the use of symbols in shaping our understanding of the world and our place within it.

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  • 20. 

    Human interaction is based on symbols

    Explanation
    Symbolic interaction is a sociological perspective that suggests that human interaction is based on symbols. According to this theory, individuals create and interpret symbols to give meaning to their social interactions. These symbols can be verbal or nonverbal, such as language, gestures, or objects. Symbolic interactionism emphasizes the importance of shared meanings and interpretations in shaping social behavior and relationships. It suggests that individuals act based on their understanding of the symbols used in a particular situation, and these symbols can vary across different cultures and contexts.

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  • 21. 

    We must know the rules

    Explanation
    Symbolic interaction is a sociological perspective that focuses on the role of symbols and language in shaping social interactions and the construction of meaning. It emphasizes the importance of shared symbols, gestures, and language in communication and understanding between individuals. In order to effectively engage in symbolic interaction, one must be aware of the rules and norms that govern social interactions. This knowledge allows individuals to interpret and respond appropriately to the symbols and meanings conveyed in social situations. Therefore, the statement "We must know the rules" aligns with the concept of symbolic interaction.

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  • 22. 

    We change (over time & through experiences

  • 23. 

    _________: small-scale reference focuses our attention on the individual. _______, large-scale, incluseds how history & social structure affect the individual

    Explanation
    The terms "micro" and "macro" refer to different levels of analysis in sociology. "Micro" refers to small-scale analysis that focuses on individuals and their interactions. On the other hand, "macro" refers to large-scale analysis that considers broader social structures and historical factors that influence individuals. Therefore, the given answer correctly identifies the terms that represent small-scale (micro) and large-scale (macro) analysis in sociology.

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  • 24. 

    ·  ___________ was born out of changes in Western Europe in late 18 early 19 century and need to understand industrial society

    Explanation
    Sociology was born out of changes in Western Europe in the late 18th and early 19th century and the need to understand industrial society. During this time, rapid industrialization and urbanization led to significant social and economic transformations. Sociology emerged as a discipline to study and analyze these changes, focusing on the social relationships, institutions, and structures that shape society. It sought to explain the social consequences of industrialization and provide insights into how societies function and evolve.

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