# Quarter 2 Practice Asssessment

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• 1.

### The layer of the Earth that is thin and solid is the

• A.

Mantle

• B.

Mesosphere

• C.

Core

• D.

Crust

D. Crust
Explanation
The crust is the correct answer because it is the outermost layer of the Earth and is relatively thin and solid compared to the other layers. It is composed of solid rock and is divided into two types: continental crust and oceanic crust. The continental crust is thicker and less dense, while the oceanic crust is thinner and denser. The crust is where we live and where most geological activity, such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, occur.

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• 2.

### The middle (between the top and center) layer of the Earth is the

• A.

Mantle

• B.

Crust

• C.

Core

• D.

Mesospehre

A. Mantle
Explanation
The middle layer of the Earth, known as the mantle, is located between the top layer (crust) and the center (core). The mantle is composed of solid rock and is the thickest layer of the Earth. It is responsible for the movement of tectonic plates and convection currents, which play a crucial role in shaping the Earth's surface and driving geological activity such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

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• 3.

### What happens to temperature as you go deeper into the Earth

• A.

It varies

• B.

It stays the same

• C.

It decreases

• D.

It increases

D. It increases
Explanation
As you go deeper into the Earth, the temperature increases. This is because the Earth's core is extremely hot, with temperatures reaching up to 5,500 degrees Celsius. The heat in the core is generated by the radioactive decay of elements and residual heat from the planet's formation. As you move closer to the core, the temperature gradually rises due to the intense heat and pressure. Therefore, the correct answer is that the temperature increases as you go deeper into the Earth.

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• 4.

### The layer that acts as both a liquid and a solid is the

• A.

Mantle

• B.

Core

• C.

Crust

• D.

Mesosphere

A. Mantle
Explanation
The mantle is the layer of the Earth that lies between the crust and the core. It is composed of solid rock material, but under high temperatures and pressures, it can behave like a thick, slow-moving liquid. This property allows the mantle to flow and convect, which plays a crucial role in driving plate tectonics and shaping the Earth's surface. Therefore, the mantle acts as both a solid and a liquid, making it the correct answer.

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• 5.

### The metallic (made of metal) layer of the Earth is the

• A.

Crust

• B.

Core

• C.

Mantle

• D.

Asthenosphere

B. Core
Explanation
The metallic layer of the Earth refers to the core. The core is composed mainly of iron and nickel and is divided into two parts: the inner core and the outer core. The inner core is solid, while the outer core is in a liquid state. The core is responsible for generating the Earth's magnetic field and plays a crucial role in the planet's internal heat distribution. Therefore, the core is the correct answer.

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• 6.

### Ice cubes floating on water is like

• A.

The crust floating on the core

• B.

The crust floating on the mantle

• C.

Continents floating on the ocean

• D.

The mantle on top of the core

B. The crust floating on the mantle
Explanation
The correct answer is "the crust floating on the mantle". This analogy compares the ice cubes floating on water to the Earth's crust floating on the mantle. Just like the ice cubes are less dense than water and float on its surface, the Earth's crust is less dense than the mantle and "floats" on top of it. This analogy helps to understand the relationship between the Earth's crust and mantle in terms of density and buoyancy.

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• 7.

### The most dense layer of the Earth is the

• A.

Mantle

• B.

Core

• C.

Crust

• D.

Atmosphere

B. Core
Explanation
The core is the most dense layer of the Earth. It is composed of two parts: the outer core and the inner core. The outer core is liquid and made up of molten iron and nickel, while the inner core is solid and consists mainly of iron. The high density of the core is due to the heavy elements present in it. The mantle, crust, and atmosphere are less dense compared to the core.

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• 8.

### The super continent that existed 250 million years ago was called

• A.

Gonwanaland

• B.

Pangaea

• C.

Panalastic

• D.

The United States of America

B. Pangaea
Explanation
Pangaea is the correct answer because it was the name given to the supercontinent that existed around 250 million years ago. Pangaea was a large landmass that included all of Earth's present-day continents merged together. This supercontinent began to break apart and drift apart, eventually forming the continents we know today.

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• 9.

### One piece of evidence for Pangaea was

• A.

People are found on all landmasses.

• B.

A land bridge was found that connected South America to Africa.

• C.

One piece of an organism was found in South America, and the other piece was found on Africa.

• D.

The same fossil was found on different landmasses.

D. The same fossil was found on different landmasses.
Explanation
The correct answer is "the same fossil was found on different landmasses." This evidence supports the theory of Pangaea because it suggests that the landmasses were once connected and that the same species existed across these landmasses. The presence of the same fossil in different locations indicates that these landmasses were once part of a larger supercontinent, supporting the idea of Pangaea.

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• 10.

### The fact that the Mesosaurus fossil was found on two sides of an ocean is the result of

• A.

A land bridge

• B.

Earthquakes

• C.

The Mesosourus swimming across the ocean

• D.

The movement of tectonic plates

D. The movement of tectonic plates
Explanation
The correct answer is the movement of tectonic plates. This explanation suggests that the Mesosaurus fossil being found on two sides of an ocean is due to the movement of tectonic plates. Over time, the continents have shifted and drifted apart due to the movement of these plates, resulting in the fossil being found on different sides of the ocean. This explanation aligns with the theory of plate tectonics, which explains the movement and interaction of the Earth's lithosphere.

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• 11.

### The idea that landmasses slowly move over the Earth's surface is called

• A.

Pangaea

• B.

Continental drift

• C.

Plate tectonics

• D.

Landmass movement

B. Continental drift
Explanation
Continental drift refers to the theory that suggests that the Earth's continents were once joined together in a single supercontinent called Pangaea, and have since moved apart over millions of years. This theory was proposed by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century and is supported by evidence such as the matching shapes of coastlines, similar rock formations, and the distribution of fossils across continents. Plate tectonics is a related concept that explains the movement of the Earth's lithospheric plates, which includes the movement of continents. Therefore, the correct answer is continental drift.

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• 12.

### Where two plates rub past each other in opposite directions is a

• A.

Hot spot

• B.

Convergent boundary

• C.

Transform boundary

• D.

Divergent boundary

C. Transform boundary
Explanation
A transform boundary occurs when two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally in opposite directions. This movement causes a lot of friction and stress, leading to frequent earthquakes. These boundaries do not create or destroy crust, but rather transform the landscape by causing displacement along the fault lines. The San Andreas Fault in California is a well-known example of a transform boundary.

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• 13.

### A place where an unusually hot part of the mantle rises through the crust causing volcanic activity is called a

• A.

Hot spot

• B.

Convergent boundary

• C.

Transform boundary

• D.

Divergent

A. Hot spot
Explanation
A hot spot is a place where an unusually hot part of the mantle rises through the crust, causing volcanic activity. This occurs independently of plate boundaries and can create volcanic islands or chains, such as the Hawaiian Islands. Unlike convergent, transform, or divergent boundaries, which involve the movement and interaction of tectonic plates, a hot spot is a localized phenomenon that is not directly related to plate tectonics.

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• 14.

### The place where two plates move apart is called a

• A.

Convergent boundary

• B.

Divergent boundary

• C.

Hot spot

• D.

Transform boundary

B. Divergent boundary
Explanation
A divergent boundary is the correct answer because it is the place where two tectonic plates move apart. This movement creates a gap between the plates, allowing magma from the mantle to rise and form new crust. This process is known as seafloor spreading and can lead to the formation of mid-ocean ridges or rift valleys on land. Divergent boundaries are characterized by volcanic activity, earthquakes, and the creation of new crust.

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• 15.

### Subduction is when

• A.

New crust is formed

• B.

One plate slides under another

• C.

Earthquakes occur along a transform boundary

• D.

New islands are formed

B. One plate slides under another
Explanation
Subduction is the process in which one tectonic plate moves beneath another plate at a convergent boundary. This occurs when two plates collide, and the denser plate sinks into the mantle, while the other plate is forced upwards or forms mountain ranges. Subduction zones are characterized by intense geological activity, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and the formation of deep-sea trenches. Therefore, the correct answer is "one plate slides under another."

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• 16.

### The place where two plates collide is called a

• A.

Hot spot

• B.

Divergent boundary

• C.

Convergent boundary

• D.

Transform boundary

C. Convergent boundary
Explanation
When two tectonic plates collide, it is known as a convergent boundary. At convergent boundaries, the plates are moving towards each other, causing compression and leading to various geological features such as mountain ranges, volcanic activity, and the formation of trenches. This collision can result in the subduction of one plate beneath the other, or the plates can crumple and fold, creating intense pressure and causing earthquakes. Therefore, convergent boundaries are characterized by the collision and interaction of two plates.

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• 17.

### Pieces of the Earth's crust are called

• A.

Continents

• B.

Oceans

• C.

Tectonic plates

• D.

Continents and oceans

C. Tectonic plates
Explanation
The correct answer is "tectonic plates." Tectonic plates are large pieces of the Earth's crust that fit together like a puzzle, covering the entire surface of the planet. These plates are constantly moving, which causes geological phenomena like earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains. Continents and oceans are not individual pieces of the Earth's crust, but rather features that exist on top of the tectonic plates.

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• 18.

### Pieces of Earth's crust move on top of the

• A.

Core

• B.

Mantle

• C.

Ocean

• D.

Lava

B. Mantle
Explanation
The correct answer is "mantle". The mantle is the layer of the Earth located between the crust and the core. It is composed of solid rock that is in a semi-fluid state due to high temperatures and pressure. The movement of the mantle is responsible for the movement of the Earth's tectonic plates, which can cause earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains.

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• 19.

### What  causes the plates to move?

• A.

Convection currents in the mantle

• B.

Ocean currents

• C.

Lava

• D.

Hot spots

A. Convection currents in the mantle
Explanation
The correct answer is convection currents in the mantle. Convection currents occur in the mantle due to the heat generated from the core of the Earth. These currents cause the solid rock of the mantle to move in a circular fashion. As the hot rock rises, it cools and becomes denser, causing it to sink back down. This continuous cycle of rising and sinking creates movement in the plates above the mantle, leading to plate tectonics and the shifting of the Earth's crust.

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• 20.

### The Himalayan mountains were formed because of a

• A.

Hot spot

• B.

Divergent boundary

• C.

Transform boundary

• D.

Convergent boundary

D. Convergent boundary
Explanation
The correct answer is convergent boundary. The Himalayan mountains were formed as a result of the collision between the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates. These two plates are converging, meaning they are moving towards each other. As the Indian plate pushes into the Eurasian plate, it causes the Earth's crust to buckle and fold, leading to the formation of the Himalayan mountain range. This process is known as continental collision, and it is a characteristic feature of convergent boundaries.

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• 21.

### The ring of fire is a ring of

• A.

Only earthquakes

• B.

Only volcanoes

• C.

Only rift valleys

• D.

Volcanoes and earthquakes

D. Volcanoes and earthquakes
Explanation
The ring of fire refers to a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. It is known for its high seismic activity and is home to the majority of the world's active volcanoes. Therefore, the correct answer is "volcanoes and earthquakes."

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• 22.

### The ring of fire occurs along

• A.

The mid-atlantic ridge

• B.

Plate boundaries

• C.

Hot spots

• D.

Only transform boundaries

B. Plate boundaries
Explanation
The ring of fire occurs along plate boundaries because these are the areas where tectonic plates interact with each other. These interactions can result in various geological activities, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and the formation of mountain ranges. The ring of fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur, and it is primarily located along the boundaries of the Pacific Plate and other surrounding plates. This is why plate boundaries are the correct answer for the occurrence of the ring of fire.

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• 23.

### The mid-Atlantic ridge occurs along a

• A.

Transform boundary where crust is subducted

• B.

Convergent boundary where new crust is formed

• C.

Divergent boundary where sea-floor spreading takes place

• D.

A divergent boundary where subduction takes place

C. Divergent boundary where sea-floor spreading takes place
Explanation
The correct answer is a divergent boundary where sea-floor spreading takes place. The mid-Atlantic ridge is a prime example of a divergent boundary, where two tectonic plates are moving away from each other. As they separate, magma rises from the mantle and creates new crust, which spreads out and forms the sea floor. This process is known as sea-floor spreading and is responsible for the formation of new oceanic crust.

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• 24.

### The process that is continually adding new crust is called

• A.

Earthquakes

• B.

A volcano

• C.

Subduction

• D.

Explanation
Seafloor spreading is the correct answer because it refers to the process where new crust is continuously added to the Earth's surface. This occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where magma rises from the mantle and creates new crust as it cools and solidifies. As the new crust forms, it pushes the older crust away from the ridge, causing the seafloor to spread apart. This process is a key component of plate tectonics and contributes to the movement and formation of continents.

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• 25.

### A map of global earthquakes and volcanoes can tell you

• A.

Where the Earth is the hottest

• B.

Nothing, it looks random

• C.

Where the plate boundaries are

• D.

Where the edges of continents are

C. Where the plate boundaries are
Explanation
A map of global earthquakes and volcanoes can tell you where the plate boundaries are. This is because earthquakes and volcanoes are often found along the boundaries between tectonic plates, where the Earth's crust is moving and interacting. By mapping the locations of these seismic and volcanic activities, scientists can identify the plate boundaries and gain a better understanding of the Earth's tectonic activity.

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• 26.

### Igneous rock that cools very quickly will have

• A.

Large crystals

• B.

Small or no crystals

• C.

Fossils

• D.

Bands

B. Small or no crystals
Explanation
When igneous rock cools quickly, there is not enough time for large crystals to form. The rapid cooling prevents the minerals in the rock from arranging themselves into a regular pattern, resulting in small or no crystals. This is because the atoms do not have enough time to migrate and form larger crystal structures. Therefore, igneous rocks that cool rapidly tend to have a fine-grained texture with small or no visible crystals.

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• 27.

### The type of rock that most often has fossils in it is called

• A.

Sedimentary

• B.

Igneous

• C.

Metamorphic

• D.

Intrusive

A. Sedimentary
Explanation
Sedimentary rock is the type of rock that most often has fossils in it. This is because sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and consolidation of sediments, which can trap and preserve the remains of plants and animals. Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten material and are less likely to contain fossils. Metamorphic rocks are formed from the transformation of existing rocks under high pressure and temperature, which can destroy any fossils present. Intrusive rocks refer to igneous rocks that have cooled and solidified beneath the Earth's surface, and they also have a low likelihood of containing fossils.

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• 28.

### Rock that forms from the cooling and hardening of magma or lava is called

• A.

Sedimentary

• B.

Igneous

• C.

Metamorphic

• D.

Coarse grained rock

B. Igneous
Explanation
Igneous rock is formed from the cooling and hardening of magma or lava. Magma is molten rock beneath the Earth's surface, while lava is molten rock that has erupted onto the Earth's surface. As the magma or lava cools, it solidifies and forms igneous rock. This rock type is characterized by its crystalline structure and can have a range of textures, from fine-grained to coarse-grained, depending on the rate of cooling. Igneous rock can be found in various locations, such as volcanic areas or intrusions within the Earth's crust.

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• 29.

### Igneous rock formed when lava erupts from a volcano is called

• A.

Intrusive

• B.

Banded

• C.

Extrusive

• D.

Clastic

C. Extrusive
Explanation
Extrusive igneous rock is formed when lava erupts from a volcano and cools quickly on the Earth's surface. This rapid cooling prevents the growth of large mineral crystals, resulting in a fine-grained texture. Examples of extrusive igneous rocks include basalt and obsidian.

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• 30.

### Heat and pressure deep within the Earth's crust can change any rock into

• A.

Chemical rock

• B.

Sedimentary rock

• C.

Metamorphic rock

• D.

Igneous rock

C. MetamorpHic rock
Explanation
Heat and pressure deep within the Earth's crust can cause the minerals in rocks to undergo physical and chemical changes, resulting in the formation of metamorphic rock. This process, known as metamorphism, occurs when existing rocks are subjected to high temperatures and pressures, causing them to recrystallize and form new minerals. Metamorphic rocks often have distinct textures and can display foliation, which is the alignment of mineral grains in parallel layers. Examples of metamorphic rocks include marble, slate, and gneiss.

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• 31.

### If an igneous rock has very large crystals you know that it formed

• A.

Quickly and inside the Earth

• B.

Slowly and inside the Earth

• C.

Slowly and outside the Earth

• D.

Under water

B. Slowly and inside the Earth
Explanation
If an igneous rock has very large crystals, it indicates that the rock cooled slowly over a long period of time. Large crystals form when the molten rock, or magma, has enough time to slowly cool and solidify underground. This slow cooling allows for the growth of larger mineral crystals within the rock. Therefore, the correct answer is "slowly and inside the Earth."

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• 32.

### Geologists classify metamorphic rock by

• A.

If the rock has bands

• B.

If the rock has fossils

• C.

Where the rock is formed

• D.

The color of the rock

A. If the rock has bands
Explanation
Geologists classify metamorphic rock based on whether the rock has bands. This is because bands in metamorphic rock indicate the presence of different minerals or materials that have been subjected to varying degrees of heat and pressure. These bands are formed during the metamorphic process and provide important information about the rock's history and the conditions under which it formed. Therefore, the presence or absence of bands is a key factor in classifying metamorphic rock.

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• 33.

### The process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together is

• A.

Compaction

• B.

Deposition

• C.

Erosion

• D.

Cementation

D. Cementation
Explanation
Cementation is the process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and bind particles of sediment together. This process occurs when minerals in groundwater fill the spaces between sediment particles and harden, creating a solid mass. Through cementation, sedimentary rocks are formed. Compaction, on the other hand, refers to the process in which sediment is squeezed and compressed by the weight of overlying layers, while deposition is the laying down of sediment by wind, water, or ice. Erosion involves the movement of sediment from one location to another.

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• 34.

### The process by which sediment is pressed together is called

• A.

Erosion

• B.

Compaction

• C.

Deposition

• D.

Cementation

B. Compaction
Explanation
Compaction is the process by which sediment is pressed together. When layers of sediment accumulate over time, the weight of the overlying layers causes the lower layers to become compressed. This compression reduces the pore spaces between the particles, resulting in a denser and more solid sedimentary rock. Erosion refers to the movement of sediment by wind, water, or ice. Deposition is the process of depositing or laying down sediment. Cementation is the process in which minerals precipitate and bind the sediment particles together.

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• 35.

### Generally, a rock is made up of

• A.

Large crystals.

• B.

A mixture of minerals and other materials.

• C.

Small crystals.

• D.

A compound of several elements.

B. A mixture of minerals and other materials.
Explanation
A rock is generally composed of a mixture of minerals and other materials. Rocks are formed through various geological processes, such as cooling and solidification of molten magma, or by the accumulation of sediments over time. These processes result in the formation of different minerals within the rock, which give it its unique composition. Additionally, rocks may also contain other materials such as organic matter or even fossils. Therefore, the correct answer is that a rock is typically a mixture of minerals and other materials.

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• 36.

### What is relative dating?

• A.

Going on a date with a close relative

• B.

Figuring out the actual age of the rock

• C.

Figuring out if the rock is older or younger than the rocks around it

• D.

Using fossils to date a rock

C. Figuring out if the rock is older or younger than the rocks around it
Explanation
Relative dating is a method used to determine the age of a rock by comparing it to the ages of other rocks in its vicinity. It involves examining the position of the rock in relation to other rocks, as well as the presence of certain fossils or geological features. By analyzing the relative order of rock layers and the principles of stratigraphy, geologists can determine whether a rock is older or younger than the rocks around it. This method does not provide an exact age, but it helps establish a chronological sequence of events in geological history.

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• 37.

### Superposition is the idea that

• A.

Organisms evolve over time

• B.

Fossils can be used to age rocks

• C.

Older rocks lie above younger rocks

• D.

Younger rocks lie above older rocks

D. Younger rocks lie above older rocks
Explanation
Superposition is the idea that younger rocks lie above older rocks. This principle is based on the observation that in undisturbed rock layers, the bottom layers are older and the top layers are younger. This is because new layers of sediment are deposited on top of older layers over time. As a result, the youngest rocks are found at the top of a sequence, while the oldest rocks are found at the bottom. This principle is fundamental in the field of geology and is used to determine the relative ages of rock layers and the fossils they contain.

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• 38.

### An index fossil is a fossil that is

• A.

Very rare

• B.

Used to date a rock layer

• C.

Very long lived and found everywhere

• D.

Only lived on Pangaea

B. Used to date a rock layer
Explanation
An index fossil is a fossil that is used to date a rock layer because it is a species that existed for a relatively short period of time but was widespread and abundant during that time. This makes it useful for correlating and dating rock layers in different locations, as the presence of the index fossil indicates that the rock layer was formed during the time when that species existed.

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• 39.

### Which organism came third?

• A.

The ammonite

• B.

The fish

• C.

The seaweed

• D.

The scallop

D. The scallop
Explanation
The correct answer is the scallop. This can be determined by counting the order in which the organisms are listed. The ammonite is listed first, the fish is listed second, and the seaweed is listed third. Therefore, the scallop must be the organism that came third.

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• 40.

### The process by which sediment is laid down is called

• A.

Erosion

• B.

Compaction

• C.

Deposition

• D.

Cementation

C. Deposition
Explanation
Deposition is the correct answer because it refers to the process by which sediment is laid down or deposited. It occurs when eroded materials such as rocks, soil, or sand settle and come to rest in a new location, typically due to the decrease in energy of the transporting medium (such as water or wind). This process is an important part of the geological cycle, as it contributes to the formation of sedimentary rocks and the shaping of landforms.

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• Current Version
• Mar 20, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Jan 11, 2010
Quiz Created by
Marquart

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