Psychology - Life Span - Chapter 4 - Book Work (Pt 1)

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Psychology Quizzes & Trivia

Psychology 237 Life Span


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The third through the eighth week after conception is called the:

    • A.

      Embryonic period

    • B.

      Ovum period

    • C.

      Fetal period

    • D.

      Germinal period

    Correct Answer
    A. Embryonic period
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the embryonic period. This is the stage of prenatal development that occurs from the third through the eighth week after conception. During this period, the fertilized egg, or zygote, implants itself in the uterus and begins to develop into an embryo. Major organs and body systems start to form, and the embryo becomes more recognizable as a human. It is a crucial period of development, as any disruptions or abnormalities during this time can have significant impacts on the baby's health and development.

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  • 2. 

    The primitive streak develops into the:

    • A.

      Respiratory system

    • B.

      Umbilical cord

    • C.

      Brain and spinal column

    • D.

      Circulatory system

    Correct Answer
    C. Brain and spinal column
    Explanation
    The primitive streak is a structure that forms during embryonic development and is crucial for the formation of the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal column. It serves as a foundation for the development of the neural tube, which eventually gives rise to the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, the correct answer is brain and spinal column.

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  • 3. 

    To say that a teratogen has a "threshold effect" means that it is:

    • A.

      Virtually harmless until exposure reaches a certain level

    • B.

      Harmful only to low-birthweight infants

    • C.

      Harmful to certain developing organs during periods when these organs are developing most rapidly

    • D.

      Harmful only if the pregnant woman's weight does not increase by a certain minimum amount during her pregnancy

    Correct Answer
    A. Virtually harmless until exposure reaches a certain level
    Explanation
    A teratogen having a "threshold effect" implies that it is virtually harmless until the exposure reaches a certain level. This suggests that the teratogen does not pose any significant risk or harm below a specific threshold level of exposure. However, once the exposure surpasses this threshold, it becomes harmful and may cause adverse effects on the developing fetus or organs.

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  • 4. 

    By the eighth week after conception, the embryo has almost all basic organs except the:

    • A.

      Skeleton

    • B.

      Elbows and knees

    • C.

      Sex organs

    • D.

      Fingers and toes

    Correct Answer
    C. Sex organs
    Explanation
    By the eighth week after conception, the embryo has developed almost all of its basic organs, including the skeleton, elbows and knees, and fingers and toes. However, the sex organs have not fully formed at this stage. The development of the sex organs occurs later in the pregnancy.

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  • 5. 

    The most critical factor in attaining the age of viability is development of the:

    • A.

      Placenta

    • B.

      Eyes

    • C.

      Brain

    • D.

      Skeleton

    Correct Answer
    C. Brain
    Explanation
    The brain is the most critical factor in attaining the age of viability because it controls and regulates all bodily functions, including respiration and heartbeat. It is responsible for the development and coordination of all other organs and systems in the body. Without a developed brain, the fetus would not be able to survive outside the womb. The brain also plays a crucial role in cognitive and sensory functions, making it essential for the overall growth and development of the fetus.

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  • 6. 

    An important nutrient that many women do not get in adequate amounts from the typical diet is:

    • A.

      Vitamin A

    • B.

      Zinc

    • C.

      Guanine

    • D.

      Folic acid

    Correct Answer
    D. Folic acid
    Explanation
    Folic acid is an important nutrient that many women do not get in adequate amounts from the typical diet. It is especially crucial for women who are planning to become pregnant or are in the early stages of pregnancy, as it helps in the development of the baby's neural tube, which eventually becomes the brain and spinal cord. Folic acid also plays a role in the production of red blood cells and DNA synthesis. Therefore, it is essential for women to ensure they are getting enough folic acid through diet or supplements to support their overall health and the health of their future children.

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  • 7. 

    An embryo begins to develop male sex organs if ________, and female sex organs if _________.

    • A.

      Genes on the Y chromosome send a signal; no signal is sent from an X chromosome

    • B.

      Genes on the Y chromosome send a signal; genes on the X chromosome send a signal

    • C.

      Genes on the X chromosome send a signal; no signal is sent from an X chromosome

    • D.

      Genes on the X chromosome send a signal; genes on the Y chromosome send a signal

    Correct Answer
    A. Genes on the Y chromosome send a signal; no signal is sent from an X chromosome
    Explanation
    The development of male sex organs in an embryo is initiated when genes on the Y chromosome send a signal. On the other hand, the development of female sex organs occurs when no signal is sent from an X chromosome.

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  • 8. 

    A teratogen:

    • A.

      Cannot cross the placenta during the period of the embryo

    • B.

      Is usually inherited from the mother

    • C.

      Can be counteracted by good nutrition most of the time

    • D.

      May be a virus, a drug, a chemical, radiation, or environmental pollutants

    Correct Answer
    D. May be a virus, a drug, a chemical, radiation, or environmental pollutants
    Explanation
    A teratogen refers to any substance or agent that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in a developing fetus. It can include various factors such as viruses, drugs, chemicals, radiation, or environmental pollutants. The statement "may be a virus, a drug, a chemical, radiation, or environmental pollutants" correctly describes the different types of teratogens that can pose a risk to the developing embryo. It is important to note that teratogens can vary in their ability to cross the placenta and cause harm, and the impact can be influenced by factors such as timing and dosage. Good nutrition may help mitigate the effects of some teratogens, but it cannot counteract all potential risks.

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  • 9. 

    Among the characteristics of babies born with fetal alcohol syndrome are:

    • A.

      Slowed physical growth and behavior problems

    • B.

      Addiction to alcohol and methadone

    • C.

      Deformed arms and legs

    • D.

      Blindness

    Correct Answer
    A. Slowed physical growth and behavior problems
    Explanation
    Babies born with fetal alcohol syndrome often experience slowed physical growth and behavior problems. This is because alcohol exposure in the womb can interfere with the baby's development, leading to stunted growth and difficulties in behavior regulation. These babies may exhibit delays in reaching developmental milestones, have trouble with attention and impulse control, and may struggle with social interactions. It is important for pregnant women to avoid alcohol consumption to prevent the harmful effects of fetal alcohol syndrome on their babies.

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  • 10. 

    The birth process begins:

    • A.

      When the fetus moves into the right position

    • B.

      When the uterus begins to contract at regular intervals to push the fetus out

    • C.

      About eight hours (for firstborns) after the uterus begins to contract at regular intervals

    • D.

      When the baby's head appears at the opening of the vagina

    Correct Answer
    B. When the uterus begins to contract at regular intervals to push the fetus out
    Explanation
    The correct answer is when the uterus begins to contract at regular intervals to push the fetus out. This is the start of the birth process, as the contractions help to push the baby out of the uterus and into the birth canal. These contractions gradually become stronger and closer together, leading to the eventual delivery of the baby. The other options mentioned in the question, such as the fetus moving into the right position or the baby's head appearing at the opening of the vagina, are all important milestones in the birth process, but they occur after the contractions have already begun.

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  • 11. 

    The Apgar scale is administered:

    • A.

      Only if the newborn is in obvious distress

    • B.

      Once, just after birth

    • C.

      Twice, one minute and five minutes after birth

    • D.

      Repeatedly during the newborn's first hours

    Correct Answer
    C. Twice, one minute and five minutes after birth
    Explanation
    The Apgar scale is administered twice, one minute and five minutes after birth. This scale is used to assess the newborn's overall health and well-being. By evaluating five vital signs (heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color), the Apgar score helps healthcare professionals determine if any immediate medical intervention is required. The first assessment at one minute after birth provides a quick initial evaluation, while the second assessment at five minutes allows for a more comprehensive evaluation of the newborn's condition and response to any interventions that may have been performed.

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  • 12. 

    Most newborns weigh about:

    • A.

      5 lbs

    • B.

      6 lbs

    • C.

      7.5 lbs

    • D.

      8.5 lbs

    Correct Answer
    C. 7.5 lbs
    Explanation
    Most newborns weigh about 7.5 lbs. This is considered to be the average weight for a newborn baby. It is important to note that newborn weights can vary and range from around 5 lbs to 8.5 lbs, but 7.5 lbs is the approximate average weight.

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  • 13. 

    Low-birthweight babies born near the due date but weighing substantially less than they should:

    • A.

      Are classified as preterm

    • B.

      Are called small for gestational age

    • C.

      Usually have no sex organs

    • D.

      Show many signs of immaturity

    Correct Answer
    B. Are called small for gestational age
    Explanation
    Babies who are born near their due date but weigh significantly less than expected are classified as small for gestational age. This term refers to babies who have not reached their expected weight for the number of weeks they have been in the womb. It is different from being preterm, which refers to babies born before the full 37 weeks of gestation. These small for gestational age babies may show signs of immaturity due to their lower birthweight, but the answer does not mention anything about the absence of sex organs.

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  • 14. 

    Approximately one out of every four low-birthweight births in the US is caused by maternal use of:

    • A.

      Alcohol

    • B.

      Tobacco

    • C.

      Crack cocaine

    • D.

      Household chemicals

    Correct Answer
    B. Tobacco
    Explanation
    Maternal use of tobacco during pregnancy is a known cause of low-birthweight births. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy can restrict the baby's growth and development, leading to a lower birth weight. The chemicals in tobacco smoke can also constrict blood vessels, reducing the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the baby. This can result in various complications, including low birth weight. Therefore, the correct answer is tobacco.

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  • 15. 

    The idea of a parent-infant bond in humans arose from:

    • A.

      Observations in the delivery room

    • B.

      Data on adopted infants

    • C.

      Animal studies

    • D.

      Studies of disturbed mother-infant pairs

    Correct Answer
    C. Animal studies
    Explanation
    The idea of a parent-infant bond in humans arose from animal studies. These studies involved observing the behavior of animals and their offspring, which provided insights into the bond that exists between parents and infants. By studying animal behavior and the ways in which parent animals care for and interact with their young, researchers were able to draw parallels and make inferences about the parent-infant bond in humans. These animal studies played a crucial role in shaping our understanding of the parent-infant bond and its significance in human development.

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