1.
What is the largest number of Friday the 13ths that can occur in a calendar year?
Correct Answer
B. 3
Explanation
In a calendar year, there can be a maximum of 3 occurrences of Friday the 13th. This is because the longest possible gap between two consecutive Friday the 13ths is 35 days, which can happen in the months of February and March. If there were 4 occurrences, it would mean that the gap between two consecutive occurrences is less than 28 days, which is not possible. Therefore, the correct answer is 3.
2.
What letter is commonly used to refer to the set of integers?
Correct Answer
D. Z
Explanation
The letter "Z" is commonly used to refer to the set of integers. This is because "Z" comes from the German word "Zahlen," meaning numbers. It is used to represent the set of all positive and negative whole numbers, including zero. The use of "Z" helps distinguish the set of integers from other sets, such as the set of natural numbers (N) or the set of real numbers (R).
3.
What mathematical field uses Yates' correction for continuity?
Correct Answer
B. Statistics
Explanation
Yates' correction for continuity is used in the field of Statistics. It is a method used to correct the chi-squared test when the sample size is small. This correction adjusts the chi-squared statistic to provide a more accurate result, particularly when the expected frequencies are low. It helps to account for the discreteness of the data and improves the validity of the test. Therefore, the correct answer is Statistics.
4.
In which century was Isaac Newton's "Principia Mathematica" published?
Correct Answer
B. 1600's
Explanation
Isaac Newton's "Principia Mathematica" was published in the 1600's. This work, published in 1687, laid the foundation for classical mechanics and introduced Newton's laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation. It is considered one of the most important scientific works in history and had a profound impact on the development of physics and mathematics.
5.
Which field of mathematics was influenced by the "Seven Bridges of Konigsberg" problem?
Correct Answer
B. Topology
Explanation
The "Seven Bridges of Konigsberg" problem is a famous puzzle that involves finding a route through the city of Konigsberg, crossing each of its seven bridges exactly once. This problem led to the development of topology, which is the branch of mathematics that studies the properties of space that are preserved under continuous transformations. Topology focuses on the concepts of connectivity, continuity, and deformation, making it the field of mathematics that was influenced by the "Seven Bridges of Konigsberg" problem.
6.
Which mathematician founded the American Journal of Mathematics?
Correct Answer
A. James Joseph Sylvester
Explanation
James Joseph Sylvester founded the American Journal of Mathematics.
7.
Which mathematician invented an early calculating machine in the late 16th century?
Correct Answer
C. Leibniz
Explanation
Leibniz is the correct answer because he invented an early calculating machine called the Stepped Reckoner in the late 16th century. This machine was designed to perform basic arithmetic operations and was one of the earliest mechanical calculators. Leibniz's invention laid the foundation for the development of more advanced calculating machines in the future.
8.
Which mathematician is "e" named after?
Correct Answer
C. Euler
Explanation
"E" is named after the mathematician Euler. Leonhard Euler was a Swiss mathematician who made significant contributions to various fields of mathematics, including calculus, graph theory, and number theory. He is particularly known for his work on the mathematical constant "e," which is the base of the natural logarithm. Euler's discoveries and formulas related to "e" have had a profound impact on many areas of mathematics and science.
9.
Which of the following is not a field of mathematics?
Correct Answer
D. Numerology
Explanation
Numerology is not considered a field of mathematics. While mathematics is a systematic study of numbers, patterns, and shapes, numerology is a belief system that assigns mystical meanings to numbers and their influence on human life. It is often associated with astrology and divination rather than rigorous mathematical principles and proofs. Therefore, numerology does not fall under the realm of mathematics.
10.
Which of the following is not a transcendental number?
Correct Answer
A. Square Root Of 2
Explanation
The square root of 2 is not a transcendental number because it is algebraic, meaning it can be expressed as the root of a polynomial equation with integer coefficients. Transcendental numbers, on the other hand, are numbers that are not algebraic and cannot be expressed as the root of any polynomial equation with integer coefficients. Pi, ln(2), and e are all examples of transcendental numbers.
11.
Who gave the first complete proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra?
Correct Answer
A. Gauss
Explanation
Gauss is the correct answer because he was the mathematician who provided the first complete proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra. His proof, published in 1799, demonstrated that every non-constant polynomial equation with complex coefficients has at least one complex root. This groundbreaking result solidified the importance of complex numbers and their role in solving polynomial equations. Gauss's proof was a significant contribution to the field of mathematics and established him as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.
12.
Who was the author of "Mechanica"?
Correct Answer
B. Euler
Explanation
Euler was the author of "Mechanica".
13.
Who pioneered the use of the letter "x" to represent an unknown variable?
Correct Answer
C. Descartes
Explanation
Descartes is credited with pioneering the use of the letter "x" to represent an unknown variable. In his book "La Géométrie," published in 1637, Descartes introduced a system of coordinates and algebraic notation that included using letters at the end of the alphabet, such as x, y, and z, to represent unknown quantities. This notation revolutionized the field of mathematics and is still widely used today.
14.
Who wrote the book "The Joy of Pi" about the mathematical symbol?
Correct Answer
A. David Blatner
Explanation
David Blatner wrote the book "The Joy of Pi" about the mathematical symbol.
15.
What do you call the distance between the center of a regular polygon to one of its sides?
Correct Answer
C. Apothem
Explanation
The distance between the center of a regular polygon to one of its sides is called the apothem. The apothem is a line segment that is perpendicular to a side of the polygon and connects the center of the polygon to the midpoint of that side. It is commonly used in geometry to calculate the area and perimeter of regular polygons.