1.
Earth's dry atmosphere is mainly made up of which gasses?
Correct Answer(s)
A. Oxygen
B. Nitrogen
D. Argon
Explanation
The correct answer is Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Argon. Earth's dry atmosphere is mainly composed of these three gases. Oxygen is essential for supporting life and is responsible for respiration. Nitrogen is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere and plays a crucial role in various biological and chemical processes. Argon is a noble gas and makes up a small percentage of the atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide and Methane, although present in the atmosphere, are not the main constituents.
2.
What percentage is Earth's atmosphere made up of Oxygen?
Correct Answer
D. 21%
Explanation
The correct answer is 21%. Earth's atmosphere is composed of various gases, with the majority being nitrogen (about 78%). Oxygen makes up approximately 21% of the atmosphere. This oxygen is vital for the survival of many living organisms, including humans, as it is essential for respiration and the production of energy in cells.
3.
In accordance with the Gas Law, if V is doubled, then P is
Correct Answer
A. Halved
Explanation
This implies that V is inversely proportional to P. This is Boyle's Law.
4.
Earth's atmosphere is made up of what percentage of Nitrogen?
Correct Answer
B. 78%
Explanation
The correct answer is 78%. This is because nitrogen is the most abundant gas in Earth's atmosphere, making up approximately 78% of its composition. It is an essential element for life and plays a crucial role in various biological and chemical processes.
5.
According to the Gas Law, if T is doubled, then V is
Correct Answer
B. Doubled
Explanation
This implies that T is directly proportional to V. This is Charles' 1st Law.
6.
In accordance with the Gas Law, if T is doubled, then P is
Correct Answer
B. Doubled
Explanation
This implies that T is directly proportional to P. This is Charles' 2nd Law.
7.
The value of R* is _______.
Correct Answer
8.3145
Explanation
The value of R* is 8.3145.
8.
The Gas constant, R, for any atmosphere can be found by dividing R* by the sum of the products of the ___________ .
Correct Answer
Molecular masses and ratios of the gasses
Explanation
R = R* / (m1r1 + m2r2 + m3r3)
9.
The Hypsometric equation relates height to temperature and can be written out as follows: ______ .∫ integral symbol if needed
Correct Answer
z2 - z1 = (-RT/g)ln(p1/p2)
z2 - z1 = (-R/g) * ∫[p1-p2]((T/P)dp)
Explanation
The Hypsometric equation relates height to temperature and can be written out as follows: z2 - z1 = (-RT/g)ln(p1/p2), z2 - z1 = (-R/g) * ∫[p1-p2]((T/P)dp). This equation shows that the difference in height (z2 - z1) is equal to the product of the gas constant (R), temperature (T), and the natural logarithm of the ratio of the initial and final pressures (p1/p2), divided by the acceleration due to gravity (g). It can also be expressed as the integral of the difference in pressure (p1-p2) multiplied by the ratio of temperature to pressure (T/P) with respect to pressure (dp).
10.
Dq = dw + dudq = pdv + dudq = pdα + dudq = pdα + C_{V}dTdq = C_{P}dT - αdpdq = dh - αdpdq = d(C_{PT + }ϕ)These are forms of what Law?
Correct Answer
1st Law of Thermodynamics
Explanation
The given expressions represent different forms of the first law of thermodynamics, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another. The expressions show different ways of representing the change in energy (dq) in terms of other variables such as work (dw), heat (dq), volume (dv), temperature (dT), pressure (dp), and specific heat capacity (Cp). Therefore, the correct answer is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics.
11.
Complete the Ideal Gas law:__ = ρRT
Correct Answer
p
Explanation
The correct answer is "p". In the ideal gas law, "p" represents the pressure of the gas. The ideal gas law states that the product of pressure (p), volume (V), and temperature (T) is equal to the product of the gas constant (R) and the density (ρ) of the gas. Therefore, the correct completion of the ideal gas law is "p = ρRT".
12.
Complete the Ideal Gas Law:pv = n__T
Correct Answer
R*
Explanation
The correct answer is "R*". In the ideal gas law equation, "pv = nRT", "R" represents the ideal gas constant, which is a proportionality constant that relates the pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles of gas in a system. The asterisk (*) is often used to denote a modified or specific version of a constant, so "R*" could represent a modified or specific value of the ideal gas constant.
13.
Complete the Ideal Gas Law:p__ = mRT
Correct Answer
v
Explanation
The correct answer is "v". In the Ideal Gas Law, "v" represents the volume of the gas. The equation states that the pressure of the gas (p) is equal to the mass of the gas (m) multiplied by the gas constant (R) and the temperature of the gas (T), divided by the volume of the gas (v). Therefore, "v" is the missing variable in the equation that represents the volume of the gas.
14.
Work is "path dependent."
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
"Path dependence" refers to the idea that the outcome of a process is influenced by the sequence of events or decisions that led to it. In the context of work, this means that the current state or progress of a project or task is influenced by the previous steps or actions taken. This implies that the path taken to reach a certain point can have a significant impact on the final result. Therefore, the statement "Work is 'path dependent'" is true, as the outcome of work is influenced by the path or steps taken to complete it.
15.
The equation for Work is ∫ integral symbol if needed
Correct Answer
W = ∫[v1-v2]pdV
Explanation
The given equation represents the calculation for work, where W represents work, ∫ indicates integration, [v1-v2] represents the difference in velocities, p represents pressure, and dV represents the change in volume. The equation suggests that work is calculated by integrating the difference in velocities multiplied by the pressure with respect to the change in volume.
16.
What are common paths for work? Check all that apply.
Correct Answer(s)
A. Isobaric
C. Isothermal
D. Adiabatic
Explanation
Common paths for work in thermodynamics include isobaric, isothermal, and adiabatic processes.
In an isobaric process, the pressure remains constant while work is done on or by the system. This can occur, for example, when a gas expands or contracts at a constant pressure.
In an isothermal process, the temperature remains constant while work is done on or by the system. This can occur, for example, when a gas expands or contracts in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings.
In an adiabatic process, there is no heat exchange between the system and its surroundings. Work is done on or by the system solely through changes in its internal energy. This can occur, for example, in a perfectly insulated container.
These three paths represent common scenarios in which work can be done in thermodynamic systems.
17.
When the parcel expands, work is being done on the parcel.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
When the parcel expands, work is not being done on the parcel. Work is defined as the transfer of energy that results in the displacement of an object. In this case, as the parcel expands, there is no displacement occurring, so no work is being done. Therefore, the statement is false.
18.
What is enthalpy a measure of?
Correct Answer
How much energy is contained in a system.
Explanation
Enthalpy is a measure of the total energy contained within a system, including both its internal energy and the energy associated with its pressure and volume. It is a thermodynamic property that helps to quantify the heat exchange between a system and its surroundings during a process. Enthalpy is often used in chemical reactions and phase changes to determine the heat absorbed or released.
19.
What is C_{P}T + ϕ ?
Correct Answer
B. Dry Static Energy
Explanation
CPT + ϕ refers to Dry Static Energy. Dry static energy is the sum of potential temperature (CPT) and geopotential height (ϕ). It represents the total energy of a parcel of dry air in the atmosphere. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air would have if it was brought to a reference pressure level without exchanging heat with its surroundings, while geopotential height is a measure of the height of a pressure surface above a reference surface. Therefore, the correct answer is Dry Static Energy.
20.
Which describe a parcel?A parcel is some piece of air with an indeterminate volume and mass that:
Correct Answer
D. All of the above
Explanation
A parcel is a term used in atmospheric science to describe a small volume of air. It is thermally insulated from its environment, meaning that it does not exchange heat with its surroundings. It also assumes the same pressure as its environment, indicating that it is in equilibrium with the surrounding air. Additionally, a parcel moves slowly enough that its kinetic energy is small compared to its internal energy, implying that its motion is negligible. Therefore, all of the given statements accurately describe a parcel.
21.
To get the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate, you go from:0 = dq = d(C_{P}T + ϕ) to (dT/dz) = (-g/C_{P}) = -9.8 k/km
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate is the rate at which the temperature of a parcel of dry air changes as it rises or sinks in the atmosphere without exchanging heat with its surroundings. The equation (dT/dz) = (-g/CP) represents this rate, where dT/dz is the change in temperature with respect to altitude, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and CP is the specific heat capacity of dry air at constant pressure. The value of -9.8 k/km indicates that the temperature decreases by 9.8 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude increase, which is the standard value for the Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate.
22.
"Adiabatic" implies(Check all that apply)
Correct Answer(s)
B. No heat exchange with environment
C. Conserves Dry Static Energy
D. Conserves Potential Temperature
Explanation
The term "adiabatic" refers to a process in which there is no heat exchange with the environment. This means that the system is isolated from its surroundings and there is no transfer of thermal energy. Additionally, adiabatic processes conserve dry static energy, which refers to the sum of sensible heat and potential energy per unit mass of a parcel of air. Finally, adiabatic processes also conserve potential temperature, which is a measure of the temperature of a parcel of air when it is lifted or lowered without exchanging heat with the environment.
23.
What is potential temperature?
Correct Answer
D. The temperature a parcel could have when it is moved, dry adiabatically, to 1000 mb.
Explanation
Potential temperature is the temperature that a parcel of air would have if it were moved adiabatically (without gaining or losing heat) to a reference pressure level, usually 1000 mb. This process is known as dry adiabatic ascent, where the parcel expands and cools as it rises in the atmosphere. Therefore, the correct answer is "The temperature a parcel could have when it is moved, dry adiabatically, to 1000 mb."
24.
This equation:θ = T(1000mb/p)^(R/C_{P})Is for what value?
Correct Answer
A. Potential Temperature
Explanation
The given equation θ = T(1000mb/p)^(R/CP) represents the potential temperature. Potential temperature is a measure of the temperature that an air parcel would have if it were brought to a standard reference pressure level (usually 1000mb) without changing its moisture content. The equation relates the potential temperature (θ) to the actual temperature (T), pressure (p), gas constant for dry air (R), and specific heat capacity at constant pressure (CP). Therefore, the correct answer is Potential Temperature.
25.
What are good criteria for a useful thermodynamic diagram?
Correct Answer(s)
A. Maximum number of straight lines
B. Coordinates to be measured
C. Vertical coordinate to be approximately height
E. Area to be proportional to energy
Explanation
A useful thermodynamic diagram should have a maximum number of straight lines, which allows for easier interpretation and analysis of the data. The coordinates should be measured accurately to ensure the reliability of the information presented on the diagram. The vertical coordinate should be approximately height, as this helps in understanding the vertical changes in the system. Adiabats and isotherms being parallel make it easier to compare different states of the system. Lastly, the area on the diagram should be proportional to energy, which helps in visualizing and understanding the energy changes in the system.
26.
Where does Potential Temperature come from?(Check all that apply)
Correct Answer(s)
B. 1st Law of Thermodynamics
D. Dq = CpdT - αdp = 0
Explanation
The correct answer is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics. The equation dq = CpdT - αdp = 0 represents the first law of thermodynamics, which states that the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system. This equation is used to derive the potential temperature, which is a measure of the temperature of a parcel of air if it were brought adiabatically to a standard reference pressure level. Boyle's Law and Charles' 2nd Law are not directly related to the concept of potential temperature.
27.
Complete the 1st Law of Thermodynamics:dq = ____ - αdp
Correct Answer(s)
CpdT
dh
Explanation
The complete 1st Law of Thermodynamics states that the change in internal energy (dq) of a system is equal to the heat added to the system (CpdT) minus the work done by the system (αdp), where α represents the volume expansion coefficient. In this case, the answer includes CpdT and dh. CpdT represents the heat added to the system at constant pressure, where Cp is the specific heat capacity at constant pressure and dT is the change in temperature. dh represents the change in enthalpy, which is equal to the heat added or released at constant pressure. Therefore, both CpdT and dh are valid options to complete the 1st Law of Thermodynamics equation.
28.
Complete the 1st Law of Thermodynamics:dq = d(____ + ϕ)
Correct Answer(s)
CpT
Explanation
The equation dq = d(____ + ϕ) represents the first law of thermodynamics, which states that the change in internal energy of a system is equal to the heat added to the system minus the work done by the system. In this equation, dq represents the heat added to the system, and d(____ + ϕ) represents the change in internal energy. The correct answer, CpT, represents the heat capacity of the system (Cp) multiplied by the change in temperature (T), which is a common term used to calculate the heat added to a system.
29.
Complete the 1st Law of Thermodynamics:
dq = pdα + C_dT
Correct Answer(s)
v