A moist enviroment
An acidic medium
Air at a cool temp.
The absence of oxygen
Promotes attachment of the bacteria to tissue.
Protects the microbe from phagocytosis
Increases the release of toxins and enzymes
Prevebrs replication of the bacteria.
Genetic infomation and some microbial characteristics have changed
Pathogens become nonpathogens
The mircrobe survives adverse conditions.
The immune response to the microbe is strengthened
Also be classified as an acid-fast bacterium.
Exist in latent form inside a host cell.
Reproduce very rapidly.
Survive high temperatures and dry environment.
A cell wall and membrane
Metabolic enzymes for replication
A protein coat and DNA or RNA
A slime capsule and cilia.
Budding of a daughter cell from the parent cell
Producing reproductive spores
Using a host cell to produce and assemble components
RNA and enzymes for its conversion.
A double strand of DNA
Many enzymes to control
Interfering with cell wall development
Decreasing cell membrane permeability
Destroying new, immature viral particles
Reducing the rate of viral replication.
Are usuakky considered to be pathogenic
Consist of clusters of cells.
Many cause opportunistic infection in the body
Are normally not found in resident flora.
It is a very small gram-negative intracellular microbe
It exists in three forms
It causes a sexually transmitted disease
It reproduces by budding
Inhaling contaminated particles
Cysts in feces, contaminating food/water
It exists in all areas of the body
Different species inhabit various areas of the body
It is of no benefit to human host
It consists only of bateria
All mucous membranes
Transmission involves an insect or animal host
Infection acquired in a hospital or medical facility
Transmitted by a fomite
Spread by direct contact
Touching a contaminated countertop
Drinking contaminated water
A person with active infections
Animals, insects, objects or surfaces contaminated
An individual who is contagious through infected secretions
A healthy person whose body harbors pathogens and can transmit them to others
Pathogens enter the body but cannot colonize
A member of the resident flora
Host resistance increases
Chronic repiratory disease
Vitamin and mineral supplements
Appropriate inflammatory or immune response
Secretion of endotoxin
Presence of bacterial capsule
Production of interferons
Secretion of invasive enzymes
Attenuated (weakend) or dead pathogens or their toxins
Antibodies for a specific pathogen
Memeort B and T
Chemicals to stimulate the immune response.
As soon as pathogens penetrate
Quickly when microbe replicate
When yhe mircrobial colony is large enough to damage
After the immune system is activated.
Using disinfectants at all times
Not touching any open or bleeding lesions
Sterilizing all instruments
Assuming that all body fluids from all individuals are possible sources of infections.