OS II Exam 1 Physiology Questions - Pt.2

27 Questions | Total Attempts: 50

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OS II Exam 1 Physiology Questions - Pt.2 - Quiz

The study of physiology gives us a chance to understand the normal functioning of a living organism’s body. As we continue in the revision process for the OS II exam 1, I have prepared part two of the physiology practice tests. Why don’t you give it a try and see which topics might be problematic for you? All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Reabsorption of new HCO3- occurs predominately in the late distal tubule and the collecting duct only when
    • A. 

      27. Reabsorption of new HCO3- occurs predominately in the late distal tubule and the collecting duct only when

    • B. 

      B. Urea is recycled

    • C. 

      C. H+ is excreted into the urine

    • D. 

      D. The formation of ammonia from glutamine is inhibited

    • E. 

      E. Mean arterial blood pressure is below 80 mm Hg.

  • 2. 
    Mannitol is an osmotically active solute that is freely filtered but neither reabsorbed nor secreted by the nephron. Which one of the following statements is true?
    • A. 

      A. Mannitol induces an osmotic diuresis

    • B. 

      B. Mannitol is a significant solute in the medullary interstitium

    • C. 

      C. Mannitol increases Na+ reabsorption

    • D. 

      D. The clearance of mannitol equals the clearance of PAH.

    • E. 

      E. Mannitol decreases K+ secretion.

  • 3. 
    Aldosterone stimulates
    • A. 

      A. K+ reabsorption by principal cells.

    • B. 

      B. Urea reabsorption by the cells of the inner medullary collecting duct

    • C. 

      C. ANP release by atrial myocytes

    • D. 

      D. K+ secretion by proximal tubule cells.

    • E. 

      E. Na+ reabsorption by principal cells

  • 4. 
    As GFR increases, the oncotic pressure of the peritubular capillaries increases and the hydrostatic pressure of the peritubular capillaries is reduced. As a result, the percentage of water reabsorption by the proximal tubule is kept constant (67%). This phenomenon is called
    • A. 

      A. Urea recycling.

    • B. 

      B. Autoregulation of the kidney.

    • C. 

      C. Counter-current multiplication

    • D. 

      D. Ultrafiltration.

    • E. 

      E. Glomerulotubular balance

  • 5. 
    In the presence of maximal circulating levels of ADH, the concentration of urea in the tubular fluid increases from the proximal tubule (7 mM) to the tip of the longest loop of Henle (100 mM). In the absence of ADH, the urea concentration at the tip of the longest loop of Henle would be
    • A. 

      A. Less than 7 mM.

    • B. 

      B. 7 mM.

    • C. 

      C. 28 mM.

    • D. 

      D. 100 mM

    • E. 

      E. Greater than 100 mM.

  • 6. 
    Which one of the following slightly dilates the afferent arterioles during extreme vasoconstriction?
    • A. 

      A. Angiotensin II

    • B. 

      B. ADH

    • C. 

      C. Prostaglandin I2

    • D. 

      D. Renin

    • E. 

      E. Increased sympathetic activity

  • 7. 
    Which of the following pressures is increased in the patient who is infused with mannitol, as compared to normal?
    • A. 

      A. Osmotic pressure in the tubular fluid

    • B. 

      B. Hydrostatic pressure in the peritubular capillary

    • C. 

      C. Oncotic pressure in the glomerular capillary

    • D. 

      D. Oncotic pressure in the tubular fluid

    • E. 

      E. Oncotic pressure in the peritubular capillary

  • 8. 
    In the proximal tubule, Cl- reabsorption
    • A. 

      A. Predominately in the first half of the proximal tubule

    • B. 

      B. Directly as a result of Na/H exchange

    • C. 

      C. On a Cl-/glucose co-transporter

    • D. 

      D. On an antiporter that secretes formate anion

    • E. 

      E. Minimally, it is secreted into the tubular fluid of the proximal tubule

  • 9. 
    Drug U blocks urea recycling. Assume enough time has passed for drug U to exert its maximal affect. Which one of the osmolalities below could be found in the medullary interstitium?
    • A. 

      A. 100 mOsm/L

    • B. 

      B. 300 mOsm/L

    • C. 

      C. 500 mOsm/L

    • D. 

      D. 900 mOsm/L

    • E. 

      E. 1200 mOsm/L

  • 10. 
    What one of the following will increase the filtered load of Na+?
    • A. 

      A. Increased hydrostatic pressure of the glomerular capillaries

    • B. 

      B. Hyponatremia

    • C. 

      C. Decreased permeability of the glomerular capillaries

    • D. 

      D. Increased oncotic pressure of glomerular capillaries

    • E. 

      E. Hypoaldosteronism

  • 11. 
    A major difference between cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons is that
    • A. 

      A. The glomerular capillaries of cortical nephrons are located in the cortex; those of juxtamedullary nephrons are located in the medulla.

    • B. 

      B. Only cortical nephrons have peritubular capillaries arising from efferent arterioles

    • C. 

      C. The loops of Henle of the cortical nephrons are entirely in the cortex

    • D. 

      D. Only juxtamedullary nephrons have collecting ducts

    • E. 

      E. Vasa recta arise from the efferent arterioles of juxtamedullary nephrons but not cortical nephrons.

  • 12. 
    The Tm for PAH
    • A. 

      0.15 mg/ml

    • B. 

      1mg/ml

    • C. 

      2mg/ml

    • D. 

      80mg/min

    • E. 

      350mg/min

  • 13. 
    The renal threshold for glucose
    • A. 

      0.15 mg/ml

    • B. 

      1mg/ml

    • C. 

      2mg/ml

    • D. 

      80mg/min

    • E. 

      350mg/min

  • 14. 
    The concentration of glucose in Bowman’s space
    • A. 

      0.15 mg/ml

    • B. 

      1mg/ml

    • C. 

      2mg/ml

    • D. 

      80mg/min

    • E. 

      350mg/min

  • 15. 
                                                    Pin= 0.025 mg/ml       Uin= 5.5 mg/ml                                                 Px= 0.08 mg/ml          Ux= 1.6 mg/ml                                                 V= 0.5 ml/min What is the excretion rate of inulin?
    • A. 

      A. 10 ml/min

    • B. 

      B. 110 ml/min

    • C. 

      C. 0.04 mg/min

    • D. 

      D. 0.8 mg/min

    • E. 

      E. 2.75 mg/min

  • 16. 
                                                    Pin= 0.025 mg/ml       Uin= 5.5 mg/ml                                                 Px= 0.08 mg/ml          Ux= 1.6 mg/ml                                                 V= 0.5 ml/min What is the clearance of solute X?
    • A. 

      A. 10 ml/min

    • B. 

      B. 110 ml/min

    • C. 

      C. 0.04 mg/min

    • D. 

      D. 0.8 mg/min

    • E. 

      E. 2.75 mg/min

  • 17. 
                                                    Pin= 0.025 mg/ml       Uin= 5.5 mg/ml                                                 Px= 0.08 mg/ml          Ux= 1.6 mg/ml                                                 V= 0.5 ml/min Which of the following statements is true of solute X?
    • A. 

      A. It exhibits net reabsorption in the nephron since its clearance is lower than Cin

    • B. 

      B. The concentration of solute X in Bowman’s space is greater than its concentration in the urine.

    • C. 

      C. Solute X might be creatinine

    • D. 

      D. Solute X might be glycine

    • E. 

      E. Solute X might be serum albumin

  • 18. 
    Which patient has hyperaldosteronism?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E

  • 19. 
    Which patient has ascites? Which patient has hyperaldosteronism?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E

  • 20. 
    Which patient suffers from nephrogenic diabetes insipidus? Which patient has hyperaldosteronism?
    • A. 

      A

    • B. 

      B

    • C. 

      C

    • D. 

      D

    • E. 

      E

  • 21. 
    Patient Y drinks 2 L of pure water within 5 minutes. Twenty minutes later which variable will be increased as compared to normal?
    • A. 

      A. Posm.

    • B. 

      B. Plasma oncotic pressure.

    • C. 

      C. Cosm.

    • D. 

      D. Plasma concentration of angiotensin II.

    • E. 

      E. CH20.

  • 22. 
    Radioactive Cl- is a marker for
    • A. 

      A. PV

    • B. 

      B. ISF

    • C. 

      C. ICW

    • D. 

      D. ECW

    • E. 

      E. TBW

  • 23. 
    Blockage of the ureter by a kidney stone will increase
    • A. 

      A. GFR

    • B. 

      B. Urine flow

    • C. 

      C. The hydrostatic pressure of tubular fluid

    • D. 

      D. The oncotic pressure of tubular fluid

    • E. 

      E. The oncotic pressure in glomerular capillaries

  • 24. 
    Aquaporins are inhibited by mercury. In a patient with mercury poisoning, which clearance is LEAST changed?
    • A. 

      A. Water

    • B. 

      B. Na+.

    • C. 

      C. HCO3-

    • D. 

      D. K+.

    • E. 

      E. Glucose.

  • 25. 
    The clearance of Na+ will be increased most by inhibition of the
    • A. 

      A. Na+/glucose symporter.

    • B. 

      B. Na+/H+ antiporter

    • C. 

      C. Na+/K+ ATPase.

    • D. 

      D. Na+/K+/Cl- symporter.

    • E. 

      E. Aldosterone-sensitive Na+ channels

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