Condensed TOEFL Simulation Seeking English

18 Questions | Total Attempts: 314

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Condensed TOEFL Simulation Seeking English


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Directions: Read the passage. Then answer the questions. Give yourself 20 minutes to complete this practice set. CETACEAN INTELLIGENCE  We often hear that whales, dolphins, and porpoises are as intelligent as humans, maybe even more so. Are they really smart? There is no question that cetaceans are among the most intelligent of animals. Dolphins, killer whales, and pilot whales in captivity quickly learn tricks. The military has trained bottlenose dolphins to find bombs and missile heads and to work as underwater spies. This type of learning, however, is called conditioning. The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behavior, it gets a reward, usually a fish. Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be conditioned to perform tricks. We certainly don’t think of these animals as our mental rivals. Unlike most other animals, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneously imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver –complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles, and even water-skiers. Given the seeming intelligence of cetaceans, people are always tempted to compare them with humans and other animals. Studies on discrimination and problem-solving skills in the bottlenose dolphin, for instance, have concluded that its intelligence lies “somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee.” Such comparisons are unfair. It is important to realize that intelligence is a very human concept and that we evaluate it in human terms. After all, not many people would consider themselves stupid because they couldn’t locate and identify a fish by its echo. Why should we judge cetaceans by their ability to solve human problems? Both humans and cetaceans have large brains with an expanded and distinctively folded surface, the cortex. The cortex is the dominant association center of the brain, where abilities such as memory and sensory perception are centered. Cetaceans have larger brains than ours, but the ratio of brain to body weight is higher in humans. Again, direct comparisons are misleading. In cetaceans it is mainly the portions of the brain associated with hearing and the processing of sound information that are expanded. The enlarged portions of our brain deal largely with vision and hand-eye coordination. Cetaceans and humans almost certainly perceive the world in very different ways. Their world is largely one of sounds, ours one of sights. Contrary to what is depicted in movies and on television, the notion of “talking” to dolphins is also misleading. Although they produce a rich repertoire of complex sounds, they lack vocal cords and their brains probably process sound differently from ours. Bottlenose dolphins have been trained to make sounds through the blow-hole that sound something like human sounds, but this is a far cry from human speech. By the same token, humans cannot make whale sounds. We will probably never be able to carry on an unaided conversation with cetaceans. As in chimpanzees, captive bottlenose dolphins have been taught American Sign Language. These dolphins have learned to communicate with trainers who use sign language to ask simple questions. Dolphins answered back by pushing a “yes” or “no” paddle. They have been known to give spontaneous responses not taught by trainers. Evidence also indicates that these dolphin can distinguish between commands that differ from each other only by their word order, a truly remarkable achievement. Nevertheless, dolphins do not seem to have a real language like ours. Unlike humans, dolphins probably cannot convey very complex messages. Observations of cetaceans in the wild have provided some insights on their learning abilities. Several bottlenose dolphins off western Australia, for instance, have been observed carrying large cone-shaped sponges over their beaks. They supposedly use the sponges for protection against stingrays and other hazards on the bottom as they search for fish to eat. This is the first record use of tools among wild cetaceans. Instead of “intelligence,” some people prefer to speak of “awareness.” In any case, cetaceans probably have a very different awareness and perception of their environment than do humans. Maybe one day we will come to understand cetaceans on their terms instead of ours, and perhaps we will discover a mental sophistication rivaling our own. 
  • 2. 
    Observations of cetaceans in the wild have provided some insights on their learning abilities. Several bottlenose dolphins off western Australia, for instance, have been observed carrying large cone-shaped sponges over their beaks. They supposedly use the sponges for protection against stingrays and other hazards on the bottom as they search for fish to eat. This is the first record use of tools among wild cetaceans. 
  • 3. 
    Listening Simulation Follow the instructions below
  • 4. 
    Click play. Listen to the track ONCE
  • 5. 
    Click play. Listen to the track ONCE
  • 6. 
    Writing Simulation Directions: Give yourself 3 minutes to read the passage. Soon technology will provide smart cars: cars that virtually drive themselves. A computer in the car determines the speed and route to the desired destination. The computer is in continuous contact with a global positioning system and other technologies that will provide extremely accurate information about the location of the car, other cars on the road, congestion, accidents, and so forth> the human driver will be little more than a passenger. Smart cars promise to make driving safer, quicker, and less expensive. First of all, smart cars will prevent many accidents, thereby saving lives. The cars will be equipped with a variety of sensors that very accurately detect cars and other obstacles in their path, and they will have automatic programs that control braking and turning to avoid collisions. Given the hundreds of accidents that occur on highways daily, it is clear that humans do a poor job of avoiding accidents and that computer control would be a great improvement. Second, with the wide use of smart cars, traffic problems will practically disappear. These computer-controlled cars can follow each other closely, even at high speeds. This ability will result in increased highway speeds. Today commuting by car can take hours a day. So the increased speed of smart cars will be a great benefit, welcomed by the many people who commute by car.Finally, smart cars will bring a reduction in the costs of driving. Because smart cars are programmed to drive the most direct routes, car owners will have to spend less money on repairs and replacement parts. Expensive items such as brakes, tires, and transmissions will last much longer in smart cars than in other cars.
  • 7. 
    Directions: You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words. Listen to the lecture now, click play below.
  • 8. 
    Response Time 20 MinutesSummarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge specific points made in the reading passage.
  • 9. 
    Directions: Now answer the questions.  We often hear that whales, dolphins, and porpoises are as intelligent as humans, maybe even more so. Are they really that smart?  There is no question that cetaceans are among the most intelligent of animals. Dolphins, killer whales, and pilot whales in captivity quickly learn tricks. The military has trained bottlenose dolphins to find bombs and missile heads and to work as underwater spies.The author asks the question “Are they really that smart?“ for which of the following reasons? 
    • A. 

      To question the notion that humans are the most intelligent of animals

    • B. 

      To introduce the discussion of intelligence that follows

    • C. 

      To explain why dolphins, killer whales, and pilot whales can learn tricks

    • D. 

      To emphasize the ways that dolphins can help the military

  • 10. 
    This type of learning, however, is called conditioning. The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behavior, it gets a reward, usually a fish. Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be conditioned to perform tricks. We certainly don’t think of these animals as our mental rivals. Unlike most other animals, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneously imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver---complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles,and even water-skiers.According to the passage, which of the following animals is most likely to learn by watching another animal perform an activity? 
    • A. 

      Rats

    • B. 

      Birds

    • C. 

      Invertebrates

    • D. 

      Dolphins

  • 11. 
    Given the seeming intelligence of cetaceans, people are always tempted to compare them with humans and other animals. Studies on discrimination and problem-solving skills in the bottlenose dolphins, for instance, have concluded that its intelligence lies "somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee.” Such comparisons are unfair. It is important to realize that intelligence is a very human concept and that we evaluate it on human terms. After all, not many people would consider themselves stupid because they couldn’t locate and identify a fish by its echo. Why should we judge cetaceans by their ability to solve our problems?The word “tempted” in the passage is closest in meaning to: 
    • A. 

      Conditioned

    • B. 

      Reluctant

    • C. 

      Inclined

    • D. 

      Invited

  • 12. 
    Given the seeming intelligence of cetaceans, people are always tempted to compare them with humans and other animals. Studies on discrimination and problem-solving skills in the bottlenose dolphins, for instance, have concluded that its intelligence lies “somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee.” Such comparisons are unfair. It is important to realize that intelligence is a very human concept and that we evaluate it on human terms. After all, not many people would consider themselves stupid because they couldn’t locate and identify a fish by its echo. Why should we judge cetaceans by their ability to solve our problems?According to the passage, why are the studies that conclude that dolphin intelligence is “somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee” not correct?
    • A. 

      The human method of drawing comparisons is not relevant to animal intelligence.

    • B. 

      Dolphins have actually shown to be much more intelligent than chimpanzees.

    • C. 

      The studies were not conducted according to standard research methods.

    • D. 

      Dolphins do not typically demonstrate conditioned responses for humans to observe.

  • 13. 
    Both humans and cetaceans have large brains with an expanded and distinctly folded surface, the cortex. The cortex is the dominant association center of the brain, where abilities such as memory and sensory perception are centered. Cetaceans have larger brains than ours, but the ratio of brain to body weight is higher in humans. Again, direct comparisons are misleading. In cetaceans it is mainly the portions of the brain associated with hearing and processing of sound information that are expanded. The enlarged portions of our brain deal largely with vision and hand-eye coordination. Cetaceans and humans almost certainly perceive the world in very different ways. Their world is one of sounds, ours one of sights.The word “dominant” in the passage is closest in meaning to: 
    • A. 

      Local

    • B. 

      Natural

    • C. 

      Chief

    • D. 

      Specific

  • 14. 
    As in chimpanzees, captive bottlenose dolphins have been taught American Sign Language. These dolphins have learned to communicate with trainers who use sign language to ask simple questions. Dolphins answered back by pushing a “yes” or “no” paddle. They have been known to give spontaneous responses not taught by trainers. Evidence also indicates that these dolphin can distinguish between commands that differ from each other only by their word order, a truly remarkable achievement. Nevertheless, dolphins do not seem to have a real language like ours. Unlike humans, dolphins probably cannot convey very complex messages. The word “spontaneous” in the passage is closest in meaning to:
    • A. 

      Sophisticated

    • B. 

      Sensible

    • C. 

      Appropriate

    • D. 

      Unprompted

  • 15. 
    The word “insights” in the passage is closest in meaning to:
    • A. 

      Examples

    • B. 

      Understanding

    • C. 

      Directions

    • D. 

      Discussion

  • 16. 
    Scientific observations show that cetaceans are able to do all the following EXCEPT
    • A. 

      Use natural objects as tools for self-protection

    • B. 

      Produce complex sounds through their blowholes

    • C. 

      Answer spoken questions

    • D. 

      Distinguish between very similar spoken sentences

  • 17. 
    The word “hazards” in the passage is closest meaning to
    • A. 

      Objects

    • B. 

      Dangers

    • C. 

      Species

    • D. 

      Debris

  • 18. 
    Instead of “intelligence,” some people prefer to speak of “awareness.” In any case, cetaceans probably have a very different awareness and perception of their environment than do humans. Maybe one day we will come to understand cetaceans on their terms instead of ours, and perhaps we will discover a mental sophistication rivaling our own.What does the author conclude about the intelligence of cetaceans?
    • A. 

      It is not appropriate to judge cetacean intelligence in human terms.

    • B. 

      Cetaceans probably probably possess a mental sophistication that is as complex as that of humans.

    • C. 

      Although cetaceans may appear to be intelligent, they have fewer problems-solving skills than most animals.

    • D. 

      Their ability to learn American Sign Language indicates that cetaceans have a high level of intelligence.

  • 19. 
    This type of learning, however, is called conditioning. ▀ The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behaviour, it gets a reward, usually a fish. ▀ Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be conditioned to perform tricks. ▀ We certainly don’t think of these animals as our mental rivals.▀ Unlike most other animals, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneously imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver---complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles,and even water-skiers. Look at the four symbols ▀ that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.                This reward is merely one possible type of positive reinforcement that leads to more frequent repetition of the behavior in the future.Where would the sentence best fit?
    • A. 

      This type of learning, however, is called conditioning.* This reward is merely one possible type of positive reinforcement that leads to more frequent repetition of the behaviour in the future. The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behavior, it gets a reward, usually a fish.▀ Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be conditioned to perform tricks.▀ We certainly don’t think of these animals as our mental rivals.▀ Unlike most other animals, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneously imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver---complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles,and even water-skiers.

    • B. 

      This type of learning, however, is called conditioning. ▀ The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behavior, it gets a reward, usually a fish.* This reward is merely one possible type of positive reinforcement that leads to more frequent repetition of the behavior in the future. Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be conditioned to perform tricks.▀ We certainly don’t think of these animals as our mental rivals.▀ Unlike most other animals, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneously imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver---complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles,and even water-skiers.

    • C. 

      This type of learning, however, is called conditioning. ▀ The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behavior, it gets a reward, usually a fish.▀ Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be conditioned to perform tricks.* This reward is merely one possible type of positive reinforcement that leads to more frequent repetition of the behavior in the future.We certainly don’t think of these animals as our mental rivals.▀ Unlike most other animals, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneously imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver---complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles,and even water-skiers.

    • D. 

      This type of learning, however, is called conditioning.▀ The animal simply learns that when it performs a particular behavior, it gets a reward, usually a fish.▀ Many animals, including rats, birds, and even invertebrates, can be conditioned to perform tricks.▀ We certainly don’t think of these animals as our mental rivals.* This reward is merely one possible type of positive reinforcement that leads to more frequent repetition of the behavior in the future. Unlike most other animals, however, dolphins quickly learn by observations and may spontaneously imitate human activities. One tame dolphin watched a diver cleaning an underwater viewing window, seized a feather in its beak, and began imitating the diver---complete with sound effects! Dolphins have also been seen imitating seals, turtles,and even water-skiers.

  • 20. 
    Checkmark your answer choices in the spaces below: BOTH Humans and Cetaceans share the following characteristics 
    • A. 

      The ability to converse unaided with other species

    • B. 

      A brain with a cortex

    • C. 

      A set of vocal cords

    • D. 

      The ability to use tools

    • E. 

      The ability to locate objects by using echo

    • F. 

      An enlarged portion of the brain for processing sound

    • G. 

      The ability to learn by observation

  • 21. 
    Directions: Answer the following question.What are the speakers mainly discussing?
    • A. 

      Getting financial aid for college

    • B. 

      Planning a student’s course schedule for the next four years

    • C. 

      Taking courses during the summer session

    • D. 

      Differences in admissions requirements between Hooper University and two other schools

  • 22. 
    Why does the student want to take classes at City College?
    • A. 

      Because Hooper University does not offer the classes he wants

    • B. 

      Because City College classes cost less money than ones at Hooper University

    • C. 

      So that he can take classes on the weekend

    • D. 

      So that he can graduate from Hooper University early

  • 23. 
    Why will the man probably take only two courses?
    • A. 

      Students are limited to two summer courses

    • B. 

      He can attend classes only on Saturday and Sunday

    • C. 

      His financial aid will pay for only two courses

    • D. 

      His summer job will keep him taking more that two courses

  • 24. 
    What will Ms. Brinker probably do for the man? Choose 2 answers
    • A. 

      Give the man a student ID number

    • B. 

      Give the man a financial aid form

    • C. 

      Help the man figure out which classes to take

    • D. 

      Help the man apply to Hooper University

    • E. 

      Put the man’s information into the City College admission system

  • 25. 
    What does the woman mean with her statement?
    • A. 

      The man waited too long to apply to City College

    • B. 

      The man should not attend Hooper University

    • C. 

      The man will be able to do what he wants to do

    • D. 

      The man is very unlucky

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