Ocular Pharm Mt 1: Anti-allergy & Decongestant Agents

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Ocular Pharm Mt 1: Anti-allergy & Decongestant Agents - Quiz


pg. 72- top of 76


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Indicate which types of allergic hypersensitiivty reactions are most common in ocular conditions.

    • A.

      Type I

    • B.

      Type II

    • C.

      Type III

    • D.

      Type IV

    • E.

      Type V

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Type I
    D. Type IV
    Explanation
    The most common types of allergic hypersensitivity reactions in ocular conditions are Type I and Type IV. Type I reactions, also known as immediate hypersensitivity reactions, involve the release of histamine and other chemicals in response to an allergen, leading to symptoms such as itching, redness, and swelling. Type IV reactions, also known as delayed hypersensitivity reactions, occur when immune cells called T cells react to an allergen, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. These two types of reactions are frequently observed in ocular allergies and conditions.

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  • 2. 

    Which antibody mediates Type I allergic rxns?

    • A.

      IgA

    • B.

      IgB

    • C.

      IgM

    • D.

      IgE

    Correct Answer
    D. IgE
    Explanation
    Think IgE and Eosinophils in allergies

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  • 3. 

    Describe Type I hypersensitivity rxns.

  • 4. 

    Indidcate the reactions of the body to histamine release.

    • A.

      Vasodilation

    • B.

      Vasoconstriction

    • C.

      Leakage of fluid

    • D.

      Blockage of fluid

    • E.

      Tissue swelling

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Vasodilation
    C. Leakage of fluid
    E. Tissue swelling
    Explanation
    Histamine activates H1 receptors on blood vessels

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  • 5. 

    In Type I, the immediate allergic response starts within ___-____ after exposure and may resonve within ___-___.

    Correct Answer(s)
    5-30 min; 30-60 min
    Explanation
    In Type I allergic reactions, the immediate allergic response begins within 5-30 minutes after exposure to the allergen. This rapid onset is due to the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators. The symptoms may include itching, hives, swelling, and respiratory difficulties. The reaction may resolve within 30-60 minutes, although in some cases it may persist for a longer duration.

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  • 6. 

    In Type I, the late phase allergic response starts within ___-____ after exposure and may last for up to ____.

    Correct Answer(s)
    4-6 hours; 2 days
    Explanation
    late phase reaction may be MORE SEVERE

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  • 7. 

    Indicate the s/s of Type I reactions.

    • A.

      Bronchoconstriction

    • B.

      Rhinitis

    • C.

      Headache

    • D.

      Hives

    • E.

      Conj hyperemia

    • F.

      Anaphylactic shock

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Bronchoconstriction
    B. Rhinitis
    C. Headache
    D. Hives
    E. Conj hyperemia
    F. Anaphylactic shock
    Explanation
    Also see redness, swelling, itching, tearing, sneezing

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  • 8. 

    Hay fever, allergic conjunctivitis, asthma, hymenoptera strings and other chemical/toxic sensitivities are:

    • A.

      Type I

    • B.

      Type III

    • C.

      Type IV

    Correct Answer
    A. Type I
    Explanation
    Hay fever, allergic conjunctivitis, asthma, hymenoptera stings, and other chemical/toxic sensitivities are classified as Type I hypersensitivity reactions. Type I hypersensitivity is an immediate allergic reaction mediated by IgE antibodies. In this type of reaction, exposure to an allergen triggers the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators from mast cells, resulting in symptoms such as itching, sneezing, watery eyes, and difficulty breathing. This type of hypersensitivity is commonly associated with allergies and can occur rapidly after exposure to the allergen.

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  • 9. 

    Type IV has a quicker onset than Type I

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Immediate response of Type occurs within 5-30 minutes. Type IV 24 hours

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  • 10. 

    Seasonal allergic conjunctvitis is characterized by ____ reactions.

    • A.

      Type I

    • B.

      Type IV

    Correct Answer
    A. Type I
    Explanation
    Antigens: dust, pollen, particular matter from smoke, other environmental contaminants

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  • 11. 

    List the ocular findings that indicate seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

  • 12. 

    What is the def of vernal conjunctivitis?

    • A.

      Seasonal disorder that reaches peak in warm months, occuring mostly in adolescent males

    • B.

      Seasonal disorder that reaches peak in cold months, occuring mostly in middle aged males

    • C.

      Seasonal disorder that reaches peak in warm months, occuring mostly in adolescent females

    • D.

      Seasonal disorder that reaches peak in cold months, occuring mostly in adolescent males

    Correct Answer
    A. Seasonal disorder that reaches peak in warm months, occuring mostly in adolescent males
  • 13. 

    What are the characteristics of vernal conjunctivitis?

    • A.

      Large papillae (like cobblestones) on the upper tarsal conj

    • B.

      Large follicles on the upper tarsal conj

    • C.

      Extreme chemosis and hyperemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Large papillae (like cobblestones) on the upper tarsal conj
    Explanation
    Vernal conjunctivitis is a type of allergic conjunctivitis that typically affects young males in warm climates. It is characterized by the presence of large papillae (like cobblestones) on the upper tarsal conjunctiva. These papillae are elevated and have a rough surface, resembling cobblestones. Other common symptoms include itching, tearing, redness, and a foreign body sensation. The condition is usually chronic and can recur seasonally. Treatment options include topical antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers, and corticosteroids.

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  • 14. 

    Papillary hypertrophy characterized by gelatinous thickening of the superior limbus can occur in what condition?

    • A.

      Vernal conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Atopic keratoconjunctivitis

    • D.

      GPC

    Correct Answer
    A. Vernal conjunctivitis
    Explanation
    Papillary hypertrophy characterized by gelatinous thickening of the superior limbus is a condition that can occur in vernal conjunctivitis. Vernal conjunctivitis is an allergic inflammation of the conjunctiva that typically affects young males and is associated with seasonal allergies. It is characterized by intense itching, papillary hypertrophy, and a thick, gelatinous discharge. This condition can cause discomfort and visual disturbances, and is often treated with antihistamines and topical steroids.

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  • 15. 

    Histamine level in the tears of individuals with this condition is often significantly higher than in others

    • A.

      Vernal conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Atopic keratoconjunctivitis

    • D.

      GPC

    Correct Answer
    A. Vernal conjunctivitis
    Explanation
    Vernal conjunctivitis is a type of allergic conjunctivitis that is characterized by inflammation of the conjunctiva (the clear tissue covering the white part of the eye). The given explanation suggests that individuals with vernal conjunctivitis have significantly higher levels of histamine in their tears compared to others. Histamine is a chemical released by the immune system in response to an allergen, and it is responsible for the symptoms of allergic reactions, such as itching, redness, and swelling. Therefore, the high histamine levels in tears support the diagnosis of vernal conjunctivitis.

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  • 16. 

    Symptoms of this condition include intense itching and thick, ropy discharge. Photophobia may occur if cornea becomes involved, ptosis may occur in papillary invovlement is signfiicant

    • A.

      Vernal conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Atopic keratoconjunctivitis

    • D.

      GPC

    Correct Answer
    A. Vernal conjunctivitis
    Explanation
    Vernal conjunctivitis is a condition characterized by intense itching and thick, ropy discharge. It is commonly associated with seasonal allergies and typically affects young males. The involvement of the cornea can lead to photophobia, and significant papillary involvement can cause ptosis. Therefore, vernal conjunctivitis is the most appropriate answer based on the symptoms described.

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  • 17. 

    This condition is caused by acquired hypersensitivity to specific antigens.  There is usually a family or personal history of allergy w/ hay fever or asthma.

    • A.

      Vernal conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Atopic keratoconjunctivitis

    • D.

      GPC

    Correct Answer
    C. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis
    Explanation
    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a condition characterized by acquired hypersensitivity to specific antigens. It is often seen in individuals with a family or personal history of allergies, hay fever, or asthma. The condition involves inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea, leading to symptoms such as itching, redness, tearing, and blurred vision. It is a chronic condition that can significantly affect the quality of life. Treatment typically involves avoiding triggers, using lubricating eye drops, and in some cases, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids.

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  • 18. 

    This condition is usually characterized by patches of thickened, excoriated skin that is dry and itchy.  Ocular findings include conj chemosis and hyperemia. Corneal invovlement is not common and may manifest as a classic shield ucler or pannus.

    • A.

      Vernal conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Atopic keratoconjunctivitis

    • D.

      GPC

    Correct Answer
    C. Atopic keratoconjunctivitis
    Explanation
    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is a condition characterized by patches of thickened, excoriated skin that is dry and itchy. Ocular findings include conjunctival chemosis and hyperemia. Corneal involvement is not common but may manifest as a classic shield ulcer or pannus. This explanation matches the given description of the condition and the symptoms mentioned, making it the correct answer.

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  • 19. 

    This condition is usually a reaction to materials such as proteins on CLs.  Also reported in indvs with methylmethacrylate ocular prostheses.

    • A.

      Vernal conjunctivitis

    • B.

      Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis

    • C.

      Atopic keratoconjunctivitis

    • D.

      GPC

    Correct Answer
    D. GPC
    Explanation
    GPC stands for Giant Papillary Conjunctivitis. This condition is usually a reaction to materials such as proteins on contact lenses (CLs). It is also reported in individuals with methylmethacrylate ocular prostheses.

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  • 20. 

    Decongestants have a vasoconstricting effects.  What defines them?

    • A.

      Adrenergic agonists

    • B.

      Adrenergic antagonists

    • C.

      Anti-cholinergics

    • D.

      Cholinergic stimulants

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrenergic agonists
    Explanation
    sympathomimetic (e.g. phenylephrine)

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following decongestants is available by Rx only?

    • A.

      Phenylephrine 10%

    • B.

      Naphazoline 0.1%

    • C.

      Oxymetazoline 0.025%

    • D.

      Tetrahydrozoline 0.05%

    Correct Answer
    B. Naphazoline 0.1%
    Explanation
    Phenylphrine 10% is not used as a decongestant...only the 0.12% is used and is non-Rx

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  • 22. 

    Which of these decongestants has the longest duration of action?

    • A.

      Phenylephrine

    • B.

      Naphazoline

    • C.

      Oxymetazoline

    • D.

      Tetrahydrozoline

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxymetazoline
    Explanation
    Oxymetazoline 4-12 hours

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  • 23. 

    Which of these decongestants has the shortest duration of action?

    • A.

      Phenylephrine

    • B.

      Naphazoline

    • C.

      Oxymetazoline

    • D.

      Tetrahydrozoline

    Correct Answer
    A. Phenylephrine
    Explanation
    Phenyl 0.5-1.5 hours

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  • 24. 

    What drug can increase the absorption of topically applied phenylephrine? 

    • A.

      Local anesthetics

    • B.

      General anesthetics

    • C.

      Steroids

    • D.

      Anti biotics

    Correct Answer
    A. Local anesthetics
    Explanation
    Use of decongestants should be discontinued prior to use of anesthetics which sensitive the myocardium to sympathomimetic activity

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  • 25. 

    What is the pregnancy category for ocular decongestants?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    C. C
    Explanation
    The pregnancy category for ocular decongestants is category C. This means that studies in animals have shown adverse effects on the fetus, but there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Therefore, the use of ocular decongestants during pregnancy should be weighed against the potential risks and benefits.

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  • 26. 

    Use of ocular decongestants in pts with suppressed lacrimation may cause sufficient absorption to produce systemic vasopressor effects

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Systemic absorption can occur when recommended doses are exceeded or when higher concentrations are used in pts with traumatized, diseased or post-sx eyes

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 11, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 11, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Tseemore
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