Spontaneous Potential Theory

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Spontaneous Potential Theory - Quiz

Spontaneous potential as discussed is the potential difference that occurs naturally in the earth. If you plan to drill into the earth’s crust you need to have adequate knowledge on this theory. Do you believe you understand it clearly? If so then take up the test below and see if the results are in your favor. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The primary objective of logging the Spontaneous Potential (SP) is to determine:

    • A.

      True resistivity of the uninvaded formation (Rt)

    • B.

      A qualitative indicator of formation permeability

    • C.

      Mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf)

    • D.

      Formation porosity

    Correct Answer
    B. A qualitative indicator of formation permeability
    Explanation
    The primary objective of logging the Spontaneous Potential (SP) is to determine a qualitative indicator of formation permeability. SP logging measures the natural electrical potential difference between the borehole fluid and the formation fluid, which is influenced by the permeability of the formation. By analyzing the SP curve, geologists and engineers can assess the relative permeability of the formation, providing valuable information about fluid flow and potential hydrocarbon reservoirs.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following statements is true?

    • A.

      Electrokinetic processes relate to the movement of fluid at the borehole/formation interface, while electrochemical processes relate to ionic imbalances between fluids.

    • B.

      Electrokinetic processes relate to ionic imbalances between fluids, while electrochemical processes relate to the movement of fluid at the borehole/formation interface.

    Correct Answer
    A. Electrokinetic processes relate to the movement of fluid at the borehole/formation interface, while electrochemical processes relate to ionic imbalances between fluids.
    Explanation
    Electrokinetic processes refer to the movement of fluid at the borehole/formation interface. This means that these processes involve the transport of fluid in the subsurface, such as the movement of water through porous rock formations. On the other hand, electrochemical processes are related to ionic imbalances between fluids. This refers to the chemical reactions that occur when there is a difference in the concentration of ions between two fluids, leading to the exchange of ions and the creation of electrical currents.

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  • 3. 

    A majority of the deflection observed on an SP log is the result of

    • A.

      Electrokinetic potentials

    • B.

      Electrochemical potentials

    • C.

      Membrane potential

    • D.

      Liquid junction potential

    Correct Answer
    B. Electrochemical potentials
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Electrochemical potentials. When an SP (Spontaneous Potential) log is conducted, the deflection observed is mainly caused by electrochemical potentials. These potentials are generated due to differences in the chemical composition of the formation water and the drilling fluid. The movement of ions between these two fluids creates an electrical potential, which is then measured by the SP log. This potential difference is responsible for the majority of the deflection observed on the log.

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  • 4. 

    Ionic exchange across the boundary of a permeable formation and an adjacent shale produces an electromotive force in the formation called the:

    • A.

      Membrane potential

    • B.

      Liquid junction potential

    • C.

      Electrokinetic potential

    Correct Answer
    A. Membrane potential
    Explanation
    Ionic exchange across the boundary of a permeable formation and an adjacent shale can create a separation of charges, resulting in a potential difference across the membrane. This potential difference is known as the membrane potential. It is caused by the movement of ions through the permeable formation, creating an electromotive force. The other options, liquid junction potential and electrokinetic potential, do not accurately describe the phenomenon of ionic exchange across a permeable formation and shale.

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  • 5. 

    Ionic exchange across the interface between two fluids of different salinities produces an electromotive force in the formation called the:

    • A.

      Membrane potential

    • B.

      Liquid junction potential

    • C.

      Electrokinetic potential

    Correct Answer
    B. Liquid junction potential
    Explanation
    Ionic exchange across the interface between two fluids of different salinities creates a difference in ion concentrations, leading to the generation of an electromotive force. This potential difference is known as the liquid junction potential. It occurs at the boundary between the two fluids and is caused by the movement of ions from one fluid to the other. The liquid junction potential plays a vital role in various electrochemical processes and is often encountered in fields such as chemistry, biology, and environmental science.

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  • 6. 

    The SP measurement is taken as a potential difference between:

    • A.

      A downhole electrode and a current return electrode, both located on the tool

    • B.

      A downhole electrode and casing

    • C.

      A downhole electrode and a reference electrode at the surface

    • D.

      A downhole electrode and the wireline

    Correct Answer
    C. A downhole electrode and a reference electrode at the surface
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a downhole electrode and a reference electrode at the surface. In SP (Spontaneous Potential) measurement, the potential difference is measured between a downhole electrode and a reference electrode at the surface. This measurement helps in determining the formation's electrical potential and can provide information about the presence of hydrocarbons or the formation's permeability. By comparing the electrical potential at different depths, geologists and engineers can gain insights into the subsurface conditions and make informed decisions about drilling and production operations.

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  • 7. 

    In which of the following conditions is the SP response valid?

    • A.

      Water-based mud

    • B.

      Cased hole

    • C.

      Air-drilled hole

    • D.

      Oil-based mud

    Correct Answer
    A. Water-based mud
    Explanation
    The SP (Spontaneous Potential) response is valid in water-based mud conditions. SP is a measurement of the natural electrical potential difference between a borehole and the formation surrounding it. In water-based mud, the electrical properties of the formation are better conductive, allowing for a reliable SP response. In cased hole conditions, the presence of casing can interfere with the SP measurement. In air-drilled holes, there is no conductive fluid present, resulting in an unreliable SP response. In oil-based mud conditions, the electrical properties of the formation are not as conductive, leading to an unreliable SP response.

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  • 8. 

    Under what conditions is an electrokinetic potential created as fluid flows through the mud cake?

    • A.

      Borehole drilled with very heavy mud

    • B.

      Hydrostatic pressure in the borehole balances formation pressure

    • C.

      Borehole drilled with light mud

    • D.

      Hydrostatic pressure is less in the formation than in the borehole

    Correct Answer
    A. Borehole drilled with very heavy mud
    Explanation
    When a borehole is drilled with very heavy mud, it creates an electrokinetic potential as fluid flows through the mud cake. This is because the heavy mud forms a thick and impermeable barrier between the borehole and the formation. As the fluid flows through this mud cake, it generates a pressure difference between the formation and the borehole. This pressure difference results in the creation of an electrokinetic potential, which is a form of electrical potential that arises due to the flow of fluids through a porous medium.

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  • 9. 

    Hydrostatic pressure is less in the formation than in the borehole

    • A.

      Rmf = Rw

    • B.

      Rmf > Rw

    • C.

      Rmf < Rw

    Correct Answer
    B. Rmf > Rw
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Rmf > Rw", suggests that the formation resistivity factor (Rmf) is greater than the borehole resistivity factor (Rw). This implies that the formation has a higher resistance to the flow of electrical current compared to the borehole. One possible explanation for this is that the hydrostatic pressure in the formation is less than in the borehole. This difference in pressure can affect the conductivity of the formation, leading to a higher resistivity factor.

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  • 10. 

    Ionic exchange resulting from a pressure differential between the formation and the borehole produces an electromotive force called the:

    • A.

      Electrochemical potential

    • B.

      Electrokinetic potential

    • C.

      Membrane potential

    • D.

      Liquid junction potential

    Correct Answer
    B. Electrokinetic potential
    Explanation
    Ionic exchange occurs when there is a pressure difference between the formation and the borehole. This pressure differential causes an electromotive force known as the electrokinetic potential. This potential is generated due to the movement of ions across a membrane or interface, resulting in the generation of an electrical charge. The electrokinetic potential is a form of electromotive force that arises from the movement of ions and is responsible for various electrochemical processes.

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  • 11. 

    Select all of the potential applications of the SP measurement.

    • A.

      Determination of formation water resistivity (Rw)

    • B.

      Determination of volume of shale

    • C.

      Estimation of diameter of invasion

    • D.

      Well-to-well correlation

    • E.

      Determination of bed thickness

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Determination of formation water resistivity (Rw)
    B. Determination of volume of shale
    D. Well-to-well correlation
    E. Determination of bed thickness
    Explanation
    The SP measurement can be used to determine the formation water resistivity (Rw) by measuring the difference in electrical potential between the borehole and the formation. It can also be used to determine the volume of shale by measuring the electrical resistivity of the shale. Well-to-well correlation can be done using the SP measurement by comparing the SP logs from different wells to identify similar patterns and correlate the formations. Lastly, the SP measurement can be used to determine the bed thickness by analyzing the changes in the SP log as the tool passes through different formations.

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  • 12. 

    The spontaneous potential tool is designed to measure a natural – or spontaneous – current flow in the borehole and formation resulting from ionic imbalances that exist between different subsurface fluids and ionic movement near the borehole/formation interface.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the spontaneous potential tool is indeed designed to measure the natural or spontaneous current flow in the borehole and formation. This current flow is a result of the ionic imbalances between different subsurface fluids and the movement of ions near the borehole and formation interface. Therefore, the statement that the spontaneous potential tool measures this current flow is true.

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  • 13. 

    The exchange in ions (primarily chlorine, Cl-, and sodium, Na+) between fluids of different salinities creates a _____ drop in a fluid-filled borehole.

    • A.

      Voltage

    • B.

      Resistivity

    • C.

      Current

    • D.

      Power

    Correct Answer
    A. Voltage
    Explanation
    The exchange of ions between fluids of different salinities causes a voltage drop in a fluid-filled borehole. This is because the movement of ions creates an electrical potential difference, or voltage, between the two fluids. As a result, there is a decrease in voltage as the ions transfer from one fluid to another.

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  • 14. 

    In which of the following conditions is the SP response not valid?

    • A.

      Water-based mud

    • B.

      Cased hole

    • C.

      Air-drilled hole

    • D.

      Oil-based mud

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Cased hole
    C. Air-drilled hole
    D. Oil-based mud
    Explanation
    The SP response is not valid in cased hole, air-drilled hole, and oil-based mud conditions. This could be due to various factors. In cased hole conditions, the casing acts as a barrier, preventing the SP response from accurately measuring formation properties. In air-drilled holes, the absence of drilling fluid can cause instability and unreliable SP readings. Oil-based mud, on the other hand, can interfere with the electrical conductivity measurements, leading to invalid SP responses.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 30, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Taylor
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