.
2500 m/s gr/cc
5000 m/s kg/m3
5 x 10^6 m/s kg/m3
2500 m/s kg/m3
Maximum Phase
American convension
Zero Phase
Minimum Phase
Understanding the seismic survey
Understanding the relationship between geophysical measurement and rock properties
Understanding the relationship between geophysical measurement and the location
Maximizing the risk in hydrocarbon exploration
Petrophysics more emphasis on stress, faulting, fracture processes
Petrophysics more emphasis on interpreting seismic, sonic and ultrasonic data
Petrophysics more emphasis on well logs, and often ignoring sonic logs and seismic
Petrophysics more emphasis on seismic survey
DHI
AVO Classes
Depth Trends
All are correct
Shale overlying Reservoir Gas Sand
Shale overlying soft shale
Shale overlying coal
All are correct
Porosity and pore geometry
Fluid type and saturation
Type of acquisition
Mineral composition and distribution
Loose become stable
Compaction
Overburden
Deposition of dissolved material
0-5 %
Below 15%
Above 20%
Between 5 to 10%
The hydrocarbon produced from low porosity formation through secondary porosity
The hydrocarbon produced from low porosity formation through primary porosity
Brittleness index is not important
None of the above
Ratio between shear and bulk modulus
Ratio between bulk modulus and poisson ratio
Ratio between porosity and volume
Ratio between mass and volume
Density of quartz mineral (zero porosity ) is 2.65 gr/cc
Density of calcite (zero porosity) is 2.71 gr/cc
Density is the ratio between mass and volume
All of the above
Bulk modulus of water is zero
Bulk Modulus of gas is higher than oil
Bulk Modulus of gas is higher than water
Bulk Modulus of water is higher than gas
The ratio of extensional stress to extensional strain in a uniaxial stress state
The ratio of the lateral strain to axial strain in a uniaxial stress state
The ratio of the pressure applied to the amount of volume change in the cube
The ratio of shear wave velocity
Can be used to separate different rock type and fluids
The response can differentiate between coal and gas sand
The response can be created from slowness logs: shear and primary
All of the above
The ratio of extensional stress to extensional strain in a uniaxial stress state
The ratio of the lateral strain to axial strain in a uniaxial stress state
The ratio of the pressure applied to the amount of volume change in the cube
The ratio of shear wave velocity
High Poisson’s Ratio
Low Poisson’s Ratio
Higher Poisson’s Ratio than clay minerals
High Poisson’s Ratio compare to Calcite
The AI of gas sand lower than shale formation
The AI of gas sand lower than brine sand
The Vp/Vs of gas sand lower than brine sand
All of the above
The AI of brine sand lower than shale formation
The AI of gas sand lower than brine sand
The Vp/Vs of gas sand higher than brine sand
All of the above
Castagna’s equation
Wyllie’s equation
Han’s equation
Voigt and Reuss
Predict the shear velocity from compressional velocity
Predict porosity from compressional velocity
Predict clay content from compressional velocity
Predict Vp from compressional velocity
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