Psy Kev 101 6-10

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Psy Kev 101 6-10 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _____ is the process of accessing information stored in long-term memory.Select one:

    • A.

      Encoding

    • B.

      Storage

    • C.

      Consolidation

    • D.

      Retrieval

    Correct Answer
    D. Retrieval
    Explanation
    Retrieval is the process of accessing information stored in long-term memory. This involves recalling or remembering previously learned information or experiences. During retrieval, the brain retrieves the stored information and brings it back into conscious awareness. This process is essential for tasks such as recalling facts, events, or memories, and is crucial for learning, problem-solving, and decision-making.

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  • 2. 

    For his Eastern history class, Hamilton had to memorize a lengthy list of Chinese emperors. To do so, he imagined each of them sitting in a chair in a different room of his family home. Hamilton was using a technique called:

    • A.

      The method of loci.

    • B.

      The misinformation effect.

    • C.

      Imagination inflation.

    • D.

      The peg-word method.

    Correct Answer
    A. The method of loci.
    Explanation
    The method of loci is a mnemonic technique that involves associating information with specific locations or objects in a familiar place, such as Hamilton's family home. By mentally placing each Chinese emperor in a different room, Hamilton is able to create a visual and spatial representation of the information he needs to remember. This technique utilizes the brain's natural ability to remember spatial relationships and can be an effective way to enhance memory and recall.

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  • 3. 

    For her anatomy and physiology class, Chelsea has to learn a list of the twelve cranial nerves in correct order. Which of the following suggestions would help her counteract the serial position effect?Select one:

    • A.

      Spend extra time rehearsing the first several items on the list

    • B.

      Spend extra time rehearsing the last several items on the list

    • C.

      Spend extra time rehearsing the items in the middle of the list

    • D.

      Spend extra time rehearsing the first several items and last several items on the list

    Correct Answer
    C. Spend extra time rehearsing the items in the middle of the list
    Explanation
    Spending extra time rehearsing the items in the middle of the list would help Chelsea counteract the serial position effect. The serial position effect states that people tend to remember the first and last items on a list more easily than the items in the middle. By focusing on rehearsing the middle items, Chelsea can ensure that she gives them more attention and rehearsal time, increasing her chances of remembering them accurately.

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  • 4. 

    Ever since the beginning of the new school year, Jason spent thirty minutes every afternoon drilling Joshua, his younger brother who is in the fourth grade, on basic multiplication and division problems. Three months later, Joshua responds almost instantly with the answer to basic multiplication and division problems. Considering what you've read in chapter 6 on the biological basis of memory, which of the following has probably happened to Joshua?Select one:

    • A.

      State-dependent retrieval has occurred.

    • B.

      Structural and functional changes have occurred in the specific neurons involved in his new memories.

    • C.

      Imagination inflation has reversed the course of normal forgetting.

    • D.

      The repeated practice sessions successfully blocked long-term potentiation from occurring, allowing the new memories to consolidate.

    Correct Answer
    B. Structural and functional changes have occurred in the specific neurons involved in his new memories.
    Explanation
    Based on the information provided, Jason has been consistently drilling Joshua on basic multiplication and division problems for three months. This consistent practice would likely lead to structural and functional changes in the specific neurons involved in Joshua's new memories. Through repetition and practice, the neural pathways associated with these mathematical concepts would become stronger and more efficient, resulting in Joshua being able to respond almost instantly with the correct answers. This aligns with the concept of neuroplasticity, which suggests that the brain can change and adapt based on experience and learning.

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  • 5. 

    Spacing your study sessions is to _____ as cramming the night before is to _____.Select one:

    • A.

      Elaborative rehearsal; maintenance rehearsal

    • B.

      Massed practice; distributed practice

    • C.

      Serial position effect; proactive interference

    • D.

      Distributed practice; massed practice

    Correct Answer
    D. Distributed practice; massed practice
    Explanation
    Spacing your study sessions is to distributed practice as cramming the night before is to massed practice. Distributed practice refers to spacing out your study sessions over a longer period of time, allowing for better retention and understanding of the material. On the other hand, massed practice involves cramming all of your studying into a short period of time, which is less effective for long-term learning.

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  • 6. 

    Wynn has been studying for his chemistry exam by breaking up each chapter into manageable sections and then learning key information one section at a time. According to the Applications section of your text, Wynn is using which technique to enhance his memory?Select one:

    • A.

      Elaborative rehearsal

    • B.

      Reducing interference within a topic

    • C.

      Counteracting the serial position effect

    • D.

      Using contextual cues to jog memory

    Correct Answer
    B. Reducing interference within a topic
    Explanation
    Wynn is using the technique of reducing interference within a topic to enhance his memory. By breaking up each chapter into manageable sections and learning key information one section at a time, Wynn is preventing interference from other topics or information from hindering his memory retention. This technique allows him to focus on one specific topic at a time, reducing the chances of confusion or overlapping information. By minimizing interference, Wynn can better retain and recall the information he is studying for his chemistry exam.

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  • 7. 

    The peg-word method and method of loci are:Select one:

    • A.

      Techniques that have been used to induce false memories in participants in research studies

    • B.

      Retrieval cue strategies to help you recall a blocked word or name during tip-of-the-tongue experiences.

    • C.

      Suggestive techniques that can be used to recover repressed memories.

    • D.

      Mnemonic devices to help you remember information.

    Correct Answer
    D. Mnemonic devices to help you remember information.
    Explanation
    The peg-word method and method of loci are mnemonic devices to help you remember information. The peg-word method involves associating numbers with specific words or images, while the method of loci involves associating information with specific locations or places in your mind. Both techniques are used to enhance memory and aid in the recall of information.

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  • 8. 

    As you are reading this question right now, you are consciously processing the meaning of the words in which stage of memory?Select one: 

    • A.

      Sensory memory

    • B.

      Short-term memory

    • C.

      Long-term memory

    • D.

      Episodic memory

    Correct Answer
    B. Short-term memory
    Explanation
    When reading and consciously processing the meaning of words, it occurs in the short-term memory stage. Short-term memory is responsible for temporarily holding and manipulating information that is currently being processed. This type of memory allows us to retain information for a short period of time, typically around 20-30 seconds, before it either gets transferred to long-term memory or is forgotten.

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  • 9. 

    Mike began studying for his exam the night before the test, reading his textbook chapter for the first time. Ebbinghaus would predict that:Select one:

    • A.

      Mike would rapidly forget most of the material that he learned.

    • B.

      Mike would remember most of the new material for several months, then rapidly forget most of it.

    • C.

      Mike would gradually forget the new material over a period of several months.

    • D.

      Mike's memory of the new material would remain remarkably stable for a lengthy period of time.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mike would rapidly forget most of the material that he learned.
    Explanation
    Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve suggests that memory rapidly decays over time if there is no effort to retain the information. Since Mike only studied the night before the test and read the textbook chapter for the first time, he did not have enough time to consolidate the information in his memory. Therefore, Ebbinghaus would predict that Mike would rapidly forget most of the material that he learned.

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  • 10. 

    The peg-word method and method of loci are:Select one:

    • A.

      Retrieval cue strategies to help you recall a blocked word or name during tip-of-the-tongue experiences.

    • B.

      Suggestive techniques that can be used to recover repressed memories.

    • C.

      Mnemonic devices to help you remember information.

    • D.

      Techniques that have been used to induce false memories in participants in research studies.

    Correct Answer
    C. Mnemonic devices to help you remember information.
    Explanation
    The peg-word method and method of loci are mnemonic devices that help you remember information. The peg-word method involves associating numbers with rhyming words and using vivid imagery to remember lists of items. The method of loci involves mentally placing items to be remembered in specific locations along a familiar route or in a familiar setting. Both techniques rely on creating vivid and memorable associations in order to enhance memory recall.

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  • 11. 

    With their two children tagging along behind them, Evan and Michelle walked through the castle gate into the main square of the Magic Kingdom at Disney World. That’s when Michelle had a brief but intense déjà vu experience. “This is so strange,” she said to Evan. “It’s like I’ve experienced this moment before.” What Michelle was not remembering was that she had experienced this moment before – in scenes on the Disney channel. This examples shows that a disruption in _____ is one way that many déjà vu experiences can be explained.Select one: 

    • A.

      Sensory memory

    • B.

      Flashbulb memory

    • C.

      Source memory

    • D.

      Prospective memory

    Correct Answer
    C. Source memory
    Explanation
    The passage states that Michelle had a brief but intense déjà vu experience when walking through the castle gate into the main square of the Magic Kingdom at Disney World. She mentions that it feels like she has experienced this moment before. The passage then reveals that Michelle had actually seen similar scenes on the Disney channel, indicating that her déjà vu experience was due to a disruption in her source memory. Source memory refers to the ability to remember where, when, and how information was acquired, and in this case, Michelle's memory of seeing similar scenes on TV was mistakenly attributed to her current experience at Disney World.

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  • 12. 

    As you are taking this exam, you are actively retrieving information that you have learned and stored in your long-term memory. The information that you are able to consciously recall is an example of which subsystem of long-term memory?Select one:

    • A.

      Explicit memory

    • B.

      Implicit memory

    • C.

      Anterograde memory

    • D.

      Flashbulb memory

    Correct Answer
    A. Explicit memory
    Explanation
    Explicit memory refers to the conscious recollection of information that has been learned and stored in long-term memory. In this scenario, as the individual is actively retrieving information during the exam, they are consciously recalling information from their long-term memory, which aligns with the characteristics of explicit memory. Implicit memory refers to the unconscious or automatic retrieval of information, anterograde memory refers to the inability to form new memories after an event, and flashbulb memory refers to vivid and emotionally significant memories of specific events.

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  • 13. 

    Information is stored in short-term memory for:Select one:

    • A.

      About two or three seconds.

    • B.

      About thirty minutes.

    • C.

      About thirty seconds.

    • D.

      About a day.

    Correct Answer
    C. About thirty seconds.
    Explanation
    Short-term memory is the temporary storage of information that lasts for a limited duration. It has a limited capacity and can hold information for a brief period. The correct answer is "about thirty seconds" because short-term memory typically retains information for a short duration, usually around 20-30 seconds, before it is either forgotten or transferred to long-term memory through processes like rehearsal or encoding.

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  • 14. 

    In the 1920s, psychologist Karl Lashley:Select one:

    • A.

      Began a longitudinal study on the memory of high school students for the words and phrases they had learned in Spanish class.

    • B.

      Began the first systematic study of forgetting using nonsense syllables.

    • C.

      Measured the duration of visual sensory memory.

    • D.

      Began searching for the brain changes associated with the formation of a long-term memory.

    Correct Answer
    D. Began searching for the brain changes associated with the formation of a long-term memory.
    Explanation
    In the 1920s, psychologist Karl Lashley started searching for the brain changes associated with the formation of a long-term memory. This suggests that Lashley was interested in understanding how memories are formed and stored in the brain. He likely conducted experiments or studies to investigate the physical changes that occur in the brain during the process of creating long-term memories. This research would have contributed to our understanding of memory and the brain's role in it.

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  • 15. 

    Although the concept of repressed memories is controversial, there is general agreement among psychologists that:Select one:

    • A.

      Repressed memories recovered through hypnosis are accurate.

    • B.

      People may experience amnesia for some of the details of a single traumatic event, but they are unlikely to repress all memories of repeated incidents of abuse.

    • C.

      When people experience repeated incidents of abuse, they are more likely to completely repress all memories of the experiences.

    • D.

      Survivors of traumatic incidents are rarely able to recall details about the events.

    Correct Answer
    B. People may experience amnesia for some of the details of a single traumatic event, but they are unlikely to repress all memories of repeated incidents of abuse.
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that people may experience amnesia for some details of a single traumatic event, but it is unlikely for them to repress all memories of repeated incidents of abuse. This is in line with the general agreement among psychologists that while repressed memories are controversial, it is more common for individuals to have fragmented or incomplete memories of traumatic events rather than completely repressing all memories.

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  • 16. 

    As Rick was filling out the loan application, he couldn't remember his previous address even though he had lived there for five years. Rick's memory of his current address was interfering with his memory of his old address, which is an example of:Select one

    • A.

      The misinformation effect.

    • B.

      Proactive interference.

    • C.

      Retroactive interference.

    • D.

      Encoding failure.

    Correct Answer
    C. Retroactive interference.
    Explanation
    Rick's inability to remember his previous address, despite having lived there for five years, suggests that his memory of his current address is interfering with his memory of his old address. This interference is known as retroactive interference, where new information (current address) disrupts the recall of previously learned information (old address). This explanation aligns with the concept of retroactive interference, making it the correct answer choice.

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  • 17. 

    “Matt, that is so weird,” Emma said, looking startled. “As you were telling me about your dad, it’s like I knew exactly what you were going to say. I mean, it felt like it was something that had happened before but I know that’s not possible.” Emma appears to be:Select one:

    • A.

      Experiencing imagination inflation.

    • B.

      Having a déjà vu experience.

    • C.

      Recovering a repressed memory.

    • D.

      Developing anterograde amnesia.

    Correct Answer
    B. Having a déjà vu experience.
    Explanation
    Emma's statement suggests that she feels like she has experienced the same situation before, even though she knows it is not possible. This is a common characteristic of a déjà vu experience, where an individual feels a sense of familiarity with a current situation that they believe they have already experienced. Therefore, the correct answer is that Emma is having a déjà vu experience.

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  • 18. 

    Which stage of memory enables us to perceive the world around us as continuous, rather than as a series of disconnected visual images or disjointed sounds?Select one:

    • A.

      Short-term memory

    • B.

      Long-term memory

    • C.

      Sensory memory

    • D.

      Working memory

    Correct Answer
    C. Sensory memory
    Explanation
    Sensory memory is the stage of memory that enables us to perceive the world around us as continuous, rather than as a series of disconnected visual images or disjointed sounds. Sensory memory holds information from our senses for a very brief period of time, allowing us to retain a continuous and coherent perception of the environment. It acts as a buffer, capturing sensory information before it is transferred to short-term memory for further processing and storage.

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  • 19. 

    Identify the psychologist who was a pioneer in the scientific study of forgetting.Select one: 

    • A.

      Hermann Ebbinghaus

    • B.

      Elizabeth Loftus

    • C.

      George Sperling

    • D.

      Karl Lashley

    Correct Answer
    A. Hermann Ebbinghaus
    Explanation
    Hermann Ebbinghaus is the correct answer because he was a psychologist who conducted groundbreaking research on forgetting and memory. He is known for his experiments on himself, where he studied the process of forgetting by memorizing and then attempting to recall nonsense syllables. Ebbinghaus developed the concept of the forgetting curve, which describes how information is forgotten over time. His work laid the foundation for the scientific study of forgetting and greatly contributed to our understanding of memory processes.

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  • 20. 

    Brenda’s Aunt Shelby got to the point where she just couldn’t recall any more details. “Honestly, that’s all I can remember about being in the same first grade class as Bruce Springsteen. It was just too long ago,” Shelby explained to her disappointed niece. That Shelby was unable to recall her other long-term memories about attending elementary school with Bruce Springsteen is most likely an example of:Select one 

    • A.

      Prospective memory.

    • B.

      Retrieval cue failure.

    • C.

      Memory consolidation.

    • D.

      Imagination inflation.

    Correct Answer
    B. Retrieval cue failure.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is retrieval cue failure. This is because Brenda's Aunt Shelby is unable to recall her other long-term memories about attending elementary school with Bruce Springsteen, indicating a failure in retrieving the necessary cues or triggers to access those memories.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following psychologists developed and promoted the use of the intelligence quotient or IQ as a measure for intelligence?Select one: 

    • A.

      Alfred Binet

    • B.

      David Wechsler

    • C.

      Charles Spearman

    • D.

      Lewis Terman

    Correct Answer
    D. Lewis Terman
    Explanation
    Lewis Terman is the correct answer because he is known for his work in developing and popularizing the use of the intelligence quotient (IQ) as a measure for intelligence. Terman adapted and expanded Alfred Binet's original IQ test, and his version became widely used in the United States. He also conducted a long-term study known as the Stanford-Binet study, which followed a group of gifted children throughout their lives. Terman's work had a significant impact on the field of psychology and the understanding of intelligence.

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  • 22. 

    When LaToya got her new computer, she carefully followed the steps described in the manual, and by the end of the evening her new computer was up and running. LaToya used:Select one: 

    • A.

      An algorithm.

    • B.

      A heuristic

    • C.

      Insight.

    • D.

      Trial and error.

    Correct Answer
    A. An algorithm.
    Explanation
    LaToya carefully followed the steps described in the manual to set up her new computer. This suggests that she used a systematic and step-by-step approach to solve the problem, which aligns with the concept of an algorithm. Algorithms are precise and well-defined procedures or instructions that can be followed to solve a specific problem. In this case, following the manual's instructions can be considered as using an algorithm to successfully set up the computer.

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  • 23. 

    The _____ is the strong tendency to search for information or evidence that confirms a belief, while making little or no effort to search for information that might disprove the belief.Select one: 

    • A.

      Belief-bias effect

    • B.

      Confirmation bias

    • C.

      Fallacy of positive instances

    • D.

      Overestimation effect

    Correct Answer
    B. Confirmation bias
    Explanation
    Confirmation bias refers to the strong tendency to search for information or evidence that confirms a belief, while making little or no effort to search for information that might disprove the belief. This bias can lead individuals to selectively interpret or remember information in a way that supports their preexisting beliefs, while disregarding or dismissing contradictory evidence. It can hinder objective and rational decision-making by influencing the way information is processed and evaluated.

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  • 24. 

    Cross-cultural research on color names and color perception has shown that:Select one

    • A.

      Colors are perceived and classified differently in the languages spoken in remote, isolated areas.

    • B.

      Speakers of languages that do not have a written form classify and perceive colors in a way that is fundamentally different from that of speakers of written languages.

    • C.

      Colors are perceived and classified in much the same way whether the language is written or unwritten and whether the society is industrialized or unindustrialized.

    • D.

      People who have not been exposed to modern culture, especially television and the Internet, “carve up” and perceive the visible spectrum in highly distinctive ways which bear little resemblance to classification systems in industrialized societies.

    Correct Answer
    C. Colors are perceived and classified in much the same way whether the language is written or unwritten and whether the society is industrialized or unindustrialized.
    Explanation
    Cross-cultural research on color names and color perception has consistently found that colors are perceived and classified in a similar manner across different languages and societies, regardless of whether the language is written or unwritten, or the society is industrialized or unindustrialized. This suggests that there is a universal aspect to color perception that transcends cultural and linguistic differences.

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  • 25. 

    While Mary was reading a story about the Australian outback adventures of Billy and his dog, she had no problem visualizing the arid countryside, the unusual animals that lived there, and the various people that Billy and his dog met in their journeys. Mary is using:Select one:

    • A.

      Mental imagery.

    • B.

      A mental set.

    • C.

      An algorithm.

    • D.

      A heuristic.

    Correct Answer
    A. Mental imagery.
    Explanation
    Mary is able to visualize the arid countryside, unusual animals, and various people in her mind while reading the story. This indicates that she is using mental imagery, which involves creating mental representations of sensory experiences.

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  • 26. 

    Problem solving is defined as:Select one:

    • A.

      Thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available

    • B.

      The mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge

    • C.

      The mental activities that involve learning rules and features

    • D.

      The tendency to view objects as functioning only in their usual or customary way.

    Correct Answer
    A. Thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "thinking and behavior directed toward attaining a goal that is not readily available." This definition of problem solving implies that it involves actively seeking solutions and taking action to achieve a desired outcome, even when the solution is not immediately apparent or easily accessible. Problem solving requires critical thinking, creativity, and the ability to approach challenges from different angles in order to overcome obstacles and reach the desired goal.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following is NOT a basic requirement of a good test design?Select one:

    • A.

      Reliability

    • B.

      Aptitude

    • C.

      Validity

    • D.

      Standardization

    Correct Answer
    B. Aptitude
    Explanation
    Aptitude is not a basic requirement of a good test design. Test design focuses on creating a reliable, valid, and standardized assessment. Reliability ensures consistent results, validity ensures the test measures what it intends to measure, and standardization ensures fairness and consistency in administration. Aptitude, on the other hand, refers to an individual's natural ability or talent, which is not a requirement for designing a good test.

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  • 28. 

    In problem solving, an algorithm is defined as:Select one

    • A.

      A problem-solving strategy that involves attempting different solutions and eliminating those that do not work.

    • B.

      A problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method, which inevitably produces the correct solution.

    • C.

      A problem-solving strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions.

    • D.

      The sudden realization of how a problem can be solved.

    Correct Answer
    B. A problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method, which inevitably produces the correct solution.
    Explanation
    The given correct answer states that an algorithm is a problem-solving strategy that involves following a specific rule, procedure, or method, which inevitably produces the correct solution. This means that an algorithm is a systematic approach to problem-solving that guarantees a correct solution if followed correctly. It emphasizes the importance of having a step-by-step process or set of instructions to solve a problem, ensuring that the solution is achieved in a reliable and consistent manner.

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  • 29. 

    Many people were convinced that Ethan had psychic abilities after he identified the park where the body of a missing person was eventually found. However, they failed to take into account the hundreds of times he made predictions that were false. This example illustrates the:Select one:

    • A.

      Belief-bias effect.

    • B.

      Confirmation bias.

    • C.

      Extrinsic motivation effect.

    • D.

      Fallacy of positive instances.

    Correct Answer
    D. Fallacy of positive instances.
    Explanation
    The fallacy of positive instances refers to the tendency to focus on and give more weight to examples that confirm a belief or hypothesis, while ignoring or downplaying examples that contradict it. In this case, people were convinced that Ethan had psychic abilities based on one successful prediction, but they ignored the numerous times he made false predictions. This illustrates the fallacy of positive instances because they only considered the positive instance that supported their belief and disregarded the negative instances that contradicted it.

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  • 30. 

    _____ means that the test is given to a large representative sample of people under uniform conditions for the purpose of establishing norms.Select one:

    • A.

      Validity

    • B.

      Reliability

    • C.

      Availability

    • D.

      Standardization

    Correct Answer
    D. Standardization
    Explanation
    Standardization refers to the process of administering a test to a large and diverse group of people in a consistent and controlled manner. This is done in order to establish norms or benchmarks against which individual test scores can be compared. By using a representative sample and uniform conditions, standardization ensures that the test results are reliable and valid, allowing for accurate interpretation and comparison of individual scores.

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  • 31. 

    Jonathan is a very bright ten-year-old with a mental age of twelve. If tested on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, his IQ score would most likely be:Select one:

    • A.

      100

    • B.

      83

    • C.

      120

    • D.

      160

    Correct Answer
    C. 120
    Explanation
    Jonathan's mental age of twelve indicates that he performs at a level typically expected of a twelve-year-old. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale measures intelligence quotient (IQ) by comparing an individual's mental age to their chronological age. Since Jonathan's mental age is higher than his chronological age of ten, his IQ score would most likely be above average. The closest option to reflect this is 120.

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  • 32. 

    In the “In Focus: Does a High IQ Score Predict Success in Life?” box, what was the general conclusion, based upon the research of Lewis Terman and Melita Oden with the genius-level children who grew up as genius-level adults?Select one:

    • A.

      The higher a person's IQ, the more success the person would have later in life.

    • B.

      IQ scores have virtually no relationship to personal success.

    • C.

      Although IQ is important, socioeconomic status accounts for a larger part of life success

    • D.

      Personality factors, as well as intelligence, seem to play a significant role in life success.

    Correct Answer
    D. Personality factors, as well as intelligence, seem to play a significant role in life success.
    Explanation
    The general conclusion based on the research of Lewis Terman and Melita Oden with the genius-level children who grew up as genius-level adults is that personality factors, as well as intelligence, seem to play a significant role in life success. This means that having a high IQ alone does not guarantee success in life, but other factors such as personality traits also contribute to one's overall success.

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  • 33. 

    Binet's intelligence test was translated and adapted by American psychologist Lewis Terman. Terman called this test the:Select one:

    • A.

      Terman Intelligence Scale (TIS).

    • B.

      Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS

    • C.

      Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.

    • D.

      Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children (WISC).

    Correct Answer
    C. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.
    Explanation
    Lewis Terman, an American psychologist, translated and adapted Binet's intelligence test. He named this test the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Therefore, the correct answer is Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.

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  • 34. 

    A characteristic of human language is that we can communicate meaningfully about ideas, objects, and activities that are not physically present. This characteristic is called:Select one:

    • A.

      Syntax.

    • B.

      Convergent thinking.

    • C.

      Displacement.

    • D.

      Heritability.

    Correct Answer
    C. Displacement.
    Explanation
    Displacement refers to the ability to communicate about things that are not present in the immediate environment. This means that humans can talk about past events, future plans, or even hypothetical situations. Syntax refers to the rules governing the structure of sentences, while convergent thinking refers to the ability to find a single correct solution to a problem. Heritability is a term used in genetics to describe the proportion of variation in a trait that can be attributed to genetic factors.

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  • 35. 

    The _____ occurs when people accept only the evidence that conforms to their belief, rejecting or ignoring any evidence that does not.Select one:

    • A.

      Confirmation bias

    • B.

      Fallacy of positive instances

    • C.

      Belief-bias effect

    • D.

      Overestimation effect

    Correct Answer
    C. Belief-bias effect
    Explanation
    The belief-bias effect refers to the tendency of individuals to accept or favor evidence that aligns with their existing beliefs, while dismissing or ignoring evidence that contradicts their beliefs. This cognitive bias can lead to flawed reasoning and decision-making, as it prevents individuals from considering alternative viewpoints or objectively evaluating evidence.

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  • 36. 

    _____ refers to a measurement of intelligence in which an individual's mental level is expressed in terms of a given age.Select one:

    • A.

      Chronological age

    • B.

      Mental age

    • C.

      Mental set

    • D.

      Intelligence quotient (IQ)

    Correct Answer
    B. Mental age
    Explanation
    Mental age refers to a measurement of intelligence in which an individual's mental level is expressed in terms of a given age. This concept was developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in the early 20th century as a way to assess a person's cognitive abilities. Mental age is used to compare an individual's intellectual development to that of others in the same age group. It is often used in the calculation of the Intelligence Quotient (IQ), which is a ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100.

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  • 37. 

    Which statement best characterizes Howard Gardner’s view of intelligence?Select one: 

    • A.

      “There is a single factor that can explain the pattern of specific mental abilities that is called intelligence.”

    • B.

      “There are multiple independent intelligences, and each must be defined within the context of a particular culture.”

    • C.

      There are three mental abilities – visual, spatial, and numerical – that together make up what is normally called intelligence.”

    • D.

      “There are three types of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical.”

    Correct Answer
    B. “There are multiple independent intelligences, and each must be defined within the context of a particular culture.”
    Explanation
    Howard Gardner's view of intelligence is that there are multiple independent intelligences, and each must be defined within the context of a particular culture. According to Gardner, intelligence is not solely determined by a single factor, but rather encompasses a variety of abilities that are unique to different individuals and cultures. This view rejects the notion of a single, universally applicable definition of intelligence and emphasizes the importance of cultural context in understanding and assessing intelligence.

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  • 38. 

    One way to creatively generate new ideas is to consider a problem from different angles or from a variety of perspectives, a technique that is called:Select one: 

    • A.

      Functional fixedness.

    • B.

      Algorithmic thinking.

    • C.

      Using a heuristic.

    • D.

      Divergent thinking.

    Correct Answer
    D. Divergent thinking.
    Explanation
    Divergent thinking is the correct answer because it refers to the ability to generate multiple solutions or ideas by exploring different angles or perspectives. This technique allows for a more creative and innovative approach to problem-solving, as it encourages thinking outside the box and considering various possibilities. Functional fixedness refers to the tendency to only see objects or ideas in their traditional or intended use, while algorithmic thinking involves following a step-by-step procedure to solve a problem. Using a heuristic refers to using a mental shortcut or rule of thumb to make decisions or solve problems.

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  • 39. 

    When Louis Pasteur said “Chance favors the prepared mind,” he was talking about one particular ingredient that is central to creative thinking. What is that ingredient?Select one:

    • A.

      Choosing the goal of creativity

    • B.

      Reinforcing intrinsic motivation

    • C.

      Engaging in problem finding

    • D.

      Acquiring relevant knowledge

    Correct Answer
    D. Acquiring relevant knowledge
    Explanation
    Louis Pasteur's quote "Chance favors the prepared mind" suggests that being prepared and having relevant knowledge is crucial for creative thinking. This implies that having a solid foundation of knowledge in a particular field increases the likelihood of recognizing opportunities and generating creative ideas. By acquiring relevant knowledge, individuals are able to make connections, identify patterns, and think critically, which are essential components of creative thinking. This explanation aligns with the idea that being prepared and knowledgeable enhances one's ability to think creatively and seize opportunities.

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  • 40. 

    How we use our cognitive abilities and accumulated knowledge to think, solve problems, and use language are all key dimensions of:Select one:

    • A.

      Perception.

    • B.

      Sensation.

    • C.

      Intelligence

    • D.

      Memory.

    Correct Answer
    C. Intelligence
    Explanation
    Intelligence refers to the ability to think, reason, solve problems, and use language. It encompasses the cognitive abilities and accumulated knowledge that we use in these processes. Perception and sensation are related to the sensory processes of receiving and interpreting information from the environment. While memory is the ability to store and retrieve information. Therefore, intelligence is the most appropriate choice as it encompasses the mentioned dimensions of cognitive abilities, problem-solving, and language use.

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  • 41. 

    Sarah is determined to play the role of Clara in the ballet, “The Nutcracker.” She begins to work very hard in ballet classes with this goal in mind. Sarah is demonstrating which characteristic of motivation?Select one: 

    • A.

      Instinctual drive

    • B.

      Sensation seeking

    • C.

      Self-actualization

    • D.

      Activation

    Correct Answer
    D. Activation
    Explanation
    Sarah's determination to play the role of Clara in the ballet "The Nutcracker" and her hard work in ballet classes demonstrate the characteristic of activation. Activation refers to the initiation and persistence of behavior in order to achieve a specific goal. In this case, Sarah is motivated to achieve her goal of playing the role of Clara and is actively taking steps, such as working hard in ballet classes, to make it happen.

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  • 42. 

    In terms of emotional experience,Select one:

    • A.

      Women experience more frequent and more intense emotions than men.

    • B.

      Men experience more frequent and more intense emotions than women.

    • C.

      Men and women are very similar in their experience of emotions.

    • D.

      Men experience emotion more frequently but women experience emotions more intensely.

    Correct Answer
    C. Men and women are very similar in their experience of emotions.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that men and women have similar experiences when it comes to emotions. This means that there is no significant difference between the frequency and intensity of emotions experienced by men and women. This implies that emotional experiences are not determined by gender, but rather by individual differences and personal factors.

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  • 43. 

    Based on the research and survey findings discussed in your text, which of the following conclusions about sexuality throughout the lifespan is most accurate?Select one

    • A.

      Single people have the most active and satisfying sex lives.

    • B.

      Most adults follow very traditional patterns of sexual behavior and are fundamentally happy with the relationship they have with their sexual partner.

    • C.

      It is virtually impossible to describe patterns of sexual development and behavior throughout the lifespan because it varies so much from person to person.

    • D.

      American adults strongly prefer kinky or unusual sexual practices.

    Correct Answer
    B. Most adults follow very traditional patterns of sexual behavior and are fundamentally happy with the relationship they have with their sexual partner.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that based on research and survey findings, most adults tend to follow traditional patterns of sexual behavior and are generally satisfied with their relationship with their sexual partner. This conclusion implies that the majority of adults are content with their sexual lives and have a stable and fulfilling relationship with their partner.

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  • 44. 

    When people are shown two pictures of a person and asked to distinguish between the “true” smile of joy and the smile that is masking negative emotions, they:Select one: 

    • A.

      Are usually unable to do so and guess randomly.

    • B.

      Can easily distinguish between the two.

    • C.

      Usually think the “fake” smile is the “true” smile.

    • D.

      Usually think the “true” smile is the “fake” smile.

    Correct Answer
    B. Can easily distinguish between the two.
  • 45. 

    Which statement best characterizes the relationship between emotions and physiological arousal?Select one:

    • A.

      Different physiological arousal patterns have been found for different emotions.

    • B.

      Most emotions have the same physiological arousal pattern since the arousal is based upon activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

    • C.

      Different physiological arousal patterns are seen with negative emotions but not with positive emotions.

    • D.

      Positive emotions have more intense physiological arousal patterns than do negative emotions.

    Correct Answer
    A. Different physiological arousal patterns have been found for different emotions.
    Explanation
    Different physiological arousal patterns have been found for different emotions. This means that different emotions are associated with distinct patterns of physiological responses in the body. This suggests that emotions are not solely based on the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, as stated in the second option. It also contradicts the third option, which suggests that only negative emotions have different physiological arousal patterns. Additionally, there is no evidence to support the claim made in the fourth option that positive emotions have more intense physiological arousal patterns than negative emotions.

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  • 46. 

    Matthew is extremely intelligent, and is a gifted statistician, yet he has few friends and rarely holds a job for more than six months, because he constantly alienates his co-workers and supervisors. Matthew probably lacks:Select one:

    • A.

      Achievement motivation.

    • B.

      Competence motivation.

    • C.

      Basic emotions.

    • D.

      Emotional intelligence.

    Correct Answer
    D. Emotional intelligence.
    Explanation
    Matthew's high intelligence and statistical abilities suggest that he has achievement motivation and competence motivation. However, his inability to maintain friendships and jobs due to alienating others indicates a lack of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence involves recognizing and managing one's own emotions, as well as understanding and empathizing with the emotions of others. Matthew's struggles with interpersonal relationships and workplace dynamics suggest that he lacks this important skill.

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  • 47. 

    Hans bought a chess software program and practices every day because he is highly motivated to become the top player on his college chess team. Hans's behavior and goal reflect a high level of:Select one: 

    • A.

      Achievement motivation.

    • B.

      Competence motivation.

    • C.

      Curiosity.

    • D.

      Sensation seeking.

    Correct Answer
    A. Achievement motivation.
    Explanation
    Hans's behavior of buying a chess software program and practicing every day, along with his goal of becoming the top player on his college chess team, reflects a high level of achievement motivation. Achievement motivation is the drive to excel, accomplish goals, and strive for success. In this case, Hans's motivation to become the top player on his college chess team demonstrates his desire for achievement and success in the field of chess.

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  • 48. 

    Psychologists define the term _____ as a complex psychological state that involves subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Select one:

    • A.

      Motivation

    • B.

      Emotion

    • C.

      Self-efficacy

    • D.

      Anthromorphism

    Correct Answer
    B. Emotion
    Explanation
    Psychologists define the term "emotion" as a complex psychological state that involves subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions are characterized by feelings such as happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust, and they also involve changes in bodily functions and observable behaviors. This definition highlights the multidimensional nature of emotions, encompassing both internal experiences and outward expressions.

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  • 49. 

    What important contribution was made by Abraham Maslow to the study of motivation?Select one:

    • A.

      Maslow was the first psychologist to study motivation and emotion in nonhuman animals.

    • B.

      Maslow's distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation helped psychologists recognize the importance of drives, incentives, and arousal in motivation.

    • C.

      Self-actualization is recognized by most motivation researchers as one of the most basic of all human motives.

    • D.

      Because of Maslow's influence, greater attention was paid to psychological needs and the motivation and development of people who were psychologically healthy.

    Correct Answer
    D. Because of Maslow's influence, greater attention was paid to psychological needs and the motivation and development of people who were psychologically healthy.
    Explanation
    Maslow's contribution to the study of motivation was that he brought greater attention to psychological needs and the motivation and development of psychologically healthy individuals. His influence led to a shift in focus from studying motivation solely in terms of drives, incentives, and arousal, to also considering the importance of psychological needs. This recognition of the significance of psychological needs in motivation has had a lasting impact on the field of psychology.

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  • 50. 

    Dr. Mathias believes that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs that “push” us to behave in certain ways. Dr. Mathias's views are most consistent with _____ theories of motivation.Select one:

    • A.

      Instinct

    • B.

      Incentive

    • C.

      Humanistic

    • D.

      Drive

    Correct Answer
    D. Drive
    Explanation
    Dr. Mathias's views are most consistent with drive theories of motivation. Drive theories propose that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs. According to this perspective, individuals are "pushed" to behave in certain ways in order to satisfy these needs and restore homeostasis. Drive theories focus on the role of physiological factors in motivating behavior, rather than external incentives or individual growth and self-actualization (humanistic theories) or innate, instinctual behaviors (instinct theories).

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  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 18, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Khoey88
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