Nervous System & Muscle Quiz

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| By Catherine Halcomb
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Catherine Halcomb
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Quizzes Created: 1428 | Total Attempts: 5,984,636
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Nervous System Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following does not form part of the thin filaments of a muscle cell?

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Troponin

    • C.

      Tropomyosin

    • D.

      Myosin

    • E.

      Calcium-binding site

    Correct Answer
    D. Myosin
    Explanation
    Myosin does not form part of the thin filaments of a muscle cell. Myosin is a thick filament that interacts with actin, a component of the thin filaments, to generate muscle contraction. Troponin, tropomyosin, and actin are all part of the thin filaments and are involved in regulating muscle contraction. The calcium-binding site is also a component of the thin filaments and plays a crucial role in initiating muscle contraction.

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  • 2. 

    During the contraction of a vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber, calcium ions

    • A.

      Break the cross-bridges as a cofactor in the hydrolysis of ATP.

    • B.

      Bind to the troponin complex, which leads to the exposure of the myosin-binding sites.

    • C.

      Transmit the action potential across the neuromuscular junction.

    • D.

      Spread the action potential through the T tubules.

    • E.

      Reestablish the polarization of the plasma membrane following an action potential.

    Correct Answer
    B. Bind to the troponin complex, which leads to the exposure of the myosin-binding sites.
    Explanation
    During the contraction of a vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber, calcium ions bind to the troponin complex. This binding causes a conformational change in the troponin-tropomyosin complex, which leads to the exposure of the myosin-binding sites on the actin filaments. This allows the myosin heads to bind to the actin filaments, forming cross-bridges and initiating the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is the correct sequence that occurs during the excitation and contraction of a muscle cell? 1. Tropomyosin shifts and unblocks the cross-bridge binding sites. 2. Calcium is released and binds to the troponin complex. 3. T tubules depolarize the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 4. The thin filaments are ratcheted across the thick filaments by the heads of the myosin molecules using energy from ATP. 5. An action potential in a motor neuron causes the axon to release acetylcholine, which depolarizes the muscle cell membrane.

    • A.

      1, 2, 3, 4, 5

    • B.

      2, 1, 3, 5, 4

    • C.

      2, 3, 4, 1, 5

    • D.

      5, 3, 1, 2, 4

    • E.

      5, 3, 2, 1, 4

    Correct Answer
    E. 5, 3, 2, 1, 4
    Explanation
    During the excitation and contraction of a muscle cell, the correct sequence is as follows: First, an action potential in a motor neuron causes the axon to release acetylcholine, which depolarizes the muscle cell membrane (5). Then, T tubules depolarize the sarcoplasmic reticulum (3), which leads to the release of calcium. The released calcium binds to the troponin complex (2), causing tropomyosin to shift and unblock the cross-bridge binding sites (1). Finally, the thin filaments are ratcheted across the thick filaments by the heads of the myosin molecules using energy from ATP (4).

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  • 4. 

    The general functions of the nervous system include which of the following? I. integration II. motor output III. sensory input

    • A.

      I only

    • B.

      II only

    • C.

      III only

    • D.

      I and II only

    • E.

      I, II, and III

    Correct Answer
    E. I, II, and III
    Explanation
    The correct answer is I, II, and III. The nervous system has multiple functions, including integration, motor output, and sensory input. Integration refers to the processing and interpretation of sensory information, motor output involves the response of the body to stimuli, and sensory input involves the detection and transmission of sensory information to the brain. Therefore, all three options are correct.

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  • 5. 

    Most of the neurons in the human brain are

    • A.

      Sensory neurons.

    • B.

      Motor neurons.

    • C.

      Interneurons.

    • D.

      Auditory neurons.

    • E.

      Olfactory neurons.

    Correct Answer
    C. Interneurons.
    Explanation
    Interneurons are a type of neuron that serve as a connection between sensory and motor neurons in the brain. They facilitate communication between different areas of the brain and are responsible for processing and integrating information. While sensory neurons receive information from the environment and motor neurons control muscle movements, interneurons play a crucial role in relaying and interpreting signals within the brain. Therefore, it can be inferred that most of the neurons in the human brain are interneurons.

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  • 6. 

    Most of the organelles in a neuron are located in the

    • A.

      Dendritic region.

    • B.

      Axon hillock.

    • C.

      Axon.

    • D.

      Cell body.

    • E.

      Axon terminals.

    Correct Answer
    D. Cell body.
    Explanation
    The cell body, also known as the soma, contains most of the organelles in a neuron. It is responsible for maintaining the cell's metabolic functions and providing energy for the neuron. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons and transmit them to the cell body, where the signals are integrated. The axon hillock is the site where the action potential is initiated, and the axon transmits the electrical impulses away from the cell body. The axon terminals are the end points of the axon where neurotransmitters are released to communicate with other neurons. However, the majority of organelles are located in the cell body.

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  • 7. 

    For a neuron with an initial membrane potential at -70 mV, an increase in the movement of potassium ions out of that neuron's cytoplasm would result in

    • A.

      Depolarization of the neuron.

    • B.

      Hyperpolarization of the neuron.

    • C.

      The replacement of potassium ions with sodium ions.

    • D.

      The replacement of potassium ions with calcium ions.

    • E.

      The neuron switching on its sodium-potassium pump to restore the initial conditions.

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperpolarization of the neuron.
    Explanation
    An increase in the movement of potassium ions out of the neuron's cytoplasm would result in hyperpolarization of the neuron. Hyperpolarization occurs when the membrane potential becomes more negative than the resting potential. As potassium ions, which are positively charged, leave the neuron, the net charge inside the neuron becomes more negative, leading to hyperpolarization. This makes it more difficult for the neuron to reach the threshold for firing an action potential.

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  • 8. 

    The operation of the sodium-potassium pump moves

    • A.

      Sodium and potassium ions into the cell.

    • B.

      Sodium and potassium ions out of the cell.

    • C.

      Sodium ions into the cell and potassium ions out of the cell.

    • D.

      Sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell.

    • E.

      Sodium and potassium ions into the mitochondria.

    Correct Answer
    D. Sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell.
    Explanation
    The sodium-potassium pump is responsible for maintaining the concentration gradient of sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane. It actively moves three sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions it moves into the cell. This process requires energy in the form of ATP. Therefore, the correct answer is that the sodium-potassium pump moves sodium ions out of the cell and potassium ions into the cell.

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  • 9. 

    Action potentials move along axons

    • A.

      More slowly in axons of large than in small diameter.

    • B.

      By the direct action of acetylcholine on the axon membrane.

    • C.

      By activating the sodium-potassium pump at each point along the axon membrane.

    • D.

      More rapidly in myelinated than in non-myelinated axons.

    • E.

      By reversing the concentration gradients for sodium and potassium ions.

    Correct Answer
    D. More rapidly in myelinated than in non-myelinated axons.
    Explanation
    Myelinated axons have a fatty substance called myelin surrounding them, which acts as an insulating layer. This insulation allows action potentials to jump from one node of Ranvier to another, skipping the sections of the axon covered in myelin. This process, called saltatory conduction, speeds up the transmission of action potentials along the axon. In contrast, non-myelinated axons have a continuous conduction, which is slower. Therefore, action potentials move more rapidly in myelinated axons compared to non-myelinated axons.

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  • 10. 

    A toxin that binds specifically to voltage-gated sodium channels in axons would be expected to

    • A.

      Prevent the hyperpolarization phase of the action potential.

    • B.

      Prevent the depolarization phase of the action potential.

    • C.

      Prevent graded potentials.

    • D.

      Increase the release of neurotransmitter molecules.

    • E.

      Have most of its effects on the dendritic region of a neuron.

    Correct Answer
    B. Prevent the depolarization phase of the action potential.
    Explanation
    If a toxin specifically binds to voltage-gated sodium channels in axons, it would prevent the depolarization phase of the action potential. During the depolarization phase, voltage-gated sodium channels open, allowing sodium ions to enter the axon and causing depolarization. This depolarization leads to the generation of an action potential. By binding to these channels, the toxin would block the entry of sodium ions and prevent depolarization from occurring, thus preventing the initiation of an action potential.

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  • 11. 

    Action potentials are normally carried in only one direction: from the axon hillock toward the axon terminals. If you experimentally depolarize the middle of the axon to threshold, using an electronic probe, then

    • A.

      No action potential will be initiated.

    • B.

      An action potential will be initiated and proceed only in the normal direction toward the axon terminal.

    • C.

      An action potential will be initiated and proceed only back toward the axon hillock.

    • D.

      Two action potentials will be initiated, one going toward the axon terminal and one going back toward the hillock.

    • E.

      An action potential will be initiated, but it will die out before it reaches the axon terminal.

    Correct Answer
    D. Two action potentials will be initiated, one going toward the axon terminal and one going back toward the hillock.
    Explanation
    When an action potential is initiated in a neuron, it travels in one direction from the axon hillock to the axon terminals. This is due to the refractory period that prevents the backward movement of the action potential. However, if the middle of the axon is experimentally depolarized to threshold using an electronic probe, it can initiate two action potentials. One action potential will travel towards the axon terminal in the normal direction, while the other action potential will travel back towards the axon hillock. This occurs because the depolarization in the middle of the axon creates two regions with different electrical potentials, allowing for the initiation of two separate action potentials.

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  • 12. 

    Saltatory conduction is a term applied to conduction of impulses

    • A.

      Across electrical synapses.

    • B.

      An action potential that skips the axon hillock in moving from the dendritic region to the axon terminal.

    • C.

      Rapid movement of an action potential reverberating back and forth along a neuron.

    • D.

      Jumping from one neuron to an adjacent neuron.

    • E.

      Jumping from one node of Ranvier to the next in a myelinated neuron.

    Correct Answer
    E. Jumping from one node of Ranvier to the next in a myelinated neuron.
    Explanation
    Saltatory conduction refers to the jumping of an action potential from one node of Ranvier to the next in a myelinated neuron. In myelinated neurons, the axon is covered in a fatty substance called myelin, which acts as an insulator. This insulation prevents the leakage of electrical charge and speeds up the conduction of the action potential. As the action potential travels down the axon, it jumps from one node of Ranvier (the small gaps between the myelin sheath) to the next, allowing for faster and more efficient transmission of the electrical signal.

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  • 13. 

    The steps below refer to various stages in transmission at a chemical synapse: 1. Neurotransmitter binds with receptors associated with the postsynaptic membrane. 2. Calcium ions rush into neuron's cytoplasm. 3. An action potential depolarizes the membrane of the axon terminal. 4. The ligand-gated ion channels open. 5. The synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. Which sequence of events is correct?

    • A.

      1 → 2 → 3 → 4 → 5

    • B.

      2 → 3 → 5 → 4 → 1

    • C.

      3 → 2 → 5 → 1 → 4

    • D.

      4 → 3 → 1 → 2 → 5

    • E.

      5 → 1 → 2 → 4 → 3

    Correct Answer
    C. 3 → 2 → 5 → 1 → 4
    Explanation
    The correct sequence of events in transmission at a chemical synapse is as follows:
    1. An action potential depolarizes the membrane of the axon terminal (3).
    2. Calcium ions rush into the neuron's cytoplasm (2).
    3. The synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft (5).
    4. Neurotransmitter binds with receptors associated with the postsynaptic membrane (1).
    5. Ligand-gated ion channels open (4).

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  • 14. 

    The activity of acetylcholine in a synapse is terminated by

    • A.

      Its active transport across the presynaptic membrane.

    • B.

      Its diffusion across the presynaptic membrane.

    • C.

      Its active transport across the postsynaptic membrane.

    • D.

      Its diffusion across the postsynaptic membrane.

    • E.

      Its degradation by a hydrolytic enzyme on the postsynaptic membrane.

    Correct Answer
    E. Its degradation by a hydrolytic enzyme on the postsynaptic membrane.
    Explanation
    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that transmits signals across synapses. In order for the signal to be terminated, acetylcholine needs to be removed from the synaptic cleft. The correct answer states that its degradation by a hydrolytic enzyme on the postsynaptic membrane is responsible for terminating the activity of acetylcholine. This means that the enzyme breaks down acetylcholine into inactive components, preventing it from continuously stimulating the postsynaptic neuron.

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  • 15. 

    Neurotransmitters categorized as inhibitory would be expected to

    • A.

      Act independently of their receptor proteins.

    • B.

      Close potassium channels.

    • C.

      Open sodium channels.

    • D.

      Close chloride channels.

    • E.

      Hyperpolarize the membrane.

    Correct Answer
    E. Hyperpolarize the membrane.
    Explanation
    Inhibitory neurotransmitters are responsible for suppressing or reducing the activity of neurons. Hyperpolarizing the membrane refers to an increase in the electrical potential across the cell membrane, making it more negative and less likely to generate an action potential. This inhibitory effect prevents the neuron from firing and transmitting signals to other neurons. Therefore, the correct answer, hyperpolarize the membrane, aligns with the expected action of inhibitory neurotransmitters.

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  • 16. 

    When several EPSPs arrive at the axon hillock from different dendritic locations, depolarizing the postsynaptic cell to threshold for an action potential, this is an example of

    • A.

      Temporal summation.

    • B.

      Spatial summation.

    • C.

      Tetanus.

    • D.

      The refractory state.

    • E.

      An action potential with an abnormally high peak of depolarization.

    Correct Answer
    B. Spatial summation.
    Explanation
    When several EPSPs arrive at the axon hillock from different dendritic locations, they can add up and reach the threshold for an action potential. This process is known as spatial summation. Temporal summation refers to the addition of EPSPs that arrive at the axon hillock at different times. Tetanus is a sustained contraction of muscles caused by rapid and repetitive stimulation. The refractory state refers to the period after an action potential when the neuron is temporarily unable to generate another action potential. An action potential with an abnormally high peak of depolarization is not mentioned in the explanation.

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  • 17. 

    When several IPSPs arrive at the axon hillock rapidly in sequence from a single dendritic location, hyperpolarizing the postsynaptic cell more and more and thus preventing an action potential, this is an example of

    • A.

      Temporal summation.

    • B.

      Spatial summation.

    • C.

      Tetanus.

    • D.

      The refractory state.

    • E.

      An action potential with an abnormally high peak of depolarization.

    Correct Answer
    A. Temporal summation.
    Explanation
    Temporal summation refers to the accumulation of postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) over time from a single presynaptic neuron. In this scenario, multiple IPSPs (inhibitory postsynaptic potentials) are arriving at the axon hillock in rapid succession from a single dendritic location. Each IPSP hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic cell, making it more negative and preventing the generation of an action potential. However, because the IPSPs are arriving rapidly, their effects summate or accumulate, eventually reaching a threshold that prevents an action potential from being generated. Therefore, this situation exemplifies temporal summation.

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  • 18. 

    What happens when a neuron's membrane depolarizes?

    • A.

      There is a net diffusion of Na+ out of the cell.

    • B.

      The equilibrium potential for K+ becomes more positive.

    • C.

      The neuron's membrane voltage becomes more positive.

    • D.

      The neuron becomes less likely to generate an action potential.

    • E.

      The inside of the cell becomes more negative relative to the outside.

    Correct Answer
    C. The neuron's membrane voltage becomes more positive.
    Explanation
    When a neuron's membrane depolarizes, it means that the voltage across the membrane becomes more positive. This occurs when there is an influx of positively charged ions, such as sodium ions, into the cell. The change in voltage is a result of the opening of ion channels in response to a stimulus, which allows the flow of ions across the membrane. This depolarization is an important step in the generation of an action potential, as it brings the membrane potential closer to the threshold for firing an action potential.

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  • 19. 

    Why are action potentials usually conducted in only one direction along an axon?

    • A.

      The nodes of Ranvier can conduct potentials in only one direction.

    • B.

      The brief refractory period prevents reopening of voltage-gated Na+ channels.

    • C.

      The axon hillock has a higher membrane potential than the terminals of the axon.

    • D.

      Ions can flow along the axon in only one direction.

    • E.

      Voltage-gated channels for both Na+ and K+ open in only one direction.

    Correct Answer
    B. The brief refractory period prevents reopening of voltage-gated Na+ channels.
    Explanation
    Action potentials are usually conducted in only one direction along an axon because of the brief refractory period that prevents the reopening of voltage-gated Na+ channels. During an action potential, the voltage-gated Na+ channels open, allowing Na+ ions to enter the axon and depolarize it. However, after the channels open, they become inactivated for a short period of time, known as the refractory period. This prevents the channels from reopening and allows the action potential to propagate in only one direction along the axon.

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  • 20. 

    Where are neurotransmitter receptors located?

    • A.

      On the nuclear membrane

    • B.

      At nodes of Ranvier

    • C.

      On the postsynaptic membrane

    • D.

      On the membranes of synaptic vesicles

    • E.

      In the myelin sheath

    Correct Answer
    C. On the postsynaptic membrane
    Explanation
    Neurotransmitter receptors are located on the postsynaptic membrane. This is where the neurotransmitters bind and transmit signals from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic neuron. The postsynaptic membrane is a specialized region of the neuron that contains receptors specific to different neurotransmitters. When a neurotransmitter binds to its corresponding receptor, it triggers a series of biochemical reactions that result in the generation of an electrical signal in the postsynaptic neuron.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Oct 12, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 19, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Catherine Halcomb
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