To provide latency free switching
To organize end devices in small manageable groups to provide connectivity using the high-speed backbone
To organize end devices in small manageable groups
To provide connectivity between smaller local networkstion 4
For communication between two ISPs
For a network that is directly connected to the Internet
For addresses that are used exclusively within an organization.
For a host with more than one direct connection to the Internet
DNS servers are used to map an IP address to a physical address.
DNS servers are used to map a name to an IP address.
DNS servers are used to configure logical address information for host computers.
DNS servers are used to translate from private addresses to public addresses.
It detects and removes spyware.
It detects and removes viruses.
It prevents the display of advertisement windows.
It removes unwanted e-mail.
Fiber optic cable
Source IP address
Destination IP address
Destination MAC address
They run on the network.
An example of a local application is e-mail.
They are accessed from a remote computer.
They are stored on the local hard disk.
They run on the computer where they are installed.
10.0.0.0 to 10.0.0.255
127.16.0.0 to 127.16.255.255
184.108.40.206 to 220.127.116.11
172.16.1.0 to 172.16.1.255
192.168.22.0 to 192.168.22.255
18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124
Increase the AP radio signal strength.
Place the AP in a more central location.
Deploy an external omni-directional antenna.
Reduce the number of devices using each channel.
It connects the receive pins on the first device to the receive pins on the second device.
It connects the transmit pins on the first device to the receive pins on the second device.
It disconnects the transmit pins and uses only the receive pins.
It uses the same pins for transmitting and receiving.
A, B, C, D
A, D, B, C
B, D, A, C
D, C, A, B
D, C, B, A
When low bandwidth is required
For home and small business connectivity
When a dedicated digital data line is necessary
As a less expensive option to cable and DSL modem service
Router R1 has no route to the destination network.
Switch S1 does not have an IP address configured.
The link between router R1 and switch S2 has failed.
Host H1 does not have a default gateway configured.
Replace the NIC in the host.
Change the IP address of the DHCP server.
Use static addressing to assign the correct IP address.
Use the release and renew options supported by the ipconfig command.
To allow the cable to endure more stretching or twisting
To ensure good electrical contact
To ensure that the wires are in correct order
To minimize crosstalk