Sme Preparation Group Trial Quiz

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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 522
Questions: 11 | Attempts: 307

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Sme Preparation Group Trial Quiz - Quiz

This is a trial quiz for the SME preparation Module applicants


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In error, a patient is infused with large volumes of a solution that causes lysis of his red blood cells (RBCs). The solution was most likely  

    • A.

      (A) isotonic NaCl

    • B.

      (B) isotonic mannitol

    • C.

      (C) hypertonic mannitol

    • D.

      (D) hypotonic urea

    • E.

      (E) hypertonic urea

    Correct Answer
    D. (D) hypotonic urea
    Explanation
    The answer is D. Lysis of the patient's red blood cells (RBCs) was caused by entry of water and swelling of the cells to the point of rupture. Water would flow into the RBCs if the extracellular fluid became hypotonic (had a lower osmotic pressure) relative to the intracellular fluid—hypotonic urea. By definition, isotonic solutions do not cause water to flow into or out of cells because the osmotic pressure is the same on both sides of the cell membrane. Hypertonic mannitol would cause shrinkage of the RBCs.

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  • 2. 

    The diagram below illustrates the concentration of a substance in two chambers. If the concentration of the substance in chamber A doubles, the diffusion of the substance will change from 10 mg/h to which of the following?  

    • A.

      E 30 mg/h

    • B.

      A. 5 mg/h

    • C.

      B 10 mg/h

    • D.

      C 15 mg/h

    • E.

      D 20 mg/h

    Correct Answer
    A. E 30 mg/h
    Explanation
    The answer is E. Fick’s law states that the net rate of diffusional flux (J) of a substance is proportional to its concentration difference (Δc). Doubling the concentration of the substance in chamber A from 20 to 40 mg/L, causes the concentration difference to increase by threefold from 10 to 30 mg/L. Therefore, the net rate of diffusion would increase from 10 to 30 mg/h.

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  • 3. 

    A 49-year-old male in end-stage renal failure is able to perform peritoneal dialysis at home. The osmolality of the solution chosen for peritoneal dialysis will determine the rate of ultrafiltration. Which of the following statements best characterizes a molecule whose osmolality is zero?  

    • A.

      A. It will not permeate the membrane

    • B.

      B. It can only cross the membrane through the lipid bilayer

    • C.

      C. It causes water to flow across the membrane

    • D.

      D. It is as diffusible through the membrane as water

    • E.

      E. It is transported across the membrane by a carrier

    Correct Answer
    D. D. It is as diffusible through the membrane as water
    Explanation
    The answer is D. The osmolality of a substance is the number of osmoles per kg of solvent. One osmole (Osm) equals the gram molecular weight of a substance divided by the number of free moving particles that each molecule liberates in solution. Osmotically active substances in the body are dissolved in water, and the density of water is 1.
    Thus, osmolar concentrations can be expressed as osmoles (or milliosmoles) per liter of water. If the osmolality is zero, there are no free moving particles, and thus, the molecule is as diffusible as water through the membrane

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  • 4. 

    Extracellular fluid in adults differs from intracellular fluid in that its Volume is greater.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False Cells contain half to two-thirds of the total body fluid.

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  • 5. 

    Extracellular fluid in adults differs from intracellular fluid in that its Tonicity is lower.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False It is the same; if it were lower, osmosis would draw water into the cells.

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  • 6. 

    Extracellular fluid in adults differs from intracellular fluid in that its Anions are mainly inorganic.  

    • A.

      False

    • B.

      True

    Correct Answer
    B. True
    Explanation
    True Mainly Cl and HCO3; inside, the main anions are protein and organic phosphates.

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  • 7. 

    Extracellular fluid in adults differs from intracellular fluid in that its Sodium:potassium molar ratio is higher.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    True Around 30:1; the intracellular ratio is about 1:10.

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  • 8. 

    Extracellular fluid in adults differs from intracellular fluid in that its pH is lower.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False Intracellular pH is lower due to cellular metabolism.

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  • 9. 

    Ahmed Elkhanany is one of the authors in which of the following articles ? (Clue:  use PubMed)

    • A.

      Plumbagin from Plumbago Zeylanica L induces apoptosis in human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines through NF- κB inactivation

    • B.

      Plumbagin inhibits tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of ovarian cancer cells in vivo

    • C.

      Plumbagin inhibits cytokinesis in Bacillus subtilis by inhibiting FtsZ assembly - a mechanistic study of its antibacterial activity

    • D.

      Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of plumbagin and other naphthoquinones

    Correct Answer
    B. Plumbagin inhibits tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of ovarian cancer cells in vivo
    Explanation
    Clue : use PubMed to either look for the author (Ahmed Elkhanany)

    Plumbagin inhibits tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of ovarian cancer cells in vivo.

    Sinha S, Pal K, Elkhanany A, Dutta S, Cao Y, Mondal G, Iyer S, Somasundaram V, Couch FJ, Shridhar V, Bhattacharya R, Mukhopadhyay D, Srinivas P.

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  • 10. 

    For this article "  Plumbagin inhibits tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of ovarian cancer cells in vivo "  What is the Journal that it was published in ?

    • A.

      Journal of Tumors and Cancers

    • B.

      Integral Journal of Cancer

    • C.

      International Journal of Cancer

    • D.

      International Cancer society Journal

    Correct Answer
    C. International Journal of Cancer
    Explanation
    Find the article in PubMed first then look above it for information about where it was published

    Int J Cancer. 2013 Mar 1;132(5):1201-12. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27724. Epub 2012 Jul 27.
    Plumbagin inhibits tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of ovarian cancer cells in vivo

    Just place your mouse over the hyperlink-ed Journal name in pubmed and it will show you the full name.

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  • 11. 

    For this article "  Plumbagin inhibits tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of ovarian cancer cells in vivo "  Which Volume, issue and from what page to what page was this article published ?

    • A.

      Volume 50, Issue 2, pages 34-45

    • B.

      Volume 70 , Issue 3, pages 139-143

    • C.

      Volume 110, Issue 4, pages 945-948

    • D.

      Volume 132 , Issue 5, pages 1201- 1212

    Correct Answer
    D. Volume 132 , Issue 5, pages 1201- 1212
    Explanation
    Find the article in PubMed first then look above it for information about where it was published
    Int J Cancer. 2013 Mar 1;132(5):1201-12. doi: 10.1002/ijc.27724. Epub 2012 Jul 27. Plumbagin inhibits tumorigenesis and angiogenesis of ovarian cancer cells in vivo.

    132(5):1201-12

    Volume 132
    Issue 5
    Pages   : From 1201 to 1212

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