Talking Animal - Quiz On Sociolinguistics 2 (Week8)

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Relexification is a hypothesis about the emergence of _____.

    • A.

      Creole

    • B.

      Lingua franca

    • C.

      None of these

    • D.

      Pidgin

    Correct Answer
    A. Creole
    Explanation
    Relexification is a hypothesis about the emergence of creole languages. It suggests that when two or more languages come into contact, one language is heavily restructured, with its vocabulary replaced by that of another language, while retaining its original grammar. This process leads to the formation of a new language known as a creole. Therefore, the correct answer is creole.

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  • 2. 

    An acrolect is a variety of ____.

    • A.

      None of these

    • B.

      Pidgin

    • C.

      Lingua franca

    • D.

      Creole

    Correct Answer
    D. Creole
    Explanation
    An acrolect is a variety of creole. A creole is a stable, natural language that has developed from a mixture of different languages. It typically arises in situations where people with different native languages come into contact and need to communicate. The acrolect refers to the most prestigious or standard form of the creole language, which is often influenced by the lexicon and grammar of the dominant language in the region.

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  • 3. 

    A pidgin which has become established as a first language in a speech community is known as _______.

    • A.

      Creole

    • B.

      Lingua franca

    • C.

      None of these

    • D.

      Pidgin

    Correct Answer
    A. Creole
    Explanation
    When a pidgin language evolves and becomes the native language of a community, it is referred to as a creole. This occurs when the pidgin is passed down from generation to generation and becomes the primary means of communication within the community. Unlike a lingua franca, which is a language used for communication between different language groups, a creole is specific to a particular speech community. Therefore, the correct answer is creole.

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  • 4. 

    A basilect is a variety of _____.

    • A.

      Lingua franca

    • B.

      None of these

    • C.

      Pidgin

    • D.

      Creole

    Correct Answer
    D. Creole
    Explanation
    A basilect is a variety of creole. A creole is a stable, fully-developed natural language that has evolved from a mixture of different languages. Basilect refers to the most divergent or least prestigious variety of a creole language, typically spoken by lower social classes or in rural areas. It is characterized by unique grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation features compared to other varieties of the same creole language.

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  • 5. 

    A language that develops when speakers of  two different languages come into contact and don’t know each other’s language is known as a ______.

    • A.

      Pidgin

    • B.

      Creole

    • C.

      None of these

    • D.

      Lingua franca

    Correct Answer
    A. Pidgin
    Explanation
    A pidgin is a language that develops when speakers of two different languages come into contact and don't know each other's language. It is a simplified form of communication that combines elements from both languages. Pidgins typically have a limited vocabulary and simplified grammar. Over time, if a pidgin becomes the native language of a community and is passed on to new generations, it can evolve into a creole, which is a more developed and stable language. Therefore, the correct answer is pidgin.

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  • 6. 

    A ‘third’ language used for communication among speakers of different languages is known as a ____.

    • A.

      Pidgin

    • B.

      Lingua franca

    • C.

      None of these

    • D.

      Creole

    Correct Answer
    B. Lingua franca
    Explanation
    A 'third' language used for communication among speakers of different languages is known as a lingua franca. This term refers to a language that is adopted as a common language between people who do not share a native language. It is often used in situations such as international diplomacy, trade, or tourism, where a common means of communication is necessary. A lingua franca helps facilitate understanding and communication among individuals who speak different languages.

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  • 7. 

    Lines on maps representing clear _____ between speakers of dialects are called isoglosses.

    • A.

      Contact areas

    • B.

      None of these

    • C.

      Boundaries

    • D.

      Isomorphic relations

    • E.

      Borders

    Correct Answer
    C. Boundaries
    Explanation
    Isoglosses are lines on maps that represent clear boundaries between speakers of different dialects. These lines indicate where certain linguistic features or vocabulary choices change, marking the transition between different dialects or language varieties. Therefore, the term "boundaries" accurately describes these lines on maps.

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  • 8. 

    Line on maps representing clear boundaries between speakers of dialects are known as ______.

    • A.

      Isotopes

    • B.

      Isomorphisms

    • C.

      Isoglosses

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Isoglosses
    Explanation
    Isoglosses are lines on maps that represent clear boundaries between speakers of different dialects. These lines help to distinguish the areas where certain linguistic features or vocabulary are used. Isotopes and isomorphisms are unrelated terms that do not pertain to the representation of dialect boundaries on maps. Therefore, the correct answer is isoglosses.

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  • 9. 

    Speakers are usually not aware of _____, but their use provides organization to the discourse.

    • A.

      Sentence markers

    • B.

      Clause markers

    • C.

      Utterance markers

    • D.

      Discourse markers

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    D. Discourse markers
    Explanation
    Discourse markers are words or phrases that speakers use to organize their speech and provide structure to their communication. These markers help to signal relationships between ideas, indicate transitions, and guide the listener's understanding. While speakers may not be consciously aware of using discourse markers, their use is essential for effective communication and coherence in conversation.

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  • 10. 

    The term anaphoric is used to denote _____.

    • A.

      Conjunctions

    • B.

      Ellipsis

    • C.

      A cohesive device

    • D.

      None of these

    • E.

      A metaphoric relationship

    Correct Answer
    C. A cohesive device
    Explanation
    The term "anaphoric" is used to denote a cohesive device. A cohesive device is a linguistic element that helps to connect different parts of a text and create coherence. Anaphoric refers specifically to a type of cohesive device that refers back to a previously mentioned word or phrase. It helps to maintain the flow of information and avoid repetition in a text. Conjunctions, ellipsis, and metaphoric relationships are not specifically related to the concept of anaphoric as cohesive devices.

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  • 11. 

    Any bit of talk which is distinct from other bits of talk in a speech situation is called _____.

    • A.

      A sentence

    • B.

      None of these

    • C.

      A clause

    • D.

      An utterance

    • E.

      Discourse

    Correct Answer
    D. An utterance
    Explanation
    In a speech situation, any distinct bit of talk is referred to as an utterance. This term is used to describe a specific unit of speech that is separate from other units and carries meaning on its own. It can be a single word, a phrase, or a complete sentence. An utterance is a fundamental component of communication and is essential for conveying thoughts, ideas, and information in a speech context.

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  • 12. 

    The set of _____ produced by a speaker is called discourse.

    • A.

      Registers

    • B.

      Utterances

    • C.

      Sentences

    • D.

      None of these

    • E.

      Clauses

    Correct Answer
    B. Utterances
    Explanation
    Discourse refers to a set of spoken or written language produced by a speaker. Utterances, which are individual spoken or written expressions, make up this set of discourse. Therefore, the correct answer is "utterances."

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  • 13. 

    The set of utterances produced by a speaker is called ________.

    • A.

      Clause

    • B.

      Utterance

    • C.

      Sentence

    • D.

      None of these

    • E.

      Discourse

    Correct Answer
    E. Discourse
    Explanation
    The set of utterances produced by a speaker refers to a larger unit of language beyond individual sentences or clauses. This larger unit is called discourse. It includes a series of connected sentences or utterances that form a coherent and meaningful whole. Discourse can involve conversations, speeches, narratives, or any other form of extended communication.

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  • 14. 

    The form that talk takes in any given context is called ______.

    • A.

      None of these

    • B.

      Performance

    • C.

      Register

    • D.

      Style

    • E.

      Genre

    Correct Answer
    C. Register
    Explanation
    Register refers to the form of language that is used in a particular context or situation. It includes the choice of words, tone, and style of speaking or writing. It can vary based on factors such as the social status of the speaker, the audience, and the purpose of communication. In this context, the form of talk in any given situation is referred to as register.

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  • 15. 

    Old survivals of lexical items such as shippon ‘cow-house’ are known as _____.

    • A.

      Neologisms

    • B.

      None of these

    • C.

      Archaisms

    • D.

      Slang

    Correct Answer
    C. Archaisms
    Explanation
    Old survivals of lexical items such as "shippon" are known as archaisms. Archaisms refer to words or phrases that were once commonly used but are now considered outdated or old-fashioned. These words may have fallen out of common usage but can still be found in older texts or in certain dialects.

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  • 16. 

    New creations of lexical items are known as _____.

    • A.

      Neologisms

    • B.

      Slang

    • C.

      Archaisms

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Neologisms
    Explanation
    Neologisms refer to new creations of lexical items. These are newly coined words or phrases that are not yet widely recognized or accepted in a language. They can be created to describe new concepts, technologies, or cultural phenomena. Slang refers to informal language used by a particular group or subculture, while archaisms are outdated or old-fashioned words or phrases. Therefore, the correct answer is neologisms.

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  • 17. 

    The use of [v]armer for ‘farmer’ in SW England is known as ____.

    • A.

      Medial fricative voicing

    • B.

      Initial fricative voicing

    • C.

      None of these

    • D.

      Final fricative voicing

    Correct Answer
    B. Initial fricative voicing
    Explanation
    The use of [v]armer for 'farmer' in SW England is known as initial fricative voicing. This is because the /f/ sound at the beginning of the word 'farmer' is replaced with the voiced /v/ sound, resulting in [v]armer.

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  • 18. 

    Speakers’ underlying knowledge of the linguistic system are the rules for the appropriate use of language in speech situation is known as ____.

    • A.

      Communicative performance

    • B.

      Communicative competence

    • C.

      None of these

    • D.

      Linguistic competence

    Correct Answer
    B. Communicative competence
    Explanation
    Communicative competence refers to the speaker's underlying knowledge of the rules for appropriate language use in speech situations. It encompasses not only the grammatical and linguistic aspects of language, but also the social and cultural norms that govern communication. This term encompasses the speaker's ability to use language effectively and appropriately in various contexts, taking into account factors such as the purpose of communication, the audience, and the social norms of the situation. Linguistic competence, on the other hand, specifically refers to the speaker's knowledge of the grammatical rules and structures of a language. Therefore, the correct answer is communicative competence.

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  • 19. 

    Social situations in which there is appropriate use of language are called _____.

    • A.

      Language situations

    • B.

      Talk situations

    • C.

      None of these

    • D.

      Speech situations

    Correct Answer
    D. Speech situations
    Explanation
    Social situations in which there is appropriate use of language are commonly referred to as "speech situations". In these situations, individuals engage in verbal communication using language to convey their thoughts, ideas, and messages effectively. This term encompasses various scenarios such as conversations, presentations, debates, and public speaking events where language plays a crucial role in effective communication.

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  • 20. 

    The term cataphoric is used to denote _____.

    • A.

      Cohesive device

    • B.

      Conjunctions

    • C.

      A metaphoric relationship

    • D.

      Ellipsis

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Cohesive device
    Explanation
    The term cataphoric is used to refer to a cohesive device. Cohesive devices are words or phrases that are used to connect different parts of a text and make it coherent. Cataphoric devices specifically refer to words or phrases that refer to something mentioned later in the text. This helps to create a flow and connect ideas within a sentence or paragraph.

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  • 21. 

    The term anaphoric is used to denote ____.

    • A.

      Ellipsis

    • B.

      None of these

    • C.

      A metaphoric relationship

    • D.

      A cohesive device

    Correct Answer
    D. A cohesive device
    Explanation
    The term "anaphoric" refers to a cohesive device in language. A cohesive device is a linguistic element that helps create coherence and connect different parts of a text. Anaphoric devices specifically refer back to something mentioned earlier in the text, such as pronouns or demonstratives. This creates a cohesive flow and helps the reader or listener understand the connections between different ideas or entities. Therefore, "a cohesive device" is the correct answer.

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  • 22. 

    The languages constituting West Romance involve _____.

    • A.

      None of these

    • B.

      Dialect continua

    • C.

      Dialect sequences

    • D.

      Dialect continents

    Correct Answer
    B. Dialect continua
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "dialect continua." This means that the languages in the West Romance group are not separate and distinct, but rather form a continuum or a range of dialects that gradually blend into each other. This suggests that there is no clear boundary between the different languages, and they share many similarities and influences.

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  • 23. 

    In some dialects ‘You should can do it’ is used instead of ‘You ought to be able to do it’. This is a case of _____.

    • A.

      Double standards

    • B.

      Double modals

    • C.

      None of these

    • D.

      Double tense

    Correct Answer
    B. Double modals
    Explanation
    In some dialects, the phrase "You should can do it" is used instead of "You ought to be able to do it." This usage of two modal verbs, "should" and "can," is known as double modals. It is a feature of certain dialects and represents a variation in the standard grammar rules.

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  • 24. 

    The study of linguistic variation in terms of the geographical distribution of speakers is known as _____.

    • A.

      Dialectology

    • B.

      None of these

    • C.

      Acentology

    • D.

      Dialectics

    Correct Answer
    A. Dialectology
    Explanation
    Dialectology refers to the study of linguistic variation based on the geographical distribution of speakers. It focuses on analyzing the different dialects and variations in language that occur within a specific region or among different regions. This field of study helps linguists understand how language changes and evolves in different geographical areas, and how social and cultural factors influence language variation.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 15, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Nup1
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