Cp Bio 2 - Unit 1 Rebate (Spring 2014)

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Cp Bio 2 - Unit 1 Rebate (Spring 2014) - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In biological systems, proteins are said to be denatured when...

    • A.

      The protein is folded and layered.

    • B.

      The protein changes shape and becomes non-functional.

    • C.

      The protein changes into an enzyme.

    • D.

      The protein is artificial.

    Correct Answer
    B. The protein changes shape and becomes non-functional.
    Explanation
    Proteins are complex molecules made up of amino acids that have a specific three-dimensional structure. Denaturation occurs when the protein's structure is disrupted, causing it to lose its shape and function. This can happen due to various factors such as heat, pH changes, or exposure to chemicals. When a protein is denatured, it loses its ability to perform its biological functions, rendering it non-functional. Therefore, the correct answer is that denatured proteins change shape and become non-functional.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following can denature a protein? Check all that apply. (more than one answer)

    • A.

      Change the pH

    • B.

      Expose the protein to sunlight

    • C.

      Increase the salt concentration

    • D.

      Add water to the protein

    • E.

      Expose the protein to extreme heat

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Change the pH
    B. Expose the protein to sunlight
    C. Increase the salt concentration
    E. Expose the protein to extreme heat
    Explanation
    Exposing a protein to extreme heat can denature it by disrupting the weak bonds that maintain its structure. Changing the pH can alter the charge distribution in the protein, causing it to unfold and lose its functional shape. Increasing the salt concentration can disrupt the electrostatic interactions within the protein, leading to denaturation. Exposing the protein to sunlight can cause photochemical reactions that damage the protein structure, resulting in denaturation. Adding water to the protein does not denature it, as water is a natural component of protein structure and function.

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  • 3. 

    The functional group -NH2 is called the ____.

    • A.

      Amino group

    • B.

      Acid group

    • C.

      Hydroxide group

    • D.

      Fatty acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Amino group
    Explanation
    The functional group -NH2 is called the amino group. This group consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms. It is commonly found in organic compounds, particularly in amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. The amino group is important for the formation of peptide bonds and plays a crucial role in the structure and function of proteins.

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  • 4. 

    How many amino acids are found in humans?

    • A.

      12

    • B.

      16

    • C.

      20

    • D.

      24

    Correct Answer
    C. 20
    Explanation
    There are 20 amino acids found in humans. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and are essential for various biological processes in the body. These amino acids are used to synthesize proteins, which play crucial roles in cell structure, function, and regulation. Each amino acid has a unique chemical structure and properties, allowing them to contribute to the diversity and complexity of proteins in the human body.

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  • 5. 

    When a fat molecule is called "saturated", what is it saturated with?

    • A.

      Oxygen atoms

    • B.

      Double bonds

    • C.

      Calories

    • D.

      Hydrogen atoms

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydrogen atoms
    Explanation
    A fat molecule is called "saturated" because it is saturated with hydrogen atoms. In a saturated fat molecule, all of the available carbon bonds are filled with hydrogen atoms, meaning there are no double bonds between carbon atoms. This results in a straight and rigid structure, making saturated fats solid at room temperature. Saturated fats are commonly found in animal products and some plant-based oils, and consuming too much of them can increase the risk of heart disease.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following describes DNA?

    • A.

      It contains uracil.

    • B.

      It contains the sugar ribose.

    • C.

      It controls the production of proteins.

    • D.

      It is made of amino acids.

    Correct Answer
    C. It controls the production of proteins.
    Explanation
    DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that contains the genetic instructions for the development and functioning of all living organisms. It is composed of nucleotides, which consist of a sugar (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. DNA controls the production of proteins through a process called protein synthesis. It provides the genetic code that determines the sequence of amino acids in a protein, which in turn influences the structure and function of the protein. Therefore, the statement "It controls the production of proteins" accurately describes DNA.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is NOT true of water?

    • A.

      It resists change in temperature.

    • B.

      It is considered the "universal solvent".

    • C.

      It can diffuse through lipids easily.

    • D.

      It has unique properties due to its polarity.

    Correct Answer
    C. It can diffuse through lipids easily.
    Explanation
    Water cannot diffuse through lipids easily because lipids are nonpolar molecules and water is a polar molecule. Polar molecules like water are attracted to other polar molecules and repelled by nonpolar molecules. Lipids, being nonpolar, do not have an affinity for water and therefore water cannot easily pass through them.

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  • 8. 

    Most plants use lipids for long-term storage of energy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    While lipids are indeed used for long-term storage of energy in animals, most plants primarily use carbohydrates (such as starch) for this purpose. Lipids in plants are mainly used for structural purposes, such as forming cell membranes and providing insulation. Therefore, the statement that most plants use lipids for long-term energy storage is false.

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  • 9. 

    Most plants use carbohydrate to build cell walls.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Plants primarily use carbohydrates to build their cell walls. Carbohydrates, such as cellulose, provide structural support and rigidity to plant cells. Cellulose is a complex carbohydrate that forms long chains, which are then arranged in a mesh-like pattern to create a sturdy cell wall. This allows plants to maintain their shape and withstand physical stress. Therefore, the statement "Most plants use carbohydrate to build cell walls" is true.

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  • 10. 

    There are literally hundreds of thousands of different organic molecules. Which statement best explains how this is possible?

    • A.

      Elements can make an unlimited number of chemical bonds.

    • B.

      Carbon is unique in that it can make four chemical bonds.

    • C.

      Carbon can make twenty bonds to other carbon atoms.

    • D.

      Organic molecules are acidic.

    Correct Answer
    B. Carbon is unique in that it can make four chemical bonds.
    Explanation
    Carbon is unique in that it can make four chemical bonds. This property allows carbon atoms to form stable covalent bonds with other carbon atoms and a variety of other elements, resulting in a wide range of possible molecular structures. This versatility of carbon bonding is the basis for the vast diversity of organic molecules found in nature.

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  • 11. 

    The specific chemical that an enzyme will act on is called a(n) ...

    • A.

      Substrate.

    • B.

      Protein.

    • C.

      Amino acid.

    • D.

      Catalyst.

    Correct Answer
    A. Substrate.
    Explanation
    Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts in biological reactions. They speed up chemical reactions by binding to specific molecules called substrates. The enzyme's active site is complementary to the shape and chemical properties of its substrate, allowing it to bind and facilitate the conversion of the substrate into a product. Therefore, the specific chemical that an enzyme will act on is called a substrate.

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  • 12. 

    Which phrase best describes the effect of a catalyst on a chemical reaction?

    • A.

      Decreases the rate of reaction

    • B.

      Increases the temperature

    • C.

      Decreases the activation energy

    • D.

      Increases the volume of the reactants

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreases the activation energy
    Explanation
    A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. By decreasing the activation energy, the catalyst provides an alternative pathway for the reaction to proceed, making it easier for the reactants to overcome the energy barrier and form products. As a result, the reaction can occur at a faster rate with the presence of a catalyst. Therefore, the phrase "decreases the activation energy" best describes the effect of a catalyst on a chemical reaction.

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  • 13. 

    What type of polymer is an enzyme?

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Carbohydrate

    • C.

      Lipid

    • D.

      Nucleic Acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Protein
    Explanation
    Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in living organisms. Proteins are polymers made up of amino acids, and enzymes are a specific type of protein. They have a unique three-dimensional structure that allows them to bind to specific molecules, called substrates, and facilitate chemical reactions. Therefore, the correct answer is protein.

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  • 14. 

    In the diagram there is a list of 20 molecules. These molecules are used to build ___.

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Lipids

    • D.

      Nucleic acids

    Correct Answer
    B. Proteins
    Explanation
    The diagram shows a list of 20 molecules, which suggests that these molecules are used as building blocks for a larger structure. Proteins are made up of amino acids, and it is well-known that proteins are composed of various amino acids linked together in a specific sequence. Therefore, it is likely that the 20 molecules in the diagram are amino acids, which are used to build proteins.

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  • 15. 

    The molecules pictured to the right is a simple sugar with a 6-sided ring. What is the molecule?

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Sucrose

    • C.

      Fructose

    • D.

      Protein

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucose
    Explanation
    The molecule pictured to the right is a simple sugar with a 6-sided ring. This description matches the structure of glucose, which is a monosaccharide and one of the most important carbohydrates in biology. Glucose is commonly found in fruits, honey, and is the primary source of energy for living organisms. Sucrose and fructose are also sugars, but they have different structures. Protein, on the other hand, is a macromolecule made up of amino acids and is not a sugar.

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  • 16. 

    What part is labeled C?

    • A.

      Phosphate

    • B.

      Ribose Sugar

    • C.

      Nitrogen Base

    • D.

      Nucleotide

    Correct Answer
    C. Nitrogen Base
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Nitrogen Base" because it is the part of a nucleotide that contains nitrogen atoms and is responsible for the coding of genetic information. Nitrogen bases are classified into two types: purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine, cytosine, and uracil). The nitrogen base pairs with another nitrogen base in the complementary strand of DNA or RNA, forming the basis for the genetic code.

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  • 17. 

    This is a diagram of a monomer that is used to build ___.

    • A.

      Carbohydrates

    • B.

      Proteins

    • C.

      Nucleic Acids

    • D.

      Lipids

    Correct Answer
    C. Nucleic Acids
    Explanation
    The diagram represents a monomer that is used to build nucleic acids. Nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA, are made up of nucleotides, which are the monomers. The diagram likely shows the structure of a nucleotide, which consists of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. These nucleotides link together to form the long chains that make up nucleic acids. Therefore, the correct answer is Nucleic Acids.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is not one of the top elements in the body?

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Hydrogen

    • C.

      Nitrogen

    • D.

      Calcium

    Correct Answer
    D. Calcium
    Explanation
    Calcium is not one of the top elements in the body because it is not one of the most abundant elements found in the human body. The top elements in the body include oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, which make up the majority of the body's composition. Calcium, on the other hand, is present in smaller quantities and is primarily found in bones and teeth, playing a crucial role in their strength and structure.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is a "4%" element in the body?

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Calcium

    • C.

      Iron

    • D.

      Hydrogen

    Correct Answer
    B. Calcium
    Explanation
    Calcium is a "4%" element in the body because it accounts for approximately 4% of the total body weight. It is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, such as building and maintaining strong bones and teeth, muscle contraction, nerve function, and blood clotting. Calcium is primarily stored in the bones and teeth, but it is also found in the blood and other body tissues.

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  • 20. 

    The name of an enzyme typically ...

    • A.

      Contains the name of the substrate on which it acts and ends in the suffix -ase.

    • B.

      Contains the name of the substrate on which it acts and ends in the suffix -ose.

    • C.

      Contains the name of the final product and ends in the suffix -ose.

    • D.

      Contains the name of the final product and ends in the suffix -ase.

    Correct Answer
    A. Contains the name of the substrate on which it acts and ends in the suffix -ase.
    Explanation
    Enzymes are proteins that catalyze specific chemical reactions in the body. The name of an enzyme typically contains the name of the substrate on which it acts and ends in the suffix -ase. This naming convention helps to identify the specific reaction that the enzyme catalyzes. For example, the enzyme lactase acts on the substrate lactose, and the enzyme sucrase acts on the substrate sucrose. Therefore, the correct answer is that the name of an enzyme typically contains the name of the substrate on which it acts and ends in the suffix -ase.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 25, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Christopher Mack

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