AP Euro Unit 2 Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In the second half of the sixteenth century, Germany was made up of:

    • A.

      Two major kingdoms

    • B.

      About 360 autonomous political entities

    • C.

      Four rival political blocs

    • D.

      Three major kingdoms

    • E.

      Give rival political blocks

    Correct Answer
    B. About 360 autonomous political entities
    Explanation
    In the second half of the sixteenth century, Germany was divided into approximately 360 autonomous political entities. These entities were independent and had their own governing systems, making Germany a fragmented and decentralized nation. This division into numerous political entities prevented the emergence of a strong centralized authority and contributed to the political instability and conflicts within the region during that time period.

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  • 2. 

    Why did Calivinism complicate the already comlpicated religious situation in Germany?

    • A.

      Calvinism was a pacifist religion, and Calvinists refused to serve in the military

    • B.

      Calvinists formed an alliance with Catholics against Lutherans

    • C.

      Calvinists supported peasant revolts

    • D.

      Calvinism was not included in the Peace of Augsberg religious/political settlement, but the Elector of Palatine converted to Calvinism

    • E.

      Calvinists seized power in Bavaria, a powerful German state

    Correct Answer
    A. Calvinism was a pacifist religion, and Calvinists refused to serve in the military
    Explanation
    Calvinism complicated the already complicated religious situation in Germany because Calvinists, being a pacifist religion, refused to serve in the military. This refusal created tension and conflict within the German society, as military service was seen as a duty and a way to defend the state. Additionally, it caused further division among the different religious factions in Germany, as the Calvinists' refusal to serve in the military went against the beliefs and practices of other religious groups. This added another layer of complexity to the already tense religious situation in Germany during that time.

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  • 3. 

    Which event set off the first phase of the Thirty Years War?

    • A.

      The king of Denmark, a Lutheran, invades Germany

    • B.

      Richelieu declares an alliance with Protestant Germany

    • C.

      A Catholic comes to the throne in protestant Bohemia, and attempts to restore Catholicism with the help of the Holy Roman Emperor

    • D.

      The Bohemians revolt against Bavarian rule

    • E.

      Saxony invades Bavaria

    Correct Answer
    C. A Catholic comes to the throne in protestant Bohemia, and attempts to restore Catholicism with the help of the Holy Roman Emperor
    Explanation
    The correct answer is when a Catholic comes to the throne in Protestant Bohemia and attempts to restore Catholicism with the help of the Holy Roman Emperor. This event set off the first phase of the Thirty Years War because it sparked a conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the region. The Protestants in Bohemia felt threatened by the Catholic ruler's attempts to restore Catholicism, leading to a revolt and ultimately escalating into a larger war involving other European powers.

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  • 4. 

    Richelieu involves France on the side of the Protestants because:

    • A.

      He converted to Calvinism

    • B.

      He wanted to keep the Habsburg (Austrian) armies tied down in Germany

    • C.

      He wanted to seize German territory

    • D.

      His military cheif, Wallenstein, urged him to enter the war on the side of Sweden

    • E.

      He wanted to be named the Holy Roman Emperor

    Correct Answer
    B. He wanted to keep the Habsburg (Austrian) armies tied down in Germany
    Explanation
    Richelieu involved France on the side of the Protestants in order to keep the Habsburg (Austrian) armies tied down in Germany. By doing so, he could prevent the Habsburgs from focusing their military strength on France and potentially invading French territory. This decision was a strategic move to weaken the Habsburgs and maintain a balance of power in Europe.

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  • 5. 

    The Treaty of Westphalia: (more than one answer)

    • A.

      Made peace between the Holy Roman Empire and France

    • B.

      Allowed leaders to choose the religion that their people would pracitce

    • C.

      Acknowledged Calvinism as a legal religion

    • D.

      Restablished the laws of the Peace of Augsberg

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Allowed leaders to choose the religion that their people would pracitce
    C. Acknowledged Calvinism as a legal religion
    D. Restablished the laws of the Peace of Augsberg
    Explanation
    The Treaty of Westphalia allowed leaders to choose the religion that their people would practice, acknowledged Calvinism as a legal religion, and reestablished the laws of the Peace of Augsburg. This means that the treaty granted religious freedom and recognition to different religious beliefs and practices, including Calvinism. It also reaffirmed the principles and agreements of the Peace of Augsburg, which had previously granted some religious tolerance within the Holy Roman Empire. Overall, the Treaty of Westphalia aimed to bring peace and stability to the region by addressing religious conflicts and establishing a framework for religious coexistence.

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  • 6. 

    The Treaty of Westphalia caused many large empires to branch off into smaller individual countries

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Treaty of Westphalia, signed in 1648, indeed resulted in the fragmentation of large empires into smaller individual countries. The treaty marked the end of the Thirty Years' War in Europe and established the principle of state sovereignty, recognizing the independence and territorial integrity of individual nations. It led to the recognition of numerous small states, allowing them to govern themselves and have their own political and territorial boundaries. This shift from large empires to smaller countries had a significant impact on the political landscape of Europe and set the stage for the development of the modern nation-state system.

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  • 7. 

    The Catholic Counter-Reformation spirit was reflected in this form of art:

    • A.

      Modernism

    • B.

      Classicism

    • C.

      Neoclassicism

    • D.

      Romanticism

    • E.

      Baroque

    Correct Answer
    E. Baroque
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Baroque. The Catholic Counter-Reformation was a period in which the Catholic Church sought to combat the Protestant Reformation and reassert its influence. Baroque art emerged during this time and was characterized by its dramatic and emotional style. It aimed to inspire religious devotion and convey the power and grandeur of the Catholic Church. Baroque art often featured ornate details, intense lighting, and dynamic compositions. Therefore, the Baroque style of art reflects the spirit of the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

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  • 8. 

    Henry IV is famous for saying

    • A.

      "Paris is worth a mass"

    • B.

      "Death to the heretics"

    • C.

      "Vive la difference"

    • D.

      "Where there is fire there is smoke"

    Correct Answer
    A. "Paris is worth a mass"
    Explanation
    Henry IV is famous for saying "Paris is worth a mass" because it reflects his pragmatic approach to religion and politics. As a Protestant who converted to Catholicism in order to secure his position as King of France, Henry IV recognized the importance of maintaining unity and stability in his kingdom. The phrase "Paris is worth a mass" is attributed to him because it signifies his willingness to compromise and prioritize the well-being of his subjects over religious differences. By embracing Catholicism, he was able to gain the support and acceptance of the majority Catholic population in Paris, which was crucial for his reign.

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  • 9. 

    "Politiques" such as England's Elizabeth I tended to have this view of religion:

    • A.

      They were well known for their own personal piety and devotion

    • B.

      They were committed to suppressing heresy

    • C.

      They encouraged moderation and toleration

    • D.

      They argued that religion has no influence on politics

    • E.

      They embraced Christian pacifism

    Correct Answer
    C. They encouraged moderation and toleration
    Explanation
    Politiques such as England's Elizabeth I tended to have a view of religion that encouraged moderation and toleration. This means that they believed in allowing different religious beliefs and practices to coexist peacefully, without imposing strict conformity or suppressing heresy. They recognized the importance of religious diversity and believed in promoting tolerance among different religious groups. This approach aimed to maintain social stability and avoid religious conflicts, allowing individuals to practice their own faith without fear of persecution.

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  • 10. 

    Article I of the Edict of Nantes proclaims that:

    • A.

      All French citizens must become Catholics

    • B.

      Henry IV is now king

    • C.

      Protestants may worship freely, but have to pay an additional tax

    • D.

      The memory of France's religious wars is to be entirely wiped out

    • E.

      Hugenots may not hold public office

    Correct Answer
    D. The memory of France's religious wars is to be entirely wiped out
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "The memory of France's religious wars is to be entirely wiped out." This is because Article I of the Edict of Nantes aimed to promote religious tolerance and reconciliation in France after years of religious conflict. It sought to bring an end to the religious wars by ensuring that the memory of these conflicts would be erased, allowing for a more peaceful coexistence between Catholics and Protestants. The other options mentioned in the question are not accurate representations of Article I of the Edict of Nantes.

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  • 11. 

    The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre was an attack on:

    • A.

      Parisian elites

    • B.

      German peasants

    • C.

      French Hugenots

    • D.

      Dutch merchants

    • E.

      Italian laborers

    Correct Answer
    C. French Hugenots
    Explanation
    The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre was a violent attack on French Hugenots. This event took place on August 24, 1572, in Paris, France. It was initiated by the Catholic authorities and resulted in the targeted killing of thousands of Protestant Hugenots. The massacre was a significant event during the French Wars of Religion, reflecting the religious tensions and conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in France during that time.

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  • 12. 

    The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre caused the protestants to adjust their political theory in order to revolt against tyrannic leaders

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre was a religious conflict in France in 1572, where thousands of Huguenots (French Protestants) were killed. This event had a significant impact on the Protestant community, leading them to reassess their political theory. The massacre highlighted the tyranny and persecution they faced under the Catholic monarchy, prompting them to consider the need for resistance and revolt against tyrannic leaders. Therefore, the statement that the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre caused the Protestants to adjust their political theory in order to revolt against tyrannic leaders is true.

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  • 13. 

    Phillip II did not inherit his father Charles V's Austrian lands because:

    • A.

      The Austrians revolted against Spanish rule

    • B.

      Charles V himself split his kingdom, giving the eastern half to his brother, Phillip's uncle

    • C.

      Charles V had only ruled Austria because it was his wife's inheritance

    • D.

      Phillip II thought that the empire would be too large for him to rule

    • E.

      The Spanish refused to make Phillip II king unless he renounced the Austrian possessions

    Correct Answer
    B. Charles V himself split his kingdom, giving the eastern half to his brother, Phillip's uncle
    Explanation
    Charles V split his kingdom and gave the eastern half to his brother, Phillip's uncle. This means that Phillip II did not inherit his father's Austrian lands because they were given to someone else in the family.

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  • 14. 

    All of the following were effects that American wealth had on Europe EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Inflation

    • B.

      Popultion growth, especially in the towns

    • C.

      Growing differences between rich and poor

    • D.

      Growth of a more efficient bureaucracy and military, paid for by America silver and gold

    • E.

      Spainish military victories against England and the Netherlands

    Correct Answer
    E. Spainish military victories against England and the Netherlands
    Explanation
    American wealth had various effects on Europe, including inflation, population growth in towns, growing differences between rich and poor, and the growth of a more efficient bureaucracy and military funded by American silver and gold. However, Spanish military victories against England and the Netherlands were not a direct effect of American wealth on Europe.

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  • 15. 

    This event ignited the revolt of the Netherlands:

    • A.

      Phillip II's insistence that the Council of Trent be enforced throughout the Netherlands

    • B.

      Phillip II's efforts to raise a Dutch army to fight the English

    • C.

      The Perpetual Edict

    • D.

      Dutch efforts to create a centralized, unified republic

    • E.

      The Spanish massacre of Dutch Calvinists

    Correct Answer
    A. Phillip II's insistence that the Council of Trent be enforced throughout the Netherlands
    Explanation
    Phillip II's insistence that the Council of Trent be enforced throughout the Netherlands ignited the revolt of the Netherlands because it was seen as an attempt to impose Spanish control and suppress religious freedom in the region. The Council of Trent was a Catholic ecumenical council that aimed to reform and strengthen the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation. By enforcing its decrees in the Netherlands, Phillip II was infringing upon the religious autonomy of the Dutch people, who were predominantly Calvinists. This led to widespread resistance and ultimately sparked the revolt against Spanish rule in the Netherlands.

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  • 16. 

    The most important naval battle of the 16th century, won by Phillip II, was the Battle of:

    • A.

      Kosovo

    • B.

      Genoa

    • C.

      Lepanto

    • D.

      Utrecht

    • E.

      The Aegean

    Correct Answer
    C. Lepanto
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Lepanto. The Battle of Lepanto was a significant naval battle that took place in 1571 between the Holy League, led by the Spanish Empire, and the Ottoman Empire. It was a decisive victory for the Holy League and marked a turning point in the struggle against Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean. Phillip II of Spain played a crucial role in the victory, as his fleet contributed significantly to the defeat of the Ottoman forces. This battle is considered one of the most important naval battles of the 16th century.

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  • 17. 

    All of the following were causes of England's war with Spain EXCEPT:

    • A.

      The Duke of Alba's invasion of the Netherlands

    • B.

      French massacres of Protestants, which left England the only defender of the Protestants

    • C.

      Spain's attacks on English privateers seizing Spanish treasure ships

    • D.

      Mary Queen of Scot's Catholic-backed plot against Queen Elizabeth

    • E.

      Elizabeth I's radical Protestantism, which was opposed to all forms of Catholicism

    Correct Answer
    E. Elizabeth I's radical Protestantism, which was opposed to all forms of Catholicism
    Explanation
    The Duke of Alba's invasion of the Netherlands, French massacres of Protestants, Spain's attacks on English privateers seizing Spanish treasure ships, and Mary Queen of Scot's Catholic-backed plot against Queen Elizabeth were all causes of England's war with Spain. However, Elizabeth I's radical Protestantism, which was opposed to all forms of Catholicism, was not a cause of the war with Spain.

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  • 18. 

    Protestants were more likely than Catholics to:

    • A.

      Advocate religious tolerance

    • B.

      Permit premartial sex

    • C.

      Educate girls

    • D.

      Advocate religious violence

    • E.

      Advocate gender equality

    Correct Answer
    C. Educate girls
    Explanation
    Protestants were more likely than Catholics to educate girls because the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century emphasized the importance of literacy and education for all individuals, regardless of gender. This movement led to the establishment of Protestant schools and universities that welcomed both boys and girls, providing opportunities for girls to receive an education. On the other hand, the Catholic Church traditionally focused on educating boys to become priests or monks, limiting educational opportunities for girls.

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  • 19. 

    Reform efforts at the Council of Trent included all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Several doctrinal concessions to the reformers

    • B.

      Creation of new seminaries

    • C.

      Reform of the office of bishop

    • D.

      Efforts to control the morality of churchmen

    • E.

      Steps to curtail the sale of church offices

    Correct Answer
    A. Several doctrinal concessions to the reformers
    Explanation
    The Council of Trent was a significant event in the Catholic Counter-Reformation, aimed at addressing the issues raised by the Protestant Reformation. The reform efforts at the Council of Trent included the creation of new seminaries to improve the education and training of priests, the reform of the office of bishop to ensure better governance and accountability, efforts to control the morality of churchmen to address the issue of corruption within the clergy, and steps to curtail the sale of church offices to prevent simony. However, several doctrinal concessions to the reformers were not included in the reform efforts. This suggests that the Council of Trent did not compromise on core Catholic doctrines and instead focused on addressing the administrative and moral issues within the Church.

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  • 20. 

    Protestant reformers tended to do all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Favor clerical marriage

    • B.

      Encourage basic education

    • C.

      Oppose monasticism

    • D.

      Encourage a choice of virginity over marriage, which was seen as a degraded state

    • E.

      Attempt to use state power to enforce morality

    Correct Answer
    E. Attempt to use state power to enforce morality
    Explanation
    Protestant reformers did not attempt to use state power to enforce morality. Instead, they focused on advocating for clerical marriage, encouraging basic education, opposing monasticism, and promoting a choice of virginity over marriage. They believed in individual freedom of choice and personal responsibility rather than relying on the state to enforce moral behavior.

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  • 21. 

    Henry VIII's heir, Edward VI was:

    • A.

      Protestant

    • B.

      Catholic

    • C.

      Calvinist

    • D.

      Lutheran

    Correct Answer
    A. Protestant
    Explanation
    Edward VI, as the son of Henry VIII, was raised in a Protestant environment and was a strong supporter of the Protestant Reformation. During his reign, he implemented Protestant reforms in the Church of England, such as the removal of Catholic practices and the establishment of a more Protestant liturgy. Therefore, it is accurate to say that Edward VI was a Protestant.

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  • 22. 

    All of the following undermined the authority of the medieval church EXCEPT:

    • A.

      The "exile" in Avignon

    • B.

      The Great Schism, with competing popes

    • C.

      The Conciliar movement

    • D.

      The laity toward (unwillingness to attack) hereticial movements such as the Albigensians

    • E.

      The excesses of Reniassance popes

    Correct Answer
    D. The laity toward (unwillingness to attack) hereticial movements such as the Albigensians
    Explanation
    The laity's unwillingness to attack heretical movements such as the Albigensians did not undermine the authority of the medieval church. The other options mentioned in the question, such as the "exile" in Avignon, the Great Schism, the Conciliar movement, and the excesses of Renaissance popes, all contributed to the undermining of the church's authority during the medieval period.

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  • 23. 

    The Reformation broke out first in:

    • A.

      The prosperous parts of Holland

    • B.

      London and other English cities

    • C.

      The French countryside

    • D.

      Austria

    • E.

      The free imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland

    Correct Answer
    E. The free imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland
    Explanation
    The Reformation broke out first in the free imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland because these cities were centers of trade and commerce, which allowed for the spread of new ideas and information. Additionally, these cities had a greater degree of political independence and autonomy, which provided a more favorable environment for religious dissent and reform movements to emerge. The prosperous parts of Holland, London and other English cities, the French countryside, and Austria may have experienced the Reformation at later stages, but the free imperial cities of Germany and Switzerland were the initial hotspots for this religious movement.

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  • 24. 

    The benefice system:

    • A.

      Allowed important ecclesiatical posts to be sold to the highest bidder

    • B.

      Distributed charity throughout Europe

    • C.

      Allowed poor men and women to become nuns and monks

    • D.

      Was first developed by the Brothers of Common Life

    • E.

      Was supported by most lay Catholics

    Correct Answer
    A. Allowed important ecclesiatical posts to be sold to the highest bidder
    Explanation
    The benefice system allowed important ecclesiastical posts to be sold to the highest bidder. This means that individuals could essentially purchase these positions within the church, rather than being appointed based on merit or qualifications. This practice was controversial as it led to corruption and the appointment of individuals who may not have been suitable for the positions they obtained.

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  • 25. 

    According to Calvins doctrine of predestination:

    • A.

      God had foreordained who will be saved and who will be punished

    • B.

      Christians must set salvation as their only goal before it can be achieved

    • C.

      Theological doctrine must begin with the ends of faith and then work back to the means

    • D.

      Only men are capable of salvation

    • E.

      Divorce is a mortal sin

    Correct Answer
    A. God had foreordained who will be saved and who will be punished
    Explanation
    According to Calvin's doctrine of predestination, God has already determined in advance who will be saved and who will be punished. This means that individuals have no control over their own salvation or damnation, as it has already been predetermined by God. This belief emphasizes the sovereignty of God and the idea that human beings are completely dependent on God's grace for their salvation.

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  • 26. 

    Zwingli and Luther disagreed about:

    • A.

      Clergical marriage

    • B.

      Adult v. child Baptism

    • C.

      The nature of the Eucharist

    • D.

      The political role of the church

    • E.

      Justification by faith

    Correct Answer
    C. The nature of the Eucharist
    Explanation
    Zwingli and Luther disagreed about the nature of the Eucharist. Zwingli believed in a symbolic interpretation of the Eucharist, where the bread and wine were seen as mere representations of Christ's body and blood. Luther, on the other hand, believed in the concept of consubstantiation, where the bread and wine coexist with the body and blood of Christ. This fundamental difference in belief led to a significant theological disagreement between the two reformers.

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  • 27. 

    The Peace of Augsberg established that:

    • A.

      Catholicism would remain the state church of Austria

    • B.

      All citizens of the Holy Roman Empire were granted religious liberty

    • C.

      Anabaptism was a legal religion

    • D.

      The ruler of a land would determine the religion the majority of his people followed

    • E.

      The king would accept the religion of the majority of his people

    Correct Answer
    D. The ruler of a land would determine the religion the majority of his people followed
    Explanation
    The Peace of Augsburg established that the ruler of a land would determine the religion the majority of his people followed. This means that the ruler had the authority to choose the religion for his territory based on the religious affiliation of the majority of the population. This allowed for some religious diversity within the Holy Roman Empire, as different rulers could choose different religions for their territories.

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  • 28. 

    Between 1500 and 1800, European men married in their:

    • A.

      Forties

    • B.

      Mid to late teens

    • C.

      Mid to late twenties

    • D.

      Mid to late thirties

    • E.

      Early teens

    Correct Answer
    C. Mid to late twenties
    Explanation
    During the time period between 1500 and 1800, it was common for European men to marry in their mid to late twenties. This was the age range at which they were considered mature enough to take on the responsibilities of marriage and starting a family. Additionally, men in this age group were often financially stable and established in their careers, which made them more suitable candidates for marriage. Marrying in their mid to late twenties also allowed men to have some time to establish themselves before taking on the responsibilities of marriage and parenthood.

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  • 29. 

    Protestants were more likely than Catholics to permit divorce

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because historically, Protestant denominations have been more accepting of divorce compared to Catholicism. This can be attributed to the differences in religious beliefs and interpretations of scripture between the two groups. While Catholicism traditionally views marriage as a sacrament that is indissoluble, many Protestant denominations have a more lenient stance on divorce, allowing it under certain circumstances. This difference in perspective has resulted in higher divorce rates among Protestants compared to Catholics.

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  • 30. 

    Cervantes' most famous work is:

    • A.

      Moll Flanders

    • B.

      Valencia

    • C.

      Under a Spanish Sky

    • D.

      The Tale of Thomas Gatito

    • E.

      Don Quixote

    Correct Answer
    E. Don Quixote
    Explanation
    Cervantes' most famous work is "Don Quixote" because it is widely regarded as one of the greatest works of fiction ever written. The novel tells the story of a delusional knight named Don Quixote who sets out on a series of misadventures in order to revive chivalry and become a hero. It is a satirical and comedic masterpiece that explores themes of reality versus illusion and the power of imagination. "Don Quixote" has had a significant impact on literature and has been translated into numerous languages, making it a timeless classic.

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  • 31. 

    The Modern Devotion was a religious movement that began in:

    • A.

      Northern Europe

    • B.

      Southern Europe

    • C.

      England

    • D.

      Spain

    • E.

      Italy

    Correct Answer
    A. Northern Europe
    Explanation
    The Modern Devotion was a religious movement that began in Northern Europe. This region was known for its strong religious traditions and was a center for theological and spiritual developments during the late Middle Ages. The movement emphasized personal piety, simplicity, and a direct relationship with God, challenging the institutionalized practices of the Catholic Church. It gained popularity in countries like the Netherlands, Germany, and Belgium, where individuals sought a more authentic and inward-focused religious experience. The movement's influence extended beyond Northern Europe, but its origins and core principles can be traced back to this region.

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  • 32. 

    Pope Leo X's Jubilee Indulgence was meant to raise funds to:

    • A.

      Assemble an army to defend the papal states

    • B.

      Combat the Reformation

    • C.

      Launch a new crusade

    • D.

      Rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome

    • E.

      Increase pay for clergy

    Correct Answer
    D. Rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
    Explanation
    Pope Leo X's Jubilee Indulgence was meant to raise funds to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The Jubilee Indulgence was a special pardon given by the Pope to those who made a donation towards the reconstruction of the basilica. The original basilica had been in a state of disrepair, and Pope Leo X wanted to rebuild it as a grand monument to the Catholic Church. The funds raised from the indulgence were used to finance the construction and renovation of the basilica, which ultimately became one of the most iconic and important religious buildings in the world.

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  • 33. 

    The Marburg Colloquy sought to:

    • A.

      Unite Spanish and Italian Catholics

    • B.

      Unite Swiss and German Protestants

    • C.

      Establish a new Catholic council system

    • D.

      Establish religious tolerance throughout Europe

    • E.

      Outlaw Calvinism in Britian

    Correct Answer
    B. Unite Swiss and German Protestants
    Explanation
    The Marburg Colloquy was a meeting held in 1529 between Swiss and German Protestant leaders, including Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli. The purpose of the colloquy was to try and find common ground and unite the two groups, who had differing views on the Eucharist. Despite their efforts, they were unable to reach a consensus and ultimately remained divided. Therefore, the correct answer is "Unite Swiss and German Protestants."

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  • 34. 

    Ignatius of Loyola was the founder of the:

    • A.

      Brotherhood of Christ

    • B.

      Dominicans

    • C.

      Quakers

    • D.

      Franciscans

    • E.

      Jesuits

    Correct Answer
    E. Jesuits
    Explanation
    Ignatius of Loyola was the founder of the Jesuits. The Jesuits, also known as the Society of Jesus, are a religious order within the Catholic Church. They were founded in 1540 by Ignatius of Loyola and his companions. The Jesuits are known for their commitment to education, missionary work, and intellectual pursuits. They have played a significant role in the spread of Catholicism and have been influential in various fields such as education, science, and theology.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following occured first?

    • A.

      Diet of Worms

    • B.

      Marburg Colloquy

    • C.

      Diet of Augsberg

    • D.

      Council of Trent

    • E.

      Peace of Westphalia

    Correct Answer
    A. Diet of Worms
    Explanation
    The Diet of Worms occurred first among the given events. The Diet of Worms was an imperial diet held in the city of Worms, Germany in 1521. It was convened by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to address the growing tensions surrounding the Protestant Reformation. During the diet, Martin Luther was summoned to defend his controversial teachings, which ultimately led to his excommunication from the Catholic Church. The Marburg Colloquy, Diet of Augsburg, Council of Trent, and Peace of Westphalia all took place after the Diet of Worms in different years.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following practices did Zwingli NOT question and repudicate in the course of his reforms:

    • A.

      Worship of saints

    • B.

      Transubstantiation

    • C.

      Pilgrimages

    • D.

      Clerical celibacy

    • E.

      Church attendence

    Correct Answer
    E. Church attendence
    Explanation
    Zwingli questioned and repudiated several practices in the course of his reforms, such as the worship of saints, transubstantiation, pilgrimages, and clerical celibacy. However, he did not question or repudiate church attendance. Zwingli believed in the importance of congregational worship and saw it as a way for believers to come together and strengthen their faith. He emphasized the need for a pure and true form of worship, but did not reject the idea of attending church services.

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  • 37. 

    In the Houses of Modern Devotion:

    • A.

      Clerics developed a sense of their seperateness from the laity

    • B.

      Clerics and laity shared a common religious life

    • C.

      The authority of the pope was rejected

    • D.

      The laity refused to admit clerics as members

    • E.

      The papcy trained young men to fight heresy

    Correct Answer
    B. Clerics and laity shared a common religious life
    Explanation
    In the Houses of Modern Devotion, clerics and laity shared a common religious life. This means that both clerics (religious officials) and the laity (ordinary people) participated in and were involved in the same religious practices and activities. They did not have a sense of separateness, but rather worked together and had a shared experience of their religious life. This suggests that there was a sense of unity and collaboration between the clerics and the laity in these houses.

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  • 38. 

    The medieval church taught that salvation was the result of:

    • A.

      Good works

    • B.

      Faith

    • C.

      Faith and good works

    • D.

      Church attendance

    • E.

      Veneration of the saints

    Correct Answer
    C. Faith and good works
    Explanation
    The medieval church taught that salvation was the result of both faith and good works. This belief was based on the idea that individuals needed to have faith in God and the teachings of the church, but they also had to demonstrate their faith through acts of charity, obedience to religious laws, and participation in religious rituals. Good works were seen as a way to earn God's favor and demonstrate one's commitment to the Christian faith. This emphasis on the combination of faith and good works was a central aspect of medieval religious doctrine.

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  • 39. 

    Luther believed in all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Salvation by faith alone

    • B.

      The priesthood of all believers

    • C.

      The sovereign authority of scripture

    • D.

      The unimportance of good works

    • E.

      The need for social and political hiearchy

    Correct Answer
    D. The unimportance of good works
    Explanation
    Luther believed in salvation by faith alone, the priesthood of all believers, and the sovereign authority of scripture. He also believed in the need for social and political hierarchy. However, he did not believe in the unimportance of good works. Luther emphasized the importance of faith, but he also believed that good works were a natural result of true faith and were necessary to demonstrate one's faith to others.

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  • 40. 

    The Anabaptists were:

    • A.

      Embraced by the Lutherans

    • B.

      Embraced by the Zwinglians

    • C.

      Convinced that all babies should be baptized at birth

    • D.

      Convinced that they had not really broken from the Catholic Church

    • E.

      Seen as a threat to good order by the political authorities

    Correct Answer
    E. Seen as a threat to good order by the political authorities
    Explanation
    The Anabaptists were seen as a threat to good order by the political authorities. This is because they rejected infant baptism and believed that individuals should be baptized as adults, after making a conscious decision to follow Christ. This challenged the traditional authority of the Catholic Church and the state, as it undermined the practice of baptizing infants and the control that the church and state had over religious matters. The political authorities viewed this as a threat to their power and control, leading to persecution and suppression of the Anabaptist movement.

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  • 41. 

    The Treaty of Nantes:

    • A.

      Gave Hugenots qualified religious freedoms

    • B.

      Established universal religous tolerance in France

    • C.

      Settled the border between France and Spain

    • D.

      Ended French involvement in northern Italy

    • E.

      Brought peace to the Holy Roman Empire

    Correct Answer
    A. Gave Hugenots qualified religious freedoms
    Explanation
    The Treaty of Nantes granted Huguenots, who were French Protestants, certain religious freedoms. This means that they were given limited rights to practice their religion without persecution or discrimination. However, these freedoms were not absolute and came with certain conditions or limitations. The treaty aimed to provide a level of religious tolerance and peace within France by allowing Huguenots to worship freely within designated areas and granting them certain political and civil rights.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the Counter-Reformation

    • A.

      The Church emerged with an organizational structure emphasizing absolute obedience to the person at the top

    • B.

      Catholics were permitted by the Church to convert to Lutheranism under the Augsburg Settlement

    • C.

      The Roman Catholic Church adopted a Presbyterian organization structure

    • D.

      There was little popular support for the Counter-Reformation

    • E.

      It emphasized the use of force to supress Protestantism

    Correct Answer
    A. The Church emerged with an organizational structure emphasizing absolute obedience to the person at the top
    Explanation
    During the Counter-Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church indeed emerged with an organizational structure that emphasized absolute obedience to the person at the top. This was in response to the Protestant Reformation, as the Church sought to centralize its power and authority. The Pope became the ultimate authority figure, and strict obedience to his teachings and decrees was emphasized. This hierarchical structure helped the Church regain control and maintain unity within its ranks.

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  • 43. 

    In the 1560s, this person brutually supressed a Protestant uprising in the Netherlands:

    • A.

      William of Orange

    • B.

      The Duke of Alba

    • C.

      Cardinal Granvelle

    • D.

      Don John of Austria

    • E.

      Pope Benedict XX

    Correct Answer
    B. The Duke of Alba
    Explanation
    The Duke of Alba is the correct answer because he was known for his brutal suppression of the Protestant uprising in the Netherlands during the 1560s. He was appointed by King Philip II of Spain to restore Catholic control in the region and used harsh measures, such as the Council of Troubles, to suppress the Protestant movement. His actions led to widespread opposition and resistance among the Dutch population, ultimately fueling the Dutch Revolt against Spanish rule.

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