Earth Science Benchmark #2 Review

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Earth Science Benchmark #2 Review - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What does the prefix mean:astro-

    • A.

      Star; heavens

    • B.

      High in the air

    • C.

      Earth

    Correct Answer
    A. Star; heavens
    Explanation
    The prefix "astro-" is derived from the Greek word "astron" which means "star" or "heaven". It is commonly used in words related to celestial bodies or phenomena such as astronomy, astrology, astronaut, etc. Therefore, the correct answer is "star; heavens".

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  • 2. 

    What does the prefix mean:Meteor-

    • A.

      Heat, hot

    • B.

      Around

    • C.

      High in air

    Correct Answer
    C. High in air
    Explanation
    The prefix "Meteor-" in this context refers to something that is high in the air. This can be inferred from the fact that meteors are objects that enter the Earth's atmosphere and burn up due to the friction caused by the air. Therefore, the correct answer is "high in air".

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  • 3. 

    What does the prefix mean:Geo-

    • A.

      Written representation

    • B.

      Earth, rock

    • C.

      Arrangement

    Correct Answer
    B. Earth, rock
    Explanation
    The prefix "Geo-" in this context refers to earth or rock. It is commonly used in words related to geography, geology, and geophysics, indicating a connection to the earth's surface or structure.

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  • 4. 

    What does the prefix mean:-graph

    • A.

      Written representation

    • B.

      Instrument

    • C.

      Full

    Correct Answer
    A. Written representation
    Explanation
    The prefix "graph" in this context refers to a written representation. It is commonly used in words like "autograph" (a written signature) or "photograph" (a picture produced by a camera). Therefore, the correct answer is "written representation."

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  • 5. 

    What does the prefix mean:Sub-

    • A.

      Arrangement

    • B.

      Layer

    • C.

      Below

    Correct Answer
    C. Below
    Explanation
    The prefix "sub-" means "below" or "under". It indicates that something is situated or located beneath or at a lower level. In the context of the given options, "below" is the most appropriate meaning for the prefix "sub-".

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  • 6. 

    What does the prefix mean:Clima-

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Air

    • C.

      Weather

    Correct Answer
    C. Weather
    Explanation
    The prefix "clima-" is derived from the Greek word "klima" which means "slope" or "inclination." In English, it is commonly used as a prefix to indicate something related to climate or weather. Therefore, the correct answer for the meaning of the prefix "clima-" is "weather."

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  • 7. 

    What does the prefix mean:Hydro-; hydra-

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Air

    • C.

      Earth

    Correct Answer
    A. Water
    Explanation
    The prefix "hydro-" or "hydra-" is derived from the Greek word "hydor," which means water. Therefore, when used as a prefix, it indicates a relation to water.

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  • 8. 

    What does the prefix mean:Eco-

    • A.

      Under

    • B.

      Nature; natural

    • C.

      Strong

    Correct Answer
    B. Nature; natural
    Explanation
    The prefix "Eco-" in this context means nature or natural. It is commonly used to refer to things that are environmentally friendly or related to ecology. For example, "ecosystem" refers to a natural system of living organisms and their environment.

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  • 9. 

    What does the prefix mean:Litho-

    • A.

      Stone; strong

    • B.

      Earth

    • C.

      Below

    Correct Answer
    A. Stone; strong
    Explanation
    The prefix "litho-" in this context means "stone; strong". This is because the prefix "litho-" is derived from the Greek word "lithos" which means "stone". It is commonly used in words related to rocks, minerals, or stone-like substances. Additionally, the term "strong" can be associated with stones due to their durability and hardness. Therefore, the correct answer is stone; strong.

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  • 10. 

    What does the prefix mean:Atmo-

    • A.

      Milli

    • B.

      Air

    • C.

      Arrangement

    Correct Answer
    B. Air
    Explanation
    The prefix "Atmo-" in this context means "air". This can be inferred from the given options, where "milli" and "arrangement" do not relate to the concept of air. The prefix "Atmo-" is commonly used in words like "atmosphere" or "atmospheric", which directly refer to the air surrounding the Earth. Therefore, the correct answer is "air".

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  • 11. 

    What does the prefix mean:Bio; Bios

    • A.

      Life; living

    • B.

      Below

    • C.

      Above

    Correct Answer
    A. Life; living
    Explanation
    The prefix "bio-" in this context refers to life or living. It is commonly used in words related to biology, such as "biography" (the story of someone's life) or "biological" (related to living organisms).

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  • 12. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:-nomy

    • A.

      Arrangement

    • B.

      Stars

    • C.

      Above

    Correct Answer
    A. Arrangement
    Explanation
    The prefix/suffix/root "-nomy" in this context refers to the meaning of arrangement. It is commonly used in words like "economy" (arrangement of resources), "taxonomy" (arrangement of organisms), and "astronomy" (arrangement of stars and celestial bodies). Therefore, "-nomy" indicates the concept of organizing or arranging something in a systematic manner.

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  • 13. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:-sphere

    • A.

      Hot

    • B.

      Round

    • C.

      Layer

    Correct Answer
    B. Round
    Explanation
    The prefix/suffix/root "-sphere" means round.

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  • 14. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:-ology; logy

    • A.

      Study

    • B.

      Under

    • C.

      One that does

    Correct Answer
    A. Study
    Explanation
    The prefix/suffix/root "-ology; logy" refers to the meaning of "study". This is evident from the fact that words like biology, psychology, and geology all involve the study of living organisms, the study of the mind, and the study of the Earth respectively. Therefore, the correct answer is "study".

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  • 15. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:-ic

    • A.

      Above

    • B.

      Having form or characteristics of

    • C.

      Weather

    Correct Answer
    B. Having form or characteristics of
    Explanation
    The prefix/suffix/root "-ic" means "having form or characteristics of". This means that when a word has the suffix "-ic", it is indicating that the word is related to or has the qualities or characteristics of something. For example, "angelic" means having the qualities or characteristics of an angel.

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  • 16. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:-ist

    • A.

      One that does

    • B.

      Layer

    • C.

      Rock

    Correct Answer
    A. One that does
    Explanation
    The prefix/suffix/root "-ist" means "one that does". It is commonly used to form nouns that describe a person who performs a specific action or follows a certain belief or profession. For example, a "pianist" is someone who plays the piano, and a "scientist" is someone who studies science. The suffix "-ist" indicates that the person is actively engaged in the action or practice associated with the root word.

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  • 17. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Hypo-

    • A.

      Below; under

    • B.

      Action

    • C.

      Before

    Correct Answer
    A. Below; under
    Explanation
    The prefix "hypo-" means "below" or "under." In this case, it indicates that something is located below or under something else. The given word "action" does not have a prefix or suffix, so the meaning of the root word is not relevant in this context. The correct answer is "below; under."

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  • 18. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:In; ir; im-

    • A.

      Full

    • B.

      Capable of

    • C.

      Not; without

    Correct Answer
    C. Not; without
    Explanation
    The prefix/suffix/root "in; ir; im-" in this context means "not; without". It indicates the negation or absence of something.

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  • 19. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Milli-

    • A.

      1/100

    • B.

      1/1000

    • C.

      1/100,000

    Correct Answer
    B. 1/1000
    Explanation
    The prefix "milli-" in this context means "one thousandth." It is derived from the Latin word "mille," which means "thousand." Therefore, when the prefix "milli-" is added to a unit of measurement, it indicates that the measurement is divided into one thousand equal parts. In this case, the correct answer is 1/1000, as it represents one thousandth of a whole.

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  • 20. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Centi-

    • A.

      1/100

    • B.

      1/1000

    • C.

      1/100,000

    Correct Answer
    A. 1/100
    Explanation
    The prefix "centi-" means "1/100." This can be understood by looking at the options provided. The correct answer is 1/100, which means that when "centi-" is used as a prefix, it indicates a value that is one hundredth of the base unit. For example, a centimeter is one hundredth of a meter, and a centigram is one hundredth of a gram.

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  • 21. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Deci-

    • A.

      1/100

    • B.

      1/10

    • C.

      1/1000

    Correct Answer
    B. 1/10
    Explanation
    The prefix "Deci-" means "1/10". It is derived from the Latin word "decimus" which means "tenth". This prefix is commonly used in the metric system to denote a factor of one-tenth. For example, "decimeter" refers to one-tenth of a meter, and "deciliter" refers to one-tenth of a liter. Therefore, the correct answer is 1/10.

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  • 22. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Deca-

    • A.

      1/10

    • B.

      1/100

    • C.

      10

    Correct Answer
    C. 10
    Explanation
    The prefix "Deca-" means "10".

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  • 23. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Hecto-

    • A.

      5

    • B.

      10

    • C.

      100

    Correct Answer
    C. 100
    Explanation
    The prefix "hecto-" means "100". It is derived from the Greek word "hekaton" which also means "100". This prefix is commonly used in the metric system to denote a multiple of 100. For example, "hectogram" represents 100 grams and "hectoliter" represents 100 liters.

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  • 24. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Kilo-

    • A.

      10

    • B.

      100

    • C.

      1000

    Correct Answer
    C. 1000
    Explanation
    The prefix "kilo-" in this context means 1000. It is a metric prefix used to denote a factor of 1000. For example, kilogram means 1000 grams, kilometer means 1000 meters, and kilowatt means 1000 watts. Therefore, when the prefix "kilo-" is added to a unit of measurement, it indicates a value that is 1000 times larger than the base unit.

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  • 25. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Epi-

    • A.

      Around

    • B.

      Above

    • C.

      Below

    Correct Answer
    B. Above
    Explanation
    The prefix "epi-" means "above" because it is derived from the Greek word meaning "upon" or "over." It is commonly used in medical terminology to indicate something that is located or positioned above a certain structure or area. For example, "epidermis" refers to the outermost layer of the skin, which is situated above the dermis. Therefore, "above" is the correct meaning of the prefix "epi-".

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  • 26. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Alt-

    • A.

      High

    • B.

      Low

    • C.

      Below

    Correct Answer
    A. High
    Explanation
    The prefix "alt-" means high. This can be understood by looking at the provided options - "high," "low," and "below." The prefix "alt-" is commonly used to indicate something that is above or higher in position or value. Therefore, the correct answer is "high."

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  • 27. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Astheno-

    • A.

      Strong

    • B.

      Rock

    • C.

      Weak

    Correct Answer
    C. Weak
    Explanation
    The prefix "Astheno-" means weak.

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  • 28. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Bar-; baro-

    • A.

      Pressure; weight

    • B.

      Strength

    • C.

      Temperature

    Correct Answer
    A. Pressure; weight
    Explanation
    The prefix "baro-" refers to pressure, while the root "bar-" refers to weight. Therefore, the meaning of the prefix/suffix/root "Bar-; baro-" is pressure and weight.

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  • 29. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Con-

    • A.

      Together

    • B.

      Apart

    • C.

      Away

    Correct Answer
    A. Together
    Explanation
    The prefix "con-" typically means "together" or "with." It is commonly used to indicate a sense of unity, cooperation, or joint action. For example, in words like "connect" or "contribute," the prefix "con-" signifies bringing things or people together. Therefore, the correct answer is "together."

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  • 30. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Helio-; Helion-

    • A.

      Heat

    • B.

      Sun; gas

    • C.

      Abyss

    Correct Answer
    B. Sun; gas
    Explanation
    The prefix "helio-" and the suffix "helion-" both refer to the sun or gas. This can be seen in words like "heliosphere" (the region around the sun) and "helion" (a subatomic particle emitted during radioactive decay). Therefore, the correct answer is sun; gas.

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  • 31. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Hemi-

    • A.

      Half

    • B.

      Whole

    • C.

      Earth

    Correct Answer
    A. Half
    Explanation
    The prefix "hemi-" means half. It is derived from the Greek word "hēmi-" which also means half. This prefix is commonly used in words like hemisphere (half of a sphere), hemiplegia (paralysis affecting one side of the body), and hemicycle (a half circle). Therefore, when encountering the prefix "hemi-" in a word, it indicates that something is divided or consists of only half of the whole.

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  • 32. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Iso-

    • A.

      Half

    • B.

      Above

    • C.

      Same; equal

    Correct Answer
    C. Same; equal
    Explanation
    The prefix "iso-" means "same; equal". This can be seen in words like "isometric" (having equal dimensions) and "isothermal" (having equal temperature). The prefix indicates that something is identical or equivalent in some way.

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  • 33. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:Seismo-

    • A.

      Volcano

    • B.

      Earthquake

    • C.

      Center

    Correct Answer
    B. Earthquake
    Explanation
    The prefix "seismo-" refers to seismic or earthquake-related activities. In this case, the word "seismo-" in "seismo-volcano" suggests a volcano that is associated with seismic activity. Therefore, the correct answer is "earthquake."

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  • 34. 

    What does the prefix/suffix/root mean:therm-; thermo-

    • A.

      Heat

    • B.

      Above

    • C.

      Stone

    Correct Answer
    A. Heat
    Explanation
    The prefix/suffix/root "therm-" and "thermo-" both refer to heat. These prefixes/suffixes are commonly used in words related to temperature or thermal energy. For example, "thermometer" is a device used to measure temperature, and "thermodynamics" is the study of heat and its transformation into other forms of energy. Therefore, the correct answer for the meaning of "therm-" and "thermo-" is heat.

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  • 35. 

    Stress that happens when something is squeezed is called?

    • A.

      Compression

    • B.

      Tension

    • C.

      Convergent

    • D.

      Divergent

    Correct Answer
    A. Compression
    Explanation
    Compression is the correct answer because stress that occurs when something is squeezed or pressed together is referred to as compression. This type of stress causes objects to become shorter or more compact. Tension, on the other hand, is the stress that occurs when something is pulled or stretched apart. Convergent and divergent are terms used in geology to describe the movement of tectonic plates, and are not directly related to stress caused by squeezing.

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  • 36. 

    What is a place where tectonic plates touch called?

    • A.

      Collision

    • B.

      Division

    • C.

      Boundary

    • D.

      Separation

    Correct Answer
    C. Boundary
    Explanation
    A place where tectonic plates touch is called a boundary. This is where two plates meet and interact with each other. Boundaries can be classified into three types: convergent, divergent, and transform. Convergent boundaries occur when two plates collide, divergent boundaries occur when two plates separate, and transform boundaries occur when two plates slide past each other. Therefore, "boundary" is the correct answer as it encompasses all three types of plate interactions.

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  • 37. 

    The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other is called?

    • A.

      Hanging wall

    • B.

      Fault

    • C.

      Footwall

    • D.

      Compression

    Correct Answer
    B. Fault
    Explanation
    A fault is the correct answer because it refers to the surface along which rocks break and slide past each other. When there is movement along a fault, it can result in earthquakes. The other options, such as hanging wall, footwall, and compression, are not specific to the surface where rocks break and slide past each other.

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  • 38. 

    How do tectonic plates fit together?

    • A.

      Like a layer cake

    • B.

      Like a jigsaw puzzle

    • C.

      Like a stack of books

    • D.

      Like a model car

    Correct Answer
    B. Like a jigsaw puzzle
    Explanation
    Tectonic plates fit together like a jigsaw puzzle because they have irregular shapes that interlock with each other. Just like the pieces of a puzzle, the edges of the plates have complementary shapes, allowing them to fit together snugly. This fitting together of the plates is known as plate tectonics, which explains the movement and interaction of the Earth's lithosphere. The concept of tectonic plates as a jigsaw puzzle helps us understand how the Earth's surface is constantly changing due to the movement and collisions of these plates.

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  • 39. 

    How do fossils help explain continental drift?

    • A.

      Fossils show that animals crossed the Atlantic

    • B.

      Fossils show when drift happened

    • C.

      Fossils formed when drift happened

    • D.

      The same kind of fossils are on both sides of the Atlantic

    Correct Answer
    D. The same kind of fossils are on both sides of the Atlantic
    Explanation
    The presence of the same kind of fossils on both sides of the Atlantic suggests that there was once a connection between the continents. This supports the theory of continental drift, as it indicates that the continents were once joined together and have since moved apart. Fossils provide evidence of past life forms and their distribution, which can help scientists understand the movement and changes in Earth's continents over time.

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  • 40. 

    What causes seismic waves?

    • A.

      Tidal Wave

    • B.

      Volcanoes

    • C.

      Earthquakes

    • D.

      Tornadoes

    Correct Answer
    C. Earthquakes
    Explanation
    Seismic waves are caused by earthquakes. When there is a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust, it causes vibrations that travel through the Earth in the form of seismic waves. These waves can be felt and measured by seismographs. Tidal waves, also known as tsunamis, are caused by underwater earthquakes, but they are not the direct cause of seismic waves. Volcanoes can also generate seismic waves, but their primary cause is the movement of tectonic plates during earthquakes. Tornadoes, on the other hand, are not related to seismic waves as they are atmospheric phenomena.

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  • 41. 

    What are large pieces of lithosphere that move on top of the asthenosphere called?

    • A.

      Mantle pieces

    • B.

      Crust plates

    • C.

      Tectonic plates

    • D.

      Puzzle pieces

    Correct Answer
    C. Tectonic plates
    Explanation
    Tectonic plates are large pieces of lithosphere that move on top of the asthenosphere. These plates are responsible for the movement and interaction of Earth's surface, leading to various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains. The term "mantle pieces" is not accurate as the lithosphere is composed of both the crust and uppermost mantle. "Crust plates" and "puzzle pieces" are not correct terms commonly used in geology to describe these large lithospheric plates.

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  • 42. 

    What do we call the amount of force placed on something?

    • A.

      Drift

    • B.

      Uplift

    • C.

      Bending

    • D.

      Stress

    Correct Answer
    D. Stress
    Explanation
    Stress refers to the amount of force applied to an object or material. It is a measure of the internal resistance or pressure experienced by the object when subjected to external forces. Stress can cause deformation or structural changes in the object, and it is commonly used in engineering and physics to analyze the behavior of materials under different loads.

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  • 43. 

    The deep interior of the Earth can be mapped using

    • A.

      Seismic waves

    • B.

      Sonar

    • C.

      Information from drilling expeditions

    • D.

      Ocean waves

    Correct Answer
    A. Seismic waves
    Explanation
    Seismic waves are the correct answer because they are the primary tool used to map the deep interior of the Earth. Seismic waves are generated by earthquakes or artificially created by explosions, and they travel through the Earth's layers. By studying the behavior of seismic waves as they pass through different materials, scientists can infer the composition, density, and structure of the Earth's interior. This information helps in understanding processes like plate tectonics, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains. Sonar is used to map the ocean floor, drilling expeditions provide information about the top few kilometers of the Earth's crust, and ocean waves are not suitable for mapping the deep interior of the Earth.

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  • 44. 

    Tectonic plates consist of

    • A.

      Continental crust

    • B.

      Oceanic crust

    • C.

      Both continental and oceanic crust

    • D.

      Mesosphere

    Correct Answer
    C. Both continental and oceanic crust
    Explanation
    Tectonic plates consist of both continental and oceanic crust. Continental crust is the outer layer of the Earth's continents, while oceanic crust is the outer layer of the ocean floor. Tectonic plates are large pieces of the Earth's lithosphere that float on the underlying semi-fluid asthenosphere. These plates are constantly moving and interacting with each other, causing earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges. The presence of both continental and oceanic crust in tectonic plates allows for the diverse geological processes and features observed on Earth's surface.

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  • 45. 

    What is the hypothesis that all continents were created by the break-up of Pangaea called?

    • A.

      Continental drift

    • B.

      Plate tectonics

    • C.

      Wegener's puzzle

    • D.

      Continental spreading

    Correct Answer
    A. Continental drift
    Explanation
    The hypothesis that all continents were created by the break-up of Pangaea is called continental drift. This theory suggests that the continents were once joined together in a single supercontinent and have since moved apart over time. This movement is believed to be driven by the movement of tectonic plates beneath the Earth's surface. The concept of continental drift was first proposed by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century and has since been supported by geological and paleontological evidence.

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  • 46. 

    What is the idea that tectonic plates move around called?

    • A.

      Convergent theory

    • B.

      Plate tectonics

    • C.

      Plate theory

    • D.

      Tectonic theory

    Correct Answer
    B. Plate tectonics
    Explanation
    Plate tectonics is the correct answer because it refers to the scientific theory that explains how the Earth's lithosphere is divided into several large and small plates that move and interact with each other. These plates are constantly shifting and colliding, causing various geological phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains. Plate tectonics is supported by evidence from geology, seismology, and paleontology, and it provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the dynamic nature of the Earth's surface.

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  • 47. 

    What evidence do we have that the continents ARE actually moving?

    • A.

      The formation of the Hawaiian islands

    • B.

      The presence of the mid-Atlantic ridge

    • C.

      None of the above

    • D.

      Both A and B

    Correct Answer
    D. Both A and B
    Explanation
    Both the formation of the Hawaiian islands and the presence of the mid-Atlantic ridge provide evidence that the continents are actually moving. The formation of the Hawaiian islands is a result of volcanic activity caused by the movement of the Pacific tectonic plate over a hot spot in the Earth's mantle. This demonstrates that the tectonic plates, and consequently the continents, are in motion. The presence of the mid-Atlantic ridge also supports the concept of continental movement, as it is a divergent boundary where new oceanic crust is being formed, pushing the continents apart.

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  • 48. 

    An area with high volcanic activity that is not along a plate boundary is called a ______?

    • A.

      Fault zone

    • B.

      Volcanic irregularity

    • C.

      Guyot

    • D.

      Hot spot

    Correct Answer
    D. Hot spot
    Explanation
    A hot spot is an area with high volcanic activity that is not along a plate boundary. It occurs when a mantle plume rises from deep within the Earth, creating a hotspot of intense heat and volcanic activity. This volcanic activity forms a chain of volcanic islands or seamounts as the tectonic plate moves over the stationary hotspot. Examples of hotspots include the Hawaiian Islands and Yellowstone National Park.

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  • 49. 

    Convection currents occur in the Earth because

    • A.

      Hot magma rises and is cooled and sinks again to be heated.

    • B.

      The Earth spins and not all of the magma spins at the same rate.

    • C.

      Cold magma rises and is heated and sinks again to be cooled.

    • D.

      Volcanoes pull the magma out of the Earth and it becomes lava.

    Correct Answer
    A. Hot magma rises and is cooled and sinks again to be heated.
    Explanation
    Convection currents occur in the Earth because hot magma rises and is cooled and sinks again to be heated. This process is known as convection. As the Earth's interior is heated, the hot magma becomes less dense and rises towards the surface. As it reaches cooler regions, it is cooled and becomes denser, causing it to sink back down. This continuous cycle of rising and sinking creates convection currents within the Earth's mantle, which play a crucial role in driving plate tectonics and other geological processes.

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  • 50. 

    How is density related to convection currents?

    • A.

      Cold magma is less dense than hot magma, so cold magma rises and is heated, becomes more dense, then sinks to be cooled again.

    • B.

      Hot magma is the same density as cold magma, the currents happen because of the heat pushing on the cold.

    • C.

      Density has nothing to do with convection currents. The hot and cold just mix up because of their temperature.

    • D.

      Hot magma is less dense than cold magma, so hot magma rises and is cooled, becomes more dense, then sinks to be heated again.

    Correct Answer
    D. Hot magma is less dense than cold magma, so hot magma rises and is cooled, becomes more dense, then sinks to be heated again.
    Explanation
    Convection currents occur due to the difference in density between hot and cold substances. In this case, hot magma is less dense than cold magma, causing it to rise. As it rises, it is cooled and becomes more dense, leading it to sink again. This cycle of rising and sinking creates the convection currents.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 09, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Tanja Donelson
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