Pathophysiology Exam 2 Cardio Quiz

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Pathophysiology Exam 2 Cardio Quiz - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Blood pressure that is sustained systolic greater that 140mmHg and diastolic that is below 90 is associated with CV and cerebrovascular events, and is referred to as which of the following terms?

    • A.

      Prehypertentsion

    • B.

      Isolated systolic hypertension

    • C.

      Secondary hypertension

    Correct Answer
    B. Isolated systolic hypertension
    Explanation
    Isolated systolic hypertension is the correct answer because it refers to a condition where the systolic blood pressure is consistently higher than 140mmHg while the diastolic blood pressure remains below 90mmHg. This condition is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, making it an important term to identify and address. Prehypertension refers to blood pressure levels that are higher than normal but not yet in the hypertensive range, and secondary hypertension refers to high blood pressure caused by an underlying medical condition.

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  • 2. 

    Blood Pressure that is rapidly progressive with diastolic above 140 mmHg can cause cerebral edema/loss of function, which of the following terms best describes this type of BP

    • A.

      Prehypertension

    • B.

      Isolated hypertension

    • C.

      Malignant hypertension

    Correct Answer
    C. Malignant hypertension
    Explanation
    Malignant hypertension is the best term to describe blood pressure that is rapidly progressive with diastolic above 140 mmHg. This condition can cause cerebral edema and loss of function. Prehypertension refers to blood pressure levels that are higher than normal but not yet classified as hypertension. Isolated hypertension refers to high blood pressure without any other underlying medical conditions. Therefore, malignant hypertension is the most appropriate term for the given scenario.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following conditions refers to decrease in both systolic and diastolic BP on standing; Accompanied by dizziness, blurred or loss of vision, or syncope?

    • A.

      Otrthostatic Postural Hypotension

    • B.

      Chronic Hypotension

    • C.

      Idiopathic Hypotension

    Correct Answer
    A. Otrthostatic Postural Hypotension
    Explanation
    Orthostatic postural hypotension refers to a decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure upon standing, accompanied by symptoms such as dizziness, blurred or loss of vision, or syncope. This condition occurs when there is an inadequate compensatory response by the autonomic nervous system to maintain blood pressure upon standing. It can be caused by various factors such as dehydration, medication side effects, or certain medical conditions. Chronic hypotension refers to consistently low blood pressure, while idiopathic hypotension refers to low blood pressure with an unknown cause.

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  • 4. 

    Outpouching or localized dilation of a vessel wall or cardiac chamber is best known as which of the following terms?

    • A.

      Thrombus

    • B.

      Aneurysm

    • C.

      Embolism

    Correct Answer
    B. Aneurysm
    Explanation
    An aneurysm refers to the localized dilation or outpouching of a vessel wall or cardiac chamber. It is a condition where the wall of the blood vessel weakens and bulges, creating a balloon-like appearance. This can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but is most commonly seen in the arteries. Aneurysms can be dangerous as they have the potential to rupture, leading to severe bleeding and potentially life-threatening complications. Therefore, identifying and treating aneurysms is crucial in preventing complications and ensuring the patient's well-being.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following conditions cause aneurysms?

    • A.

      Atherosclerotic plaque formation

    • B.

      Trauma

    • C.

      Low blood pressure

    • D.

      Congenital abnormalities in media of arterial wall

    • E.

      Smoking

    • F.

      Infection

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Atherosclerotic plaque formation
    B. Trauma
    D. Congenital abnormalities in media of arterial wall
    F. Infection
    Explanation
    Aneurysms can be caused by multiple conditions. Atherosclerotic plaque formation refers to the buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries, which can weaken the arterial walls and lead to an aneurysm. Trauma, such as injury or damage to the arteries, can also cause an aneurysm. Congenital abnormalities in the media of the arterial wall are structural defects present at birth that can increase the risk of developing an aneurysm. Infection, particularly in the arterial wall, can cause inflammation and weaken the artery, leading to an aneurysm. Smoking is not mentioned as a cause of aneurysms in the given options.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following are diagnostic tools used for finding aneurysms

    • A.

      Ultrasound

    • B.

      Angiography

    • C.

      NI

    • D.

      MRI

    • E.

      EKG

    • F.

      CT

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ultrasound
    B. Angiography
    D. MRI
    F. CT
    Explanation
    Ultrasound, angiography, MRI, and CT are all diagnostic tools used for finding aneurysms. Ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of the blood vessels and can identify the presence of an aneurysm. Angiography involves injecting a contrast dye into the blood vessels and then taking X-ray images, which can help visualize any abnormalities such as an aneurysm. MRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the body, including blood vessels, and can detect aneurysms. CT scans use X-rays to create cross-sectional images of the body and can also identify aneurysms.

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  • 7. 

    A middle aged female comes to the doctor with complaints of a sudden painful, pulsating mass in the midline of her abdomen...upon further assessment, the presence of bruit is confirmed...which of the following conditions is consistent with the findings?

    • A.

      Aneurysm "Circle of Willis"

    • B.

      Abdominal aorta aneurysm

    • C.

      Abdominal aorta thrombus

    Correct Answer
    B. Abdominal aorta aneurysm
    Explanation
    The presence of a sudden painful, pulsating mass in the midline of the abdomen, along with the confirmation of a bruit, suggests an abdominal aorta aneurysm. A bruit is a sound caused by turbulent blood flow through a narrowed or abnormal vessel, which is commonly heard in aneurysms. Abdominal aorta aneurysm refers to the abnormal dilation of the abdominal aorta, which can cause a pulsating mass and is often associated with pain. The other options, "Aneurysm Circle of Willis" and "abdominal aorta thrombus," do not fit the given symptoms and findings.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following disorders would cause signs of intracranial pressure, such as decreased levels of consciousness, bradycardia, widened pulse pressure, small, sluggish pupils?

    • A.

      Aneurysm- Circle of Willis

    • B.

      Aneurysm-femoral poplitieal artery

    • C.

      Thrombus in Cerebral artery

    Correct Answer
    A. Aneurysm- Circle of Willis
    Explanation
    An aneurysm in the Circle of Willis, which is a network of blood vessels in the brain, can cause signs of increased intracranial pressure. The increased pressure can lead to decreased levels of consciousness, bradycardia (slow heart rate), widened pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and small, sluggish pupils. This is because the aneurysm puts pressure on the surrounding brain tissue and impairs blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain.

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  • 9. 

    Aneurysms with symptoms of ischemia are probably located in which of the following areas?

    • A.

      Abdominal Aorta

    • B.

      Thoracic Aorta

    • C.

      Femoral and Popliteal Artery

    Correct Answer
    C. Femoral and Popliteal Artery
    Explanation
    Aneurysms with symptoms of ischemia are probably located in the Femoral and Popliteal Artery. Ischemia refers to a lack of blood supply to a particular area, usually due to a blockage or narrowing of the blood vessels. The Femoral and Popliteal Artery are major blood vessels in the leg, responsible for supplying blood to the lower extremities. If an aneurysm occurs in these arteries, it can lead to a reduction in blood flow, causing ischemic symptoms such as pain, numbness, and weakness in the affected leg.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following diagnostic tools are used to confirm presence of thrombi?

    • A.

      Doppler untrasonography

    • B.

      MRI

    • C.

      Angiography

    • D.

      CT

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Doppler untrasonography
    C. Angiography
    Explanation
    Doppler ultrasonography and angiography are both diagnostic tools used to confirm the presence of thrombi. Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of blood flow in the veins and arteries, allowing for the detection of blood clots. Angiography, on the other hand, involves the injection of a contrast dye into the blood vessels, followed by X-ray imaging, which can help visualize any blockages or clots in the blood vessels. Therefore, both Doppler ultrasonography and angiography are effective in confirming the presence of thrombi.

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  • 11. 

    A 23 year old male comes to the doctor complaining of tenderness of in his arm Upon assessment the nurse observes skin ulcerations, redness, thick and shiny skin, and thickened and malformed nails.  Which of the following conditions is consistent with her findings?

    • A.

      Thromboangilitis (Buerger Disease)

    • B.

      Raynaud's phenomenon

    • C.

      Raynaud's disease

    Correct Answer
    A. Thromboangilitis (Buerger Disease)
    Explanation
    The symptoms described in the question, such as skin ulcerations, redness, thick and shiny skin, and thickened and malformed nails, are consistent with Thromboangilitis (Buerger Disease). This condition is characterized by inflammation and clotting in the small and medium-sized arteries and veins, leading to reduced blood flow to the affected areas. Raynaud's phenomenon and Raynaud's disease may also present with similar symptoms, but they are not associated with skin ulcerations and nail abnormalities, making Thromboangilitis (Buerger Disease) the most likely condition based on the given findings.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is a more common peripheral vascular disease usually associated with scleroderma or other connective tissue disease? Numbness, tingling of digits relieved by warmth, associated with white, blue, and red colors.  Thickened fingertips and nails.

    • A.

      Thromboangilitis (Beurger's Disease

    • B.

      Raynaud's phenomenon

    • C.

      Raynaud's disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Raynaud's disease
    Explanation
    Raynaud's disease is a more common peripheral vascular disease usually associated with scleroderma or other connective tissue disease. It is characterized by numbness and tingling of the digits, which is relieved by warmth. The condition is also associated with the presence of white, blue, and red colors on the affected area. Thickened fingertips and nails are common symptoms of Raynaud's disease.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following are used as treatment for thrombi?

    • A.

      Heparin

    • B.

      Beta blockers

    • C.

      Warfain

    • D.

      Thrombolytics

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Heparin
    C. Warfain
    D. Thrombolytics
    Explanation
    Heparin, warfarin, and thrombolytics are all used as treatments for thrombi. Heparin is an anticoagulant that prevents the formation of blood clots. Warfarin is also an anticoagulant that works by inhibiting the production of certain clotting factors. Thrombolytics, on the other hand, are medications that help dissolve existing blood clots. Therefore, all three of these treatments are effective in managing thrombi. Beta blockers, however, are not used for this purpose and do not have an impact on blood clotting.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following terms refers to soft deposits of intra-arterial fat and fibrin in the vessel walls that hardens over time?

    • A.

      Arteriosclerosis

    • B.

      Atherosclerosis

    • C.

      Atherosclerotic disease

    Correct Answer
    B. Atherosclerosis
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis refers to the soft deposits of intra-arterial fat and fibrin in the vessel walls that harden over time. This condition is characterized by the buildup of plaque, which narrows and hardens the arteries, leading to reduced blood flow and potential complications such as heart attacks and strokes.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following tests shows the location and degree of coronary artery stenosis and condition of the artery beyond the narrowing?

    • A.

      Intravascular ultrasound

    • B.

      Coronary angiography

    • C.

      Holter Monitor

    Correct Answer
    B. Coronary angiography
    Explanation
    Coronary angiography is a test that uses dye and X-rays to visualize the coronary arteries and determine the location and degree of stenosis (narrowing) in the arteries. It also provides information about the condition of the artery beyond the narrowing, such as the presence of any blockages or abnormalities. Intravascular ultrasound is a different test that uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the blood vessels, while a Holter monitor is used to monitor and record the heart's electrical activity over a period of time.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following tests detects silent ischemia and angina?

    • A.

      Intravascular ultrasound

    • B.

      Coronary angiography

    • C.

      Holter monitor

    Correct Answer
    C. Holter monitor
    Explanation
    The Holter monitor is a device used to continuously monitor a patient's heart rhythm for a period of time, typically 24 to 48 hours. It records the electrical activity of the heart and can detect abnormal heart rhythms, including silent ischemia and angina. Silent ischemia refers to a condition where there is reduced blood flow to the heart muscle without causing any symptoms, while angina is chest pain or discomfort caused by reduced blood flow to the heart. Therefore, the Holter monitor is the correct test to detect these conditions as it can capture any abnormal heart rhythms that may indicate silent ischemia or angina.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following tests evaluated damaged heart muscle and if there is adequate blood supply?

    • A.

      Coronary Angiography

    • B.

      EKG

    • C.

      Holter Monitor

    Correct Answer
    B. EKG
    Explanation
    EKG (Electrocardiogram) is a test that evaluates the electrical activity of the heart. It helps to diagnose various heart conditions, including damage to the heart muscle and inadequate blood supply. By measuring the electrical signals produced by the heart, an EKG can detect abnormalities in the heart's rhythm and identify areas of damage or reduced blood flow. Therefore, EKG is the correct test for evaluating damaged heart muscle and assessing the adequacy of blood supply.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following terms best describes an atheroscerotic disease of the arteries that perfuse the limbs, especially in the lower extremities?

    • A.

      Peripheral Artery Disease

    • B.

      Atherosclerosis

    • C.

      Arteriosclerosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Peripheral Artery Disease
    Explanation
    Peripheral Artery Disease best describes an atherosclerotic disease of the arteries that perfuse the limbs, especially in the lower extremities. Atherosclerosis refers to the buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can lead to various cardiovascular diseases. Arteriosclerosis, on the other hand, is a more general term that describes the thickening and hardening of the arterial walls, which can be caused by various factors including atherosclerosis. Therefore, Peripheral Artery Disease is the most specific and accurate term to describe the given condition.

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  • 19. 

    A diabetic patient comes to the doctor complaining about sever pain in his legs brought on by ambulation.  The nurse suspects which of the following conditions?

    • A.

      Atherosclerosis

    • B.

      Peripheral Artery Disease

    • C.

      Arteriosclerosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Peripheral Artery Disease
    Explanation
    The nurse suspects that the diabetic patient is experiencing Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) due to the severe pain in his legs brought on by ambulation. PAD is a condition where the arteries that supply blood to the legs become narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow. This can cause pain, cramping, and weakness in the legs, especially during physical activity. Diabetic patients are at a higher risk for developing PAD due to the damage that high blood sugar levels can cause to blood vessels. Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis are both conditions that can contribute to the development of PAD.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is a condition in which the blood supply to the heart musecles is completely or partially blocked due to atherosclerosis that develpos in the arteries that encircle the heart, narrowing the arteries, and blocking blood flow?

    • A.

      Peripheral Artery Disease

    • B.

      Myocardial Ischemia

    • C.

      Coronary Artery Disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Coronary Artery Disease
    Explanation
    Coronary Artery Disease is the correct answer because it accurately describes a condition where the blood supply to the heart muscles is partially or completely blocked due to atherosclerosis in the arteries surrounding the heart. This leads to the narrowing of the arteries and a subsequent blockage of blood flow. Peripheral Artery Disease refers to a condition where there is a blockage in the arteries outside of the heart, while Myocardial Ischemia refers to a lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscles, which can be a result of coronary artery disease.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following terms refers to abnormal concentrations of serum lipoprotens such as lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides bound to carrier proteins?

    • A.

      Dyslipidemia

    • B.

      Lipoprotemia

    • C.

      Phospholipidemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Dyslipidemia
    Explanation
    Dyslipidemia refers to abnormal concentrations of serum lipoproteins such as lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides bound to carrier proteins. It is a condition characterized by imbalances in the levels of these lipoproteins, which can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke. Dyslipidemia can be caused by various factors including genetics, diet, lifestyle, and certain medical conditions. Treatment usually involves lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet, exercise, and medications if necessary.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following conditions refers to the imbalance between coronary blood supply and myocardial demand?

    • A.

      Coronary Artery Disease

    • B.

      Myocardial Ischemia

    • C.

      Myocardial Infarction

    Correct Answer
    B. Myocardial Ischemia
    Explanation
    Myocardial ischemia refers to the imbalance between coronary blood supply and myocardial demand. This condition occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is reduced, usually due to narrowed or blocked coronary arteries. As a result, the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, leading to chest pain or discomfort known as angina. If the blood flow is severely restricted or completely blocked, it can result in a heart attack, known as myocardial infarction. Coronary artery disease is a broader term that encompasses the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which can lead to myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following is the most common reason for myocardial ischemia?

    • A.

      Coronary Spasms

    • B.

      Hypotension

    • C.

      Atherosclerotic plaques

    Correct Answer
    C. Atherosclerotic plaques
    Explanation
    Atherosclerotic plaques are the most common reason for myocardial ischemia. These plaques are formed by the buildup of fatty deposits, cholesterol, and other substances in the walls of the coronary arteries. Over time, these plaques can narrow the arteries and restrict blood flow to the heart muscle. This reduced blood flow can lead to myocardial ischemia, which is a condition where the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients. This can cause chest pain, known as angina, and in severe cases, can lead to a heart attack.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following conditions can cause myocardial infarction?

    • A.

      Coronary spasm

    • B.

      Hypertension

    • C.

      Hypotension

    • D.

      Anemia

    • E.

      Arrhythmias

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Coronary spasm
    C. Hypotension
    D. Anemia
    E. Arrhythmias
    Explanation
    Myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, can be caused by various conditions. Coronary spasm is a condition where the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, suddenly constrict, leading to reduced blood flow and potentially causing a heart attack. Hypotension, or low blood pressure, can also lead to inadequate blood supply to the heart and result in a heart attack. Anemia, a condition characterized by a decrease in red blood cells or hemoglobin, can cause a lack of oxygen delivery to the heart, increasing the risk of myocardial infarction. Arrhythmias, abnormal heart rhythms, can disrupt the heart's blood supply and trigger a heart attack.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following terms describes angina that is substernal chest discomfort :elephant sitting on my chest: often shown with a clenched fist placed over the left sternal border?  Accompanied with pallor, diaphoresis, dyspnea, nausea and vomiting?

    • A.

      Stable Angina

    • B.

      Prinzmental Angina

    • C.

      Silent Ischemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Stable Angina
    Explanation
    Stable Angina is the correct answer because it is characterized by substernal chest discomfort that can be described as an "elephant sitting on my chest." This type of angina is often accompanied by a clenched fist placed over the left sternal border. Additionally, stable angina is associated with symptoms such as pallor, diaphoresis, dyspnea, nausea, and vomiting. Prinzmetal Angina is not the correct answer because it is typically caused by coronary artery vasospasm rather than physical exertion or emotional stress. Silent Ischemia is also not the correct answer because it refers to myocardial ischemia that occurs without any noticeable symptoms.

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  • 26. 

    Which of the following terms best describes chest pain from transient ischemia that occurs unpredictably and often at rest? The pain is from vasospasm in one or more coronary arteries with or without atherosclerosis and ST elevation is seen upon evaluation.

    • A.

      Stable Angina

    • B.

      Prinzmental Angina

    • C.

      Silent ischemia

    Correct Answer
    B. Prinzmental Angina
    Explanation
    Prinzmetal angina is the best term to describe the given scenario. Prinzmetal angina, also known as variant angina, is characterized by chest pain caused by vasospasm in the coronary arteries, which can occur unpredictably and often at rest. This condition can occur with or without underlying atherosclerosis, and upon evaluation, ST elevation is typically observed. Stable angina refers to chest pain that occurs predictably with exertion and is relieved by rest, while silent ischemia refers to myocardial ischemia that occurs without any noticeable symptoms.

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  • 27. 

    A woman comes to the doctor with complaints of fatigue, dyspnea, and feeling of unease. Upon further assessment the nurse finds left ventricular gallop and S3, what are these findings consistent with? 

    • A.

      Stable Angina

    • B.

      Silent Ischemia

    • C.

      Prinzmental Angina

    Correct Answer
    B. Silent Ischemia
    Explanation
    The findings of left ventricular gallop and S3 are consistent with Silent Ischemia. Silent ischemia refers to a condition where there is inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle, leading to symptoms such as fatigue, dyspnea, and unease, but without the typical chest pain associated with angina. The presence of left ventricular gallop and S3 on assessment suggests impaired heart function, which can occur in silent ischemia due to reduced blood supply to the heart.

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  • 28. 

    General transient ST segment depression and T wave inversion are characteristic signs of which of the following?

    • A.

      Atheroscerotic plaque

    • B.

      Angina

    • C.

      Ischemia

    Correct Answer
    C. Ischemia
    Explanation
    General transient ST segment depression and T wave inversion are characteristic signs of ischemia. Ischemia refers to a lack of blood flow to a specific area of the body, often due to a narrowing or blockage of blood vessels. In the context of the heart, ischemia can result from atherosclerotic plaque buildup, which can lead to angina (chest pain) and potentially a heart attack. The ST segment depression and T wave inversion seen in ischemia are indicative of abnormal electrical activity in the heart, suggesting a lack of oxygen and nutrients reaching the cardiac muscle.

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  • 29. 

    Which of the following medication reduce elevated serum cholesterol?

    • A.

      Beta-Blockers

    • B.

      Nitrates

    • C.

      Antilipemics

    Correct Answer
    C. Antilipemics
    Explanation
    Antilipemics are a class of medications specifically designed to reduce elevated serum cholesterol levels. Beta-blockers and nitrates are not indicated for this purpose. Beta-blockers are primarily used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure and heart rhythm disorders, while nitrates are commonly prescribed to relieve symptoms of angina. Antilipemics, on the other hand, work by inhibiting the production or absorption of cholesterol in the body, helping to lower cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following medications dilates arteries and veins to reduce myocardial oxugen demands?

    • A.

      Betq-Blockers

    • B.

      Nitrates

    • C.

      Antilipemics

    Correct Answer
    B. Nitrates
    Explanation
    Nitrates are medications that dilate both arteries and veins, leading to a reduction in myocardial oxygen demands. By dilating the blood vessels, nitrates increase blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart, while also reducing the workload on the heart. This can help relieve symptoms of angina, a condition characterized by chest pain or discomfort caused by a reduced blood flow to the heart. Therefore, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina and reduce myocardial oxygen demands.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following medications treats angina?

    • A.

      Beta Blockers

    • B.

      Calcium Channel Blockers

    • C.

      Antilipemics

    Correct Answer
    B. Calcium Channel Blockers
    Explanation
    Calcium Channel Blockers are a class of medications commonly used to treat angina. They work by relaxing and widening the blood vessels, allowing more blood and oxygen to flow to the heart. This helps to reduce the frequency and severity of angina episodes. Beta Blockers are also used to treat angina, but in this case, Calcium Channel Blockers are specifically mentioned as the correct answer. Antilipemics, on the other hand, are medications used to lower cholesterol levels and are not directly used to treat angina.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following terms results from prolonged ischemia that causes irreversible damage to the heart muscle?

    • A.

      Myocardial Infarction

    • B.

      Unstable Angina

    • C.

      Coronary Artery Disease

    Correct Answer
    A. Myocardial Infarction
    Explanation
    Prolonged ischemia refers to a reduced blood supply to the heart muscle, which can lead to irreversible damage. This condition is known as myocardial infarction, commonly referred to as a heart attack. During a heart attack, the blood flow to a specific area of the heart is blocked, causing the heart muscle tissue to die due to lack of oxygen and nutrients. Unstable angina, on the other hand, refers to chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart, but it does not result in irreversible damage. Coronary artery disease is a broader term that encompasses various conditions that narrow or block the blood vessels supplying the heart, leading to decreased blood flow and potential heart muscle damage.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following terms describes the tissue in the entire thickness of a portion of the cardiac wall dying?

    • A.

      Subendocardial infarction

    • B.

      Transmural infarction

    • C.

      Myocardial Infarction

    Correct Answer
    B. Transmural infarction
    Explanation
    Transmural infarction is the correct answer because it refers to the death of tissue in the entire thickness of a portion of the cardiac wall. This means that the tissue damage extends from the innermost layer (endocardium) to the outermost layer (epicardium) of the heart. Subendocardial infarction, on the other hand, refers to tissue death limited to the innermost layer of the cardiac wall, while myocardial infarction is a broader term that encompasses both subendocardial and transmural infarctions.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following presents as new-onset angina, at rest, or occuring in increasing severity or frequency, important to recognize because it means that atherosclerotic plaque has become complicated and infarction is likely to occur.

    • A.

      Stable angina

    • B.

      Prinzmental Angina

    • C.

      Unstable Angina

    Correct Answer
    C. Unstable Angina
    Explanation
    Unstable angina presents as new-onset angina that occurs at rest or increases in severity or frequency. It is important to recognize because it indicates that atherosclerotic plaque has become complicated and there is a high risk of myocardial infarction (heart attack) occurring. Unlike stable angina, which is predictable and occurs with exertion or stress, unstable angina is unpredictable and can occur even at rest. Prompt medical attention is necessary for unstable angina to prevent further complications.

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  • 35. 

    A patient comes to the doctor with severe persistent chest pain, that he refers to as "a truck sitting on my chest"...He is sweating profusely , yet cool and clammy, his BP initially dropped but shortly after heart rate and BP wnt back up.  Cardiac murmurs, pericardial friction rub, and crackles in the lung are present.  Which of the following is consistent with these findings?

    • A.

      Myocardial Ischemia

    • B.

      Coronary Artery Disease

    • C.

      Myocardial Infarction

    Correct Answer
    C. Myocardial Infarction
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms, including severe chest pain, sweating, and changes in blood pressure and heart rate, along with the presence of cardiac murmurs, pericardial friction rub, and crackles in the lung, are consistent with a myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack, occurs when there is a blockage in the coronary arteries, leading to a lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle. This can result in severe chest pain and other symptoms, and the presence of abnormal heart sounds and lung findings further support this diagnosis.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following of MONA, for treatment of myocardial infarction is given to inhibit platelet aggregation

    • A.

      Aspirin

    • B.

      Nitroglycerin

    • C.

      Oxygen

    Correct Answer
    A. Aspirin
    Explanation
    Aspirin is given to inhibit platelet aggregation in the treatment of myocardial infarction. It works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are responsible for promoting platelet aggregation. By preventing platelets from clumping together, aspirin helps to prevent the formation of blood clots that can further block blood flow to the heart. This reduces the risk of complications and further damage to the heart muscle during a myocardial infarction. Nitroglycerin is used to relieve chest pain and improve blood flow to the heart, while oxygen is given to increase oxygen supply to the heart muscle.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following terms refers to inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart; and the are becomes roughened and scarred?

    • A.

      Pericarditis

    • B.

      Pericardial Friction Rub

    • C.

      Pericardial Effusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Pericarditis
    Explanation
    Pericarditis refers to inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart, causing it to become roughened and scarred. This condition can be caused by various factors such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or heart attacks. Symptoms of pericarditis may include chest pain, fever, and a friction rub sound heard during a physical examination. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms with medication, rest, and sometimes, drainage of excess fluid from the pericardial sac.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following enzymes are most important in identifying Myocardial infarction

    • A.

      Troponin I

    • B.

      Tropinase I

    • C.

      Troponin T

    • D.

      Troponin 3

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Troponin I
    C. Troponin T
    Explanation
    Troponin I and Troponin T are the most important enzymes in identifying myocardial infarction. Troponin I is a protein found in cardiac muscle cells and is released into the bloodstream when there is damage to the heart muscle. Troponin T is another protein found in cardiac muscle cells and is also released into the bloodstream during a heart attack. These enzymes are specific to the heart and their elevated levels in the blood indicate myocardial infarction. Tropinase I and Troponin 3 are not enzymes related to myocardial infarction.

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  • 39. 

    A patient complains of sudden onset severe retrosternal chest pain that worsens with respiratory effort, primarily inspiration. The patient says that the pain decreases when he leans forward and also says he has difficulty swallowing.  Which of the following conditions is consistent with the findings?

    • A.

      Cardiomyapathy

    • B.

      Pericarditis

    • C.

      Myocardial Infarction

    Correct Answer
    B. Pericarditis
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms of sudden onset severe retrosternal chest pain that worsens with respiratory effort, primarily inspiration, along with relief of pain when leaning forward and difficulty swallowing, are consistent with pericarditis. Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart. The pain is typically sharp and pleuritic, meaning it worsens with deep breathing or coughing. Leaning forward can relieve the pain by reducing pressure on the inflamed pericardium. Difficulty swallowing may occur due to compression of the esophagus by an enlarged pericardium. Cardiomyopathy and myocardial infarction would present with different symptoms and findings.

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  • 40. 

    Accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity is referred to as which of the following terms?

    • A.

      Pericarditis

    • B.

      Pericardial Effusion

    • C.

      Pericardial Rub

    Correct Answer
    B. Pericardial Effusion
    Explanation
    Pericardial effusion refers to the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity, which is the space between the layers of the pericardium, the sac that surrounds the heart. This condition can occur due to various reasons, such as inflammation, infection, trauma, or cancer. It can lead to symptoms like chest pain, shortness of breath, and a feeling of heaviness in the chest. Treatment for pericardial effusion depends on the underlying cause and may involve medication, drainage of the fluid, or surgery. Pericarditis refers to inflammation of the pericardium, while pericardial rub is a specific sound heard during a physical examination of the heart.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following are used as treatments of pericarditis?

    • A.

      Colcihine

    • B.

      Anti-inflammatory drugs

    • C.

      Calcium Channel Blockers

    • D.

      Nitrate

    • E.

      Beta-Blockers

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Colcihine
    B. Anti-inflammatory drugs
    Explanation
    Colchicine and anti-inflammatory drugs are used as treatments for pericarditis. Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium, the sac-like membrane that surrounds the heart. Colchicine is an anti-inflammatory medication that helps reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms of pericarditis. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or corticosteroids, are also commonly prescribed to reduce inflammation and alleviate pain associated with pericarditis. These medications help to reduce swelling and inflammation in the pericardium, allowing the heart to function properly.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following terms refers to to rapid accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity, causing cardiac compression

    • A.

      Pleural effusion

    • B.

      Pericardial Effusion

    • C.

      Tamponede

    Correct Answer
    C. Tamponede
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Tamponade." Tamponade refers to the rapid accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity, which leads to compression of the heart. This can result in impaired cardiac function and potentially life-threatening consequences. Pleural effusion refers to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity, while pericardial effusion specifically refers to the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity.

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  • 43. 

    Pericardial Effusion, may cause which of the following conditions?

    • A.

      Left-sided heart failure

    • B.

      Right-sided heart failure

    • C.

      Coronary Artery dieaese

    Correct Answer
    B. Right-sided heart failure
    Explanation
    Pericardial effusion refers to the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, which surrounds the heart. This excess fluid can put pressure on the heart, leading to impaired filling and function of the right side of the heart. As a result, right-sided heart failure can occur, characterized by symptoms such as fluid retention, swelling in the legs and abdomen, and impaired blood flow to the lungs. Therefore, pericardial effusion may cause right-sided heart failure.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following condition s is a Cardiomypathy where the ventricles are stiff and cannot fill properly?

    • A.

      Restrictive

    • B.

      Hypertrophic

    • C.

      Dilated (congestive)

    Correct Answer
    A. Restrictive
    Explanation
    Restrictive cardiomyopathy is a condition where the ventricles of the heart become stiff and lose their ability to relax and fill properly. This results in decreased blood flow to the rest of the body. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, on the other hand, is characterized by thickening of the heart muscle, while dilated cardiomyopathy refers to a condition where the heart chambers become enlarged and weakened. Therefore, the correct answer is restrictive cardiomyopathy.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following cardiomypathies are where the walls of of the ventricles thicken and become stiff?

    • A.

      Restrictive

    • B.

      Hypertrophic

    • C.

      Dilated (congestive)

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypertrophic
    Explanation
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiomyopathy where the walls of the ventricles (usually the left ventricle) thicken and become stiff. This thickening can interfere with the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fainting. It is a genetic condition and can be inherited from a parent. Treatment options for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy include medications to manage symptoms, surgical procedures, and lifestyle changes.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following cardiomypathies is where the ventricles enlarge but are not able to pump enough blood for the body's needs?

    • A.

      Restrictive

    • B.

      Hypertrophic

    • C.

      Dilated (congestive)

    Correct Answer
    C. Dilated (congestive)
    Explanation
    Dilated (congestive) cardiomyopathy is a condition where the ventricles of the heart become enlarged and weakened, leading to a decreased ability to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can result in symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is characterized by the stiffening of the ventricles, while hypertrophic cardiomyopathy involves the thickening of the heart muscle.

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  • 47. 

    Mutliple myeloma and amyloidosis are example of which cardiomypathy?

    • A.

      Restrictive

    • B.

      Hypertrophic

    • C.

      Dialted (congestive)

    Correct Answer
    A. Restrictive
    Explanation
    Multiple myeloma and amyloidosis are examples of diseases that can lead to restrictive cardiomyopathy. In restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle becomes stiff and less compliant, which impairs its ability to relax and fill with blood properly. This can result in symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Both multiple myeloma and amyloidosis can cause the deposition of abnormal proteins in the heart muscle, leading to the development of restrictive cardiomyopathy.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following cardiomypathies is uncontrollien HTN causing ventricles and septum to come hypertrophic, shrinking the heart chambers and decreasing blood volume that leaves the heart, Decreasing Cardiac Outoput and responsible for deaths in competitive athletes?

    • A.

      Restricted

    • B.

      Hypertrophic

    • C.

      Congested

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypertrophic
    Explanation
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the correct answer. This condition is characterized by the thickening of the ventricles and septum of the heart, leading to a decrease in the volume of blood that can be pumped out of the heart. This decrease in cardiac output can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and fainting. In some cases, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can be caused by uncontrolled hypertension, and it has been known to be a cause of sudden cardiac death in competitive athletes.

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  • 49. 

    Disorders of the endocardium damage the heart valves which are composed of endocardial tissue, these disorders are known as...

    • A.

      Valvular Dysfunction

    • B.

      Valvular Stenosis

    • C.

      Valvular Insufficiency

    Correct Answer
    A. Valvular Dysfunction
    Explanation
    Disorders of the endocardium can lead to damage in the heart valves, which are composed of endocardial tissue. This damage can result in various abnormalities in the functioning of the valves, including stenosis (narrowing) or insufficiency (leakage). Therefore, the term "Valvular Dysfunction" encompasses both valvular stenosis and valvular insufficiency, making it the correct answer.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following conditions occurs when blood cannot flow forward due to the orifice being constricted and narrowed, causing the pressure in the chamber to rise and the myocardium to work harder and eventually hypertrophy?

    • A.

      Valvular Dysfunction

    • B.

      Valvular Stenosis

    • C.

      Valvular Regurgitation

    Correct Answer
    B. Valvular Stenosis
    Explanation
    Valvular stenosis occurs when the orifice of a heart valve is constricted and narrowed, preventing blood from flowing forward. This constriction causes an increase in pressure within the chamber, forcing the myocardium to work harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve. Over time, this increased workload can lead to hypertrophy of the myocardium. Valvular dysfunction and valvular regurgitation refer to other types of valve abnormalities, but they do not specifically involve the narrowing of the valve orifice as seen in valvular stenosis.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
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    Quiz Created by
    Mmfre
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