1.
A t-test is a significance test that assesses
Correct Answer
A. The means of two independent groups
Explanation
A t-test is a type of inferential statistic used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two groups, which may be related in certain features or completely independent. The t-test provides a way to compare the means and assess if any observed differences are statistically significant, rather than the result of random variation. It is specifically designed for testing hypotheses on means, not medians, modes, or standard deviations. The independent two-sample t-test is one common form, used to compare the means from two different groups, assessing whether their population means differ significantly. This test is widely used in experiments involving independent groups where each participant is only in one group.
2.
To use a t-test, the dependent variable must have
Correct Answer
C. Interval or ratio data
Explanation
A t-test is a statistical test used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two groups. It is appropriate to use a t-test when the dependent variable has interval or ratio data. Interval data is numerical data where the difference between any two values is meaningful, and ratio data is similar but includes a true zero point. These types of data allow for meaningful calculations of means and differences between groups, which is necessary for conducting a t-test.
3.
Statistical significance or the probability of finding statistical significance is also known as
Correct Answer
B. p-value
Explanation
The correct answer is p-value. Statistical significance or the probability of finding statistical significance is commonly referred to as the p-value. The p-value is a measure of the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis and indicates the likelihood of obtaining the observed results by chance alone. It is used in hypothesis testing to determine whether the results of a study are statistically significant or not.
4.
T-tests and other significance tests are frequently criticized. Over-representation of statistical significance in research may result in:
Correct Answer
A. Publication bias
Explanation
The over-representation of statistical significance in research can lead to publication bias. This occurs when studies with statistically significant results are more likely to be published, while studies with non-significant results are often overlooked or not published. This bias can distort the overall body of research, leading to an inaccurate understanding of the true effects of a particular phenomenon.
5.
The three types of t-tests are
Correct Answer(s)
A. One-sample t-tests
C. Independent sample t-tests
D. Paired samples t-tests;
Explanation
The correct answer is a list of three types of t-tests: one-sample t-tests, independent sample t-tests, and paired samples t-tests. These three types of t-tests are commonly used in statistical analysis to compare means between different groups or conditions. One-sample t-tests are used when comparing a sample mean to a known population mean. Independent sample t-tests are used when comparing the means of two independent groups. Paired samples t-tests are used when comparing the means of two related or paired groups. Variable t-tests mentioned in the question are not a recognized type of t-test.
6.
Into how many types can we classify measures of dispersion?
Correct Answer
B. 4
Explanation
Measures of dispersion can typically be classified into four main types: range, interquartile range, variance, and standard deviation. Each of these measures provides a different insight into the spread or variability of a dataset:
Range - The simplest measure of dispersion, calculated as the difference between the maximum and minimum values in a dataset.
Interquartile Range (IQR) - Measures the spread of the middle 50% of the data, calculated as the difference between the 75th percentile (Q3) and the 25th percentile (Q1).
Variance - Represents the average squared deviations from the mean, providing a sense of how much the values in the dataset deviate from the mean.
Standard Deviation - The square root of the variance, indicating how much on average the values in the dataset deviate from the mean in the same units as the original data.
These four types cover the primary ways statisticians and researchers quantify the spread or dispersion within a set of data points.
7.
This is the mode value for the data set:
0,3,4,5,7,7,7,7,7,8,10,10
Correct Answer
A. 7
Explanation
In statistics, the mode of a dataset is the value that appears most frequently. For the given dataset [0, 3, 4, 5, 7, 7, 7, 7, 7, 8, 10, 10], the number 7 appears more frequently than any other number, occurring five times. This makes it the mode of the dataset. The other options, such as 8 and 10, appear less frequently, with 8 appearing once and 10 appearing twice. Therefore, the correct answer is 7.
8.
Which of these is a type of T-test?
Correct Answer
D. All of these
Explanation
All the options listed are types of T-tests, each used in different statistical scenarios to determine if there are significant differences between means:One sample t-test - This test compares the mean of a single sample to a known value (usually a population mean) to see if there is a significant difference.Independent two-sample t-test - This test is used to compare the means of two independent groups to see if there is evidence that the associated population means are significantly different.Paired sample t-test - Also known as the dependent sample t-test, this is used to compare the means from the same group at different times (say, before and after a treatment), or the differences between matched pairs.Each of these tests helps in analyzing different kinds of data and experimental designs, making the option "All of these" the correct answer.
9.
The T-test is not a reliable test.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement that "The T-test is not a reliable test" is generally false. The T-test is a well-established statistical method used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two groups, which can be related in certain features or not. It is reliable under the conditions for which it is appropriate, which include:Normal Distribution of Data: The data should be approximately normally distributed, especially as sample sizes decrease.Scale of Measurement: The data should be at least interval scale.Random Sampling: The data should come from a random sample from the population.Similar Variance: When comparing two groups, their variances should be approximately equal when conducting an independent two-sample t-test.When these assumptions are met, the T-test can provide reliable results. However, like any statistical test, its reliability depends on the correct application, including adherence to its underlying assumptions. Thus, while it can be misused or applied inappropriately, under proper conditions and usage, the T-test is considered a highly reliable statistical tool.
10.
The T-test tells you about the significant difference between the two groups.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true. The T-test is specifically designed to test the null hypothesis that the means of two groups are equal. It helps in determining whether the differences observed between the means of two groups are statistically significant or simply due to random chance. This test is valuable in many fields such as medicine, psychology, and other social sciences where researchers want to compare the effects of treatments or conditions on different groups. By calculating the t-value and comparing it against critical values from the t-distribution (or by computing a p-value), researchers can ascertain if the observed differences are unlikely to have occurred under the null hypothesis of no difference. If the differences are statistically significant, it provides strong evidence that the intervention or variable being tested had an effect.