Paleoecologist Glen MacDonald's argument that the original migration occurred much later than had previously been believed
The demonstration that certain previously accepted radiocarbon dates were incorrect
Evidence that the continental ice began its final retreat much later than had previously been believed
Research showing that the ice-free corridor was not as long lasting as had been widely assumed
Discuss why the theory was rapidly accepted but then rejected
Present the evidence on which the theory was based
Cite evidence that now shows that the theory is incorrect
Explain why the theory was not initially considered plausible
In spite of
Because this region has been settled the longest, it also displays the greatest diversity in Native American languages.
Fladmark's hypothesis states that the west coast of the Americas has been settled longer than any other region.
The fact that the greatest diversity of Native American languages occurs along the west coast of the Americas lends strength to Fladmark's hypothesis.
According to Fladmark, Mauve American languages have survived the longest along the west coast of the Americas.
Indicate that a number of recent geologic studies seem to provide support for the coastal hypothesis
Indicate that coastal and inland migrations may have happened simultaneously
Explain why humans may have reached America's northwest coast before animals and plants did
Show that the coastal hypothesis may explain how people first reached Alaska but it cannot explain how people reached areas like modern British Columbia and Washington State
Humans were changing their hunting techniques to adapt to coastal rather than inland environments
Animals had migrated from the inland to the coasts, an indication that a midcontinental ice-free corridor was actually implausible
Humans probably would have been able to find enough resources along the coastal corridor
The continental shelf was still exposed by lower sea levels during the period when the southward migration of people began
6,000 years ago
14,000 years ago
12,500 years ago
10,000 years ago
Understand intellectual principles of teaching
Strengthen their intellectual connection to their work
Use scientific fact to improve discipline and teaching
Adopt a more disciplined approach to teaching
It was designed so that teachers would eventually reflect without help from others.
It was used by a group of teachers over a period of years.
It involved having teachers take part in discussions of classroom events.
It involved having teachers record in writing their reflections about teaching.
Correctly calculate the amount of time needed for reflection
Provide sufficiently detailed descriptions of the methods they used to help them reflect
Examine thoughtfully the possible causes of events in their classrooms
Establish realistic goals for themselves in practicing reflection
It describes and comments on steps taken to overcome problems identified earlier in the passage.
It challenges the earlier claim that teachers rarely have the time to think about their own or others' teaching.
It identifies advantages gained by teachers who followed the training program described earlier in the passage.
It explains the process used to define the principles discussed later in the passage.
Reflection is such a good idea that it is likely to gain the support of others.
Administrators tend to be stronger supporters of reflection than teachers are.
Teachers will become more comfortable with the process of reflection if they receive help from administrators.
Teachers can afford to engage in reflection only after other needs have been met.
It is not generally supported by teacher educators
The benefits of reflection may not be apparent immediately
It is impossible to teach and reflect on one's teaching at the same time
They have often failed in their attempts to become reflective practitioners
The practice of being reflective is no longer simply a habit among teachers but something that is externally motivated.
Most teachers need to explore ways to form the habit of reflection even when no external motivation exists.
Many aspects of the motivation to reflect have not been studied, including the comparative benefits of externally motivated and habitual reflection among teachers.
There has not been enough exploration of why teachers practice reflection as a habit with or without external motivation.
Over a long period of time
Without a definite pattern
Some of the earliest important examples of symbiosis—the close cooperation of two or more living things—occur in island communities.
Symbiosis—the close cooperation of pairs or small groups of living organisms—is especially important in these island environments.
The first organisms on these islands worked together closely in a relationship known as symbiosis, which is particularly important on islands.
It is significant to note that organisms in the beginning stages of the development of island life cannot survive without close cooperation.
The algae help the fungi meet some of their energy needs.
The algae protect the fungi from the Sun's radiation.
The algae provide the fungi with greater space for absorbing water.
The fungi produce less waste in the presence of algae.