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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    It translates input into output.

    • A.

      Function of a web document

    • B.

      Function of a computer program

    • C.

      Function of code

    • D.

      Function of Ruby

    Correct Answer
    B. Function of a computer program
    Explanation
    A computer program is designed to perform specific tasks by taking input and producing output. It is a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do. The function of a computer program is to process data, perform calculations, manipulate information, and provide the desired result. It translates the input data into output data, which can be in various forms such as text, images, or sound. Therefore, the given answer correctly describes the function of a computer program.

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  • 2. 

    Computer __________________is a complex subject, but it can be broken down into three basic processes. First, data is converted to simple numbers that are easy for a computer to store. Second, the numbers are recorded by hardware inside the computer. Third, the numbers are organized, moved to temporary storage and manipulated by programs, or software.

    • A.

      Coding

    • B.

      Science

    • C.

      Programming

    • D.

      Data storage

    Correct Answer
    D. Data storage
    Explanation
    The given passage describes the three basic processes involved in computer data processing. It explains that data is first converted into simple numbers, then recorded by hardware, and finally organized, stored temporarily, and manipulated by software. The term "data storage" best fits this description as it encompasses the second process mentioned in the passage, which involves the recording of numbers by hardware inside the computer.

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  • 3. 

    Which one is NOT a main part of the computer

    • A.

      Power supply

    • B.

      Motherboard

    • C.

      Keyboard

    • D.

      CPU

    Correct Answer
    C. Keyboard
    Explanation
    The keyboard is not a main part of the computer because it is considered an input device rather than a crucial component for the functioning of the computer. While the power supply, motherboard, and CPU are essential for the computer's operation, the keyboard is an external peripheral that allows users to input data into the computer.

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  • 4. 

    ______can take a variety of forms, from commands you enter from the keyboard to data from another computer or device. A device that feeds data into a computer, such as a keyboard or mouse, is called an input device. (v.)The act of entering data into a computer.

    • A.

      Input

    • B.

      Process

    • C.

      Output

    • D.

      Techniques

    Correct Answer
    A. Input
    Explanation
    An input can take a variety of forms, such as commands entered from the keyboard or data received from another computer or device. An input device, such as a keyboard or mouse, is responsible for feeding data into a computer. The act of entering data into a computer is referred to as input.

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  • 5. 

    A ________________ is a visual representation of a direction of data in a program

    • A.

      Hierarchy chart

    • B.

      Diagram

    • C.

      Linear chart

    • D.

      Flowchart

    Correct Answer
    D. Flowchart
    Explanation
    A flowchart is a visual representation of the direction of data in a program. It uses different symbols and arrows to depict the flow of data from one step to another, showing the sequence of operations and decision points. This helps in understanding the logic and structure of the program, making it easier to analyze and troubleshoot any issues.

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  • 6. 

    In computer programming, a ___________variable is a variable with large scope, meaning that it is visible (hence accessible) throughout the program, unless shadowed. 

    • A.

      Local

    • B.

      Global

    • C.

      Constant

    • D.

      Psuedo

    Correct Answer
    B. Global
    Explanation
    A global variable is a variable with large scope, meaning that it is visible and accessible throughout the program, unless it is shadowed. This means that the variable can be accessed and modified from any part of the program, making it widely available for use.

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  • 7. 

    Which one is NOT a programming language?

    • A.

      PHP

    • B.

      Goose

    • C.

      C++

    • D.

      Java

    Correct Answer
    B. Goose
    Explanation
    Goose is not a programming language. PHP, C++, and Java are all programming languages commonly used for software development.

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  • 8. 

    In software, a _____________is a part of a program. Programs are composed of one or more independently developed ______________that are not combined until the program is linked. A single ____________can contain one or several routines. (2) In hardware, a ___________is a self-contained component.

    • A.

      Module

    • B.

      Unit

    • C.

      Device

    • D.

      Variable

    Correct Answer
    A. Module
    Explanation
    A module is a part of a program that contains one or several routines. In software, programs are composed of independently developed modules that are not combined until the program is linked. In hardware, a module is a self-contained component. Therefore, the correct answer is module.

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  • 9. 

    A ________________ is traditionally a sequence of characters or variables or what a kite is tied to.

    • A.

      Yarn

    • B.

      String

    • C.

      Rope

    • D.

      Hand

    Correct Answer
    B. String
    Explanation
    A string is traditionally a sequence of characters or variables. In this context, it refers to a type of data structure used to store and manipulate text in computer programming. It is similar to what a kite is tied to, as both involve a linear arrangement of objects.

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  • 10. 

    ________________and bottom-up are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering

    • A.

      Hierarchy order

    • B.

      Stacking order

    • C.

      Top down

    • D.

      Trickle down

    Correct Answer
    C. Top down
    Explanation
    Top-down and bottom-up are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering. In a top-down approach, the problem is broken down into smaller subproblems and solved step by step, starting from the highest level and moving downwards. This approach is often used in hierarchical systems where the higher-level components control and guide the lower-level components. It allows for a systematic and organized approach to problem-solving. In contrast, a bottom-up approach starts with the individual components and builds up to create a larger system. Both strategies have their advantages and can be used in different contexts depending on the specific requirements of the problem at hand.

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  • 11. 

    A __________________ is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer

    • A.

      Module

    • B.

      Coding sequence

    • C.

      Program

    • D.

      Top down approach

    Correct Answer
    C. Program
    Explanation
    A program is a collection of instructions that performs a specific task when executed by a computer. It is a set of coded commands that tell the computer what operations to perform and in what order. Programs can be written in various programming languages and can range from simple tasks to complex applications. They are essential for computers to carry out specific tasks and achieve desired outcomes.

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  • 12. 

    The ______________________ statement provides a secondary path of execution when an "if" clause evaluates to false. 

    • A.

      If then else

    • B.

      If then

    • C.

      And

    • D.

      Not

    Correct Answer
    A. If then else
    Explanation
    The "if then else" statement provides a secondary path of execution when an "if" clause evaluates to false. This means that if the condition specified in the "if" clause is not met, the program will execute the code block specified in the "else" clause. This allows for different actions to be taken based on whether the condition is true or false.

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  • 13. 

    It translates input into output.

    • A.

      A computer

    • B.

      A computer program

    • C.

      A program

    • D.

      A CPU

    Correct Answer
    B. A computer program
    Explanation
    A computer program is the correct answer because it is designed to take input from a user or another program, process that input, and produce output. It acts as an intermediary between the user and the computer, translating the user's commands or instructions into a language that the computer can understand and execute. The program utilizes the capabilities of the computer's hardware, such as the CPU, to perform the necessary calculations and operations to generate the desired output.

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  • 14. 

    _____________________________ are independent items, or variables, that contain data or codes

    • A.

      Sequences

    • B.

      Statements

    • C.

      Processes

    • D.

      Arguments

    Correct Answer
    D. Arguments
    Explanation
    Arguments are independent items or variables that contain data or codes. In computer programming, arguments are used to pass values or information into a function or method. They allow the function to perform operations on the provided data and return a result. Arguments can be of different types, such as integers, strings, or objects, depending on the requirements of the function. By passing arguments, programmers can make their code more flexible and reusable, as they can easily modify the input values without changing the entire code structure.

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  • 15. 

    A _______________________is a programmer-readable explanation or annotation in the source code of a computer program

    • A.

      Question

    • B.

      Communicator

    • C.

      Comment

    • D.

      Doctype

    Correct Answer
    C. Comment
    Explanation
    A comment is a programmer-readable explanation or annotation in the source code of a computer program. Comments are used to provide additional information about the code, such as its purpose, functionality, or any important details that may not be immediately apparent. They are not executed by the computer and are purely for the benefit of the programmers who read and maintain the code. Comments can help improve code readability, facilitate collaboration among developers, and make it easier to understand and debug the program.

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  • 16. 

    Which is NOT examples of programming operators

    • A.

      AND

    • B.

      BUT

    • C.

      NOT

    • D.

      OR

    Correct Answer
    B. BUT
  • 17. 

    A  ________________is a value that never changes

    • A.

      Constant

    • B.

      Variable

    • C.

      Adjustable variable

    • D.

      Plausible constant

    Correct Answer
    A. Constant
    Explanation
    A constant is a value that never changes. Unlike variables, which can be assigned different values throughout a program, constants remain the same. They are often used to represent fixed values, such as mathematical constants or values that should not be modified. Constants provide stability and ensure that specific values are preserved throughout the execution of a program.

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  • 18. 

    In ____________________programming different computations or actions are programmed depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.

    • A.

      If then else

    • B.

      If then but NOT

    • C.

      If then

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. If then
    Explanation
    In If then programming, different computations or actions are programmed depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false. This means that if the condition is true, a certain set of instructions will be executed, and if the condition is false, a different set of instructions will be executed. This allows for conditional branching in the program, where different paths can be taken based on the outcome of the condition.

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  • 19. 

    _______________________is a data type, having two values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the truth values of logic

    • A.

      Boolean

    • B.

      Module

    • C.

      Constant

    • D.

      Variable

    Correct Answer
    A. Boolean
    Explanation
    A boolean is a data type that is used to represent the truth values of logic. It can have two values, usually denoted as true and false. Booleans are commonly used in programming and logical operations to determine the flow of a program or to make decisions based on certain conditions. They are essential for creating conditional statements and controlling the execution of code.

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  • 20. 

    The ____________is the part of the computer that runs programs

    • A.

      Input

    • B.

      Keyboard

    • C.

      User

    • D.

      CPU

    Correct Answer
    D. CPU
    Explanation
    The CPU, or Central Processing Unit, is responsible for executing instructions and running programs on a computer. It is often referred to as the "brain" of the computer because it performs all the necessary calculations and operations. The CPU receives input from various sources, such as the keyboard or user, and processes it to produce the desired output. Therefore, the CPU is the correct answer as it is the component that runs programs on a computer.

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  • 21. 

    A __________ ______ array is a search of a sorted array by repeatedly dividing the search interval in half.

    • A.

      Selection search

    • B.

      Control search

    • C.

      Binary search

    • D.

      Integer search

    Correct Answer
    C. Binary search
    Explanation
    A binary search is a search algorithm that operates by repeatedly dividing the search interval in half. It is used to search for a specific element in a sorted array efficiently. The algorithm compares the target value with the middle element of the array, and based on the comparison, it either continues searching in the lower or upper half of the array. This process is repeated until the target element is found or the search interval becomes empty. Therefore, the correct answer is binary search.

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  • 22. 

    If you were to be in charge of sorting scores on a Pre-Calculus exam you would be creating an ____________ number array.

    • A.

      Integer

    • B.

      Whole number

    • C.

      Variable

    • D.

      Selection

    Correct Answer
    A. Integer
    Explanation
    In Pre-Calculus exams, scores are typically represented as whole numbers or integers. Therefore, if you were in charge of sorting these scores, you would be creating an integer number array.

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  • 23. 

    Computers process every single thing, so if ___________ goes in it will come out

    • A.

      Code

    • B.

      Language

    • C.

      Garbage

    • D.

      Programming

    Correct Answer
    C. Garbage
    Explanation
    In the given statement, it is implied that computers process everything that is input into them. Therefore, if "garbage" goes into a computer, it will come out as processed garbage. This suggests that regardless of what is input, the computer will process it in some way and produce an output.

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  • 24. 

    Used when a program needs to _______________ a process of one or more instructions until some condition is met.

    • A.

      Loop

    • B.

      Repeat

    • C.

      Construct

    • D.

      While

    Correct Answer
    B. Repeat
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "repeat" because the word "repeat" is commonly used in programming to indicate that a certain set of instructions should be executed multiple times until a specific condition is met. It is a looping construct that allows for the repetition of code blocks.

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  • 25. 

    Any search you do online for a product or apparel that you want to buy will allow you to _________ your results by Price Low to High, Price High to Low, Best Seller, etc.

    • A.

      Randomize

    • B.

      List

    • C.

      Scramble

    • D.

      Sort

    Correct Answer
    D. Sort
    Explanation
    When searching for a product or apparel online, you have the option to "sort" your results. This means that you can arrange the search results in a specific order, such as Price Low to High, Price High to Low, Best Seller, etc. Sorting helps you organize the search results based on your preferences and find the most relevant options easily.

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  • 26. 

    The _______ ________ loops are used with arrays to sort data out.

    • A.

      For Each

    • B.

      Do While

    • C.

      Repeat Until

    • D.

      For While

    Correct Answer
    A. For Each
    Explanation
    For Each loops are used with arrays to iterate through each element in the array. This allows us to perform a specific operation on each element, such as sorting the data. By using a For Each loop, we can easily access and manipulate each element in the array without having to manually specify the index or length of the array. This makes it a convenient choice for sorting data in arrays.

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  • 27. 

    The __________ loop sequence of instructions is one that is continually repeated until a certain condition is reached.

    • A.

      For

    • B.

      If then

    • C.

      For each

    • D.

      While

    Correct Answer
    D. While
    Explanation
    The while loop is a sequence of instructions that is repeatedly executed until a specific condition is met. It checks the condition before executing the loop, and if the condition is true, it continues to execute the loop. Once the condition becomes false, the loop terminates. This makes the while loop suitable for situations where the number of iterations is not known in advance, and the loop needs to continue until a certain condition is satisfied.

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  • 28. 

    ____________ is repetition in coding

    • A.

      Accessibility

    • B.

      Iteration

    • C.

      Integrity

    • D.

      Compotency

    Correct Answer
    B. Iteration
    Explanation
    Iteration refers to the process of repeating a set of instructions or a block of code multiple times. It allows for the execution of a certain piece of code repeatedly until a specific condition is met. This repetition in coding is essential for performing tasks such as looping through arrays, iterating over a range of numbers, or executing a set of statements multiple times. It helps in creating efficient and dynamic programs by automating repetitive tasks and optimizing code execution.

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  • 29. 

    ______________ is an Automatic check to make sure data entered is sensible and reasonable. 

    • A.

      Grading

    • B.

      Assessment

    • C.

      Checking

    • D.

      Validation

    Correct Answer
    D. Validation
    Explanation
    Validation is an automatic check to ensure that the data entered is sensible and reasonable. It is a process of verifying the accuracy, completeness, and consistency of data. Validation helps to prevent errors and ensures that only valid and acceptable data is entered into a system or database. It can include checks for data type, range, format, and logical consistency. By implementing validation, organizations can maintain data integrity and improve the overall quality of their data.

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  • 30. 

    If you created a program that listed the names of students in a class in alphabetical order the order would be listed in __________________ order

    • A.

      Descending

    • B.

      Ascending

    • C.

      Scrambled

    • D.

      Random

    Correct Answer
    B. Ascending
    Explanation
    If a program is created to list the names of students in a class in alphabetical order, the order would be listed in ascending order. This means that the names would be arranged from A to Z, or from the beginning of the alphabet to the end. The opposite of ascending order is descending order, where the names would be listed from Z to A, or from the end of the alphabet to the beginning. Scrambled and random order would imply that the names are not arranged in any particular order.

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  • 31. 

    ____________ is a sorting algorithm that compares each adjacent number and swaps them until all of the numbers in the list are in order 

    • A.

      Swapping

    • B.

      Inverse

    • C.

      Bubble

    • D.

      Random

    Correct Answer
    C. Bubble
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Bubble. The bubble sort algorithm works by repeatedly comparing each pair of adjacent numbers in a list and swapping them if they are in the wrong order. This process is repeated until the entire list is sorted.

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  • 32. 

    A ______________ is a special value in the context of an algorithm.

    • A.

      Sentinel

    • B.

      Construct

    • C.

      Component

    • D.

      Character

    Correct Answer
    A. Sentinel
    Explanation
    A sentinel is a special value in the context of an algorithm that is used to indicate the end of a data structure or a specific condition. It is typically used to simplify the logic of algorithms by providing a predictable and easily recognizable value that can be checked for termination or boundary conditions. This allows for more efficient and concise code implementation, as the algorithm can iterate until it encounters the sentinel value.

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  • 33. 

    The ______________ statement causes execution to leave the current subroutine and resume at the point in the code immediately after where the subroutine was called.

    • A.

      Comeback

    • B.

      Switchback

    • C.

      Return

    • D.

      Flashback

    Correct Answer
    C. Return
    Explanation
    The "return" statement is used to exit a subroutine and continue execution at the point where the subroutine was called. It is commonly used to return a value from a function or to terminate the execution of a subroutine prematurely.

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  • 34. 

    A _____________ order are numbers or variables displayed in a decreasing fashion.

    • A.

      Ascending

    • B.

      Low to high

    • C.

      High to low

    • D.

      Descending

    Correct Answer
    D. Descending
    Explanation
    Descending order refers to numbers or variables displayed in a decreasing fashion. In this order, the values are arranged from highest to lowest, with each subsequent value being smaller than the previous one. This is the opposite of ascending order, where values are arranged from lowest to highest. Therefore, the correct answer is descending.

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  • 35. 

    A _______________ function produced an integer between 0 and whatever.

    • A.

      Scattered

    • B.

      Incomplete

    • C.

      Random

    • D.

      Spontaneous

    Correct Answer
    C. Random
    Explanation
    A random function is one that produces an integer between 0 and whatever value is specified. This means that the output of the function is not predictable or predetermined, but rather determined by chance or randomness. Therefore, a random function would be the most suitable explanation for the given statement.

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  • 36. 

    A _____________ loop is a loop within the loop

    • A.

      Partnered

    • B.

      Bridged

    • C.

      Nested

    • D.

      Integrated

    Correct Answer
    C. Nested
    Explanation
    A nested loop is a loop within another loop. This means that one loop is placed inside another loop, allowing for the repetition of a set of instructions multiple times. The inner loop will complete its set of instructions for each iteration of the outer loop. This concept is commonly used in programming to handle complex tasks that require multiple iterations and nested conditions.

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  • 37. 

    _______________  are things that put numbers together or statements together. Such as *, /, +, -, %.

    • A.

      Connectors

    • B.

      Characters

    • C.

      Symbols

    • D.

      Operators

    Correct Answer
    D. Operators
    Explanation
    Operators are symbols that are used to perform operations on numbers or statements. They include symbols such as *, /, +, -, and %. These symbols are used to combine or manipulate numbers or statements in mathematical or logical operations.

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  • 38. 

    A __________________ sort is a sorting algorithm, specifically an in-place comparison sort.

    • A.

      Selection

    • B.

      Linear

    • C.

      Repetition

    • D.

      Random

    Correct Answer
    A. Selection
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "selection" because a selection sort is a type of sorting algorithm that works by repeatedly finding the minimum element from the unsorted part of the array and placing it at the beginning. It is an in-place comparison sort because it compares elements directly and does not require any additional data structures.

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  • 39. 

    A ___________ provides a computer with a specific set of instructions to perform a task.

    • A.

      Exe

    • B.

      Program

    • C.

      Instruction

    • D.

      Command

    Correct Answer
    B. Program
    Explanation
    A program is a set of instructions that provides a computer with a specific set of instructions to perform a task. It is a sequence of coded instructions that are executed by the computer's processor to carry out a specific operation or task. Programs can be written in various programming languages and can range from simple tasks to complex applications.

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  • 40. 

    ___________________are notes made as reminders, instructions, etc. for a programmer that helps explains commands and instructions in code.

    • A.

      Quotations

    • B.

      Connotations

    • C.

      Keys

    • D.

      Comments

    Correct Answer
    D. Comments
    Explanation
    Comments are notes made as reminders, instructions, etc. for a programmer that help explain commands and instructions in code. They are used to provide additional information or explanations about the code, making it easier for other programmers to understand and maintain the code. Comments are not executed by the computer and are purely for human readers.

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  • 41. 

    What are all the elements in an HTML document called?

    • A.

      Elements

    • B.

      Attributes

    • C.

      Tags

    • D.

      Attribute Values

    Correct Answer
    C. Tags
    Explanation
    Tags are the elements in an HTML document that define the structure and content of the document. They are used to enclose different parts of the document and provide meaning to the content. Each tag has a specific purpose and can be used to create headings, paragraphs, links, images, and more. Tags are represented by opening and closing brackets (< >) and are essential for creating a well-formed HTML document.

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  • 42. 

    What is the tag element for an internal css code?

    • A.

      Style

    • B.

      Css

    • C.

      Link

    • D.

      Icss

    Correct Answer
    A. Style
    Explanation
    The tag element for an internal CSS code is "style". This tag is used to define the inline CSS styles within an HTML document. It is typically placed within the head section of the HTML document and allows for the styling of specific elements or the entire document. By using the "style" tag, CSS code can be written directly within the HTML file, making it easier to maintain and update the styles for that particular document.

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  • 43. 

    Which one is NOT a term describing sections of CSS code?

    • A.

      Selectors

    • B.

      Declarations

    • C.

      Values

    • D.

      Headers

    Correct Answer
    D. Headers
    Explanation
    The term "headers" is not a term describing sections of CSS code. In CSS, selectors are used to target specific elements, declarations are used to define the style properties for the selected elements, and values are the specific settings assigned to those properties. However, "headers" is not a term related to CSS code sections.

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  • 44. 

    Which one below was NOT the name of a function that should have been used with Karel?

    • A.

      IsFrontClear

    • B.

      RotateUp

    • C.

      Start

    • D.

      StackPancakes

    Correct Answer
    B. RotateUp
    Explanation
    The question is asking for the function that should NOT have been used with Karel. Out of the given options, "rotateUp" is the only one that is not a valid function that should be used with Karel. Karel is a programming language used for teaching beginners about programming concepts, particularly in relation to robotics. The other options, "IsFrontClear," "start," and "stackPancakes," are all valid functions that can be used with Karel.

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  • 45. 

    To __________ a function is to put it use.

    • A.

      Call

    • B.

      Code

    • C.

      Write

    • D.

      Define

    Correct Answer
    A. Call
    Explanation
    To "call" a function means to execute or invoke it, thereby putting it to use. Calling a function involves using its name followed by parentheses, which may contain arguments if the function requires any. This action triggers the execution of the code within the function, allowing it to perform its intended tasks.

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  • 46. 

    Why do we use functions in programming?

    • A.

      Break down our programming into smaller parts

    • B.

      Makes programs more readable

    • C.

      Avoid repeating code

    • D.

      All answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. All answers are correct
    Explanation
    Functions are used in programming for multiple reasons. Firstly, they help break down a program into smaller, manageable parts, making it easier to understand and maintain. Additionally, functions make programs more readable by organizing code into logical blocks with descriptive names. They also promote code reusability and avoid repetition by allowing the same block of code to be used multiple times throughout the program. Therefore, all the given answers are correct as they highlight different benefits of using functions in programming.

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  • 47. 

    An endless _____ is a continuous repetition of a program segment.

    • A.

      Journey

    • B.

      Condition

    • C.

      Circumstance

    • D.

      Loop

    Correct Answer
    D. Loop
    Explanation
    An endless loop is a programming construct that repeats a specific segment of code indefinitely, until a certain condition is met or until the program is interrupted. It allows for the continuous execution of a program segment, which can be useful for tasks that need to be repeated multiple times. This concept is commonly used in programming languages to create iterative processes and control flow.

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  • 48. 

    Which one describes an error in a program that prevents if from running accordingly?

    • A.

      Fallacy

    • B.

      Bug

    • C.

      Problem

    • D.

      Glitch

    Correct Answer
    B. Bug
    Explanation
    A bug is an error in a program that causes it to not run properly. It can be a mistake in the code or a flaw in the logic that leads to unexpected behavior or crashes. Bugs can cause a wide range of issues, from minor glitches to major malfunctions, and they need to be identified and fixed in order for the program to function correctly.

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  • 49. 

    Doing something on the internet to make another personal feel angry, sad, or scared.

    • A.

      Criminal

    • B.

      Cyberbully

    • C.

      Uh...you're a jerk

    • D.

      Creep

    Correct Answer
    B. Cyberbully
    Explanation
    Cyberbullying refers to the act of intentionally using the internet to cause harm to another person by making them feel angry, sad, or scared. It involves engaging in online activities such as sending threatening messages, spreading rumors, or sharing embarrassing content with the intention of harassing or intimidating the victim. This behavior is considered criminal as it can have serious psychological and emotional effects on the targeted individual. The other options provided, such as "uh...you're a jerk" and "creep," may be derogatory terms but do not specifically imply the act of causing harm through online means.

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  • 50. 

    Things written in code for notes for the programmer that are not visible in a browser.

    • A.

      Instructions

    • B.

      Commands

    • C.

      Comments

    • D.

      Code

    Correct Answer
    C. Comments
    Explanation
    Comments are pieces of text that are added to a code by the programmer for various purposes. They are not visible in a browser and are used to provide explanations, instructions, or reminders to the programmer. Comments help improve the readability and maintainability of the code by making it easier for other developers to understand the code's logic and functionality. They are ignored by the browser when the code is executed.

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