Community Med

54 Questions

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Community Med

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    ** Which one of the following is not an example of Positive behaviors while working with a group:   
    • A. 

      Joking and making fun

    • B. 

      Making suggestions, information, ideas, and reinforce them

    • C. 

      Helping make points clear

    • D. 

      Responding politely to suggestions

  • 2. 
    Physician communication was grouped into 3 main categories. Which one of the following is not an example of Task-related behavior :  
    • A. 

      Ask questions

    • B. 

      Teaching skills

    • C. 

      provides reassurance

    • D. 

      counsel and counsel prevention

  • 3. 
    Which one of the following about Counseling (one - one or family) is not true
    • A. 

      Counseling means choice with force

    • B. 

      Counseling is used mostly in family medicine

    • C. 

      It includes verbal and non verbal expressions

    • D. 

      It gives opportunity to raise awareness

  • 4. 
    ** In health we communicate to do all of the following except :  
    • A. 

      Raise awareness.

    • B. 

      Educate.

    • C. 

      Persuade.

    • D. 

      Treat.

  • 5. 
    The Model of communication that proposes that all communication must include six elements, is:  
    • A. 

      Shannon-Weaver of communication

    • B. 

      Berlo’s model of communication

  • 6. 
    ** Which one of the following about health education is not true:
    • A. 

      1) Health education is defined as any combination of learning opportunities designed to facilitate non voluntary adoption of behavior which will improve/maintain health

    • B. 

      Health education is The process that bridges the gap between health information (attitudes) and health practices

    • C. 

      Superior and inferior method of health education is one of the Health education Fallacies.

  • 7. 
     In the Triangle of communicable diseases.. physical environment is included to explain the relationship between this triangle and mental diseases that are related to other medical diseases, so it’s an important factor in gaining of communicable diseases.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    For etiological studies which one of the following is not suitable :  
    • A. 

      RR

    • B. 

      OR

    • C. 

      AR

  • 9. 
     If the Incidence of MI in Hypertensive patiants is 25/1000 and that in non Hypertensive patiants is 5/1000 then the AR of MI for Hypertensive is :  
    • A. 

      0.02

    • B. 

      0.002

    • C. 

      0.8

    • D. 

      0.08

  • 10. 
     We don’t use RR in the odds ratio because we don’t have incidence In case control study. we can only calculate it in Cohort Studies.  
    • A. 

      Both are false

    • B. 

      Both are true

    • C. 

      True , False respectively

    • D. 

      False , True respectively

  • 11. 
    * Which one of the following is (are) example of Scope of epidemiology 
    • A. 

      Ristriction of super- radical mastectomy

    • B. 

      ) Exclusion of Thalidomide

    • C. 

      All answers are correct

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 12. 
     The next step after making a hypothesis is to test it by collecting data & design studies. These Studies can be :  
    • A. 

      Both descriptive

    • B. 

      ) Both analytical

    • C. 

      Not necessarily strictly analytical or descriptive

    • D. 

      All answers are correct

  • 13. 
     Influanzae that is more common in winter is an example of which one of the following trends :  
    • A. 

      Secular trends

    • B. 

      Cyclical trend

    • C. 

      Epidemics

    • D. 

      Outbreaks

  • 14. 
     According to area maps and spots maps :
    • A. 

      Area maps use incidence, while spot maps use number of cases

    • B. 

      Area maps use number of cases, while spot maps use incidence

    • C. 

      Both use incidence

    • D. 

      Both use number of cases

  • 15. 
    Which pair of the following is considered as universal confounders:  
    • A. 

      Gender and Age

    • B. 

      Ethnicity and Occupation

    • C. 

      Family order and Behavior

    • D. 

      Education and HLA type

  • 16. 
    Careless handling of dangerous things is suppressed 
    • A. 

      Positive punishment

    • B. 

      Negative punishment

    • C. 

      Positive reinforcement

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcement

  • 17. 
     Physical environment is a source of:
    • A. 

      Positive punishment

    • B. 

      Negative punishment

    • C. 

      Positive reinforcement

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcement

  • 18. 
    Negative punishment is a :
    • A. 

      Punishment occurs with the termination of appetitive/good stimulus

    • B. 

      Punishment occurs with the onset of aversive stimulus

    • C. 

      it is not immediate

  • 19. 
    Parents can use it as an effective means of helping children overcome problem behaviors :  
    • A. 

      Positive punishment

    • B. 

      Negative punishment

    • C. 

      Positive reinforcement

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcement

  • 20. 
    Parents always apply it with children w/out knowing it :
    • A. 

      positive punishment

    • B. 

      Negative punishment

    • C. 

      Positive reinforcement

    • D. 

      Negative reinforcement

    • E. 

      Premack principle

  • 21. 
    Which one of the following is applied in Treatment of alcoholism and Smoking cessation :  
    • A. 

      Negative punishment

    • B. 

      Positive punishment

    • C. 

      Premack principle

    • D. 

      Classical/Pavlovian Conditioning

  • 22. 
    At which stage of behaviour the schedule of reinforcement should be continous:  
    • A. 

      Acquisition stage

    • B. 

      Maintenance stage

    • C. 

      None of the above

  • 23. 
    If a person wants wo acquire a certain social behaviour he needs to pass through a several steps. The correct order of them is
    • A. 

      Attention > Comprehension > Retention > Rehearsal > Adoption and Acquisition of behaviour

    • B. 

      Attention > Retention > Adoption and Acquisition of behaviour > Comprehension > Rehearsal

    • C. 

      Comprehension > Rehearsal > Adoption and Acquisition of behaviour > Retention > Attention

    • D. 

      Attention > Comprehension > Rehearsal > Retention > Adoption and Acquisition of behaviour

  • 24. 
    During the Acquisition stage, the best intermittent schedule is:  
    • A. 

      Fixed Interval

    • B. 

      Variable Interval

    • C. 

      Fixed Ratio

    • D. 

      Variable Ratio

  • 25. 
    During the Maintenance stage, the best intermittent schedule is:  
    • A. 

      Fixed Interval

    • B. 

      Variable Interval

    • C. 

      Fixed Ratio

    • D. 

      Variable Ratio

  • 26. 
    Which type of intermittent schedule reduces the scalloping effect :  
    • A. 

      Fixed Interval

    • B. 

      Variable Interval

    • C. 

      Fixed Ratio

  • 27. 
    Giveing insight on aspects of certain problem that need specific attention and the magnitude of that problem “ This indicate which one of the following :  
    • A. 

      Nominal Group process

    • B. 

      Reviewing the literature

    • C. 

      The Delphi Method

    • D. 

      The Continuum Aprouch

  • 28. 
     Which one of the following is not an example of behavioural causes:  
    • A. 

      Smoking

    • B. 

      Heavy alcohol consumption

    • C. 

      Family history of disease

    • D. 

      diabetes

  • 29. 
    Once the behavioral objectives are stated, we need to go to the:  
    • A. 

      Epidemiological diagnosis

    • B. 

      Social diagnosis

    • C. 

      Educational Diagnosis

  • 30. 
    The characteristics of the environment that facilitate action and any skill or resource required to attain specific behavior, are called :  
    • A. 

      Predisposing factors

    • B. 

      Enabling factors

    • C. 

      Reinforcing factors

  • 31. 
    The characteristics of a person or population that antecede the behavior and act as a rationale or motivation for behavior, are called :  
    • A. 

      Predisposing factors

    • B. 

      Enabling factors

    • C. 

      Reinforcing factors

  • 32. 
    Subsequent to behavior that provide reward, incentives, or punishment leading to persistence or extinction of behavior, This is called :  
    • A. 

      Predisposing factors  

    • B. 

      Enabling factors

    • C. 

      Reinforcing

  • 33. 
    Any plan of changing Behavior must take into account several influencing factors, not one.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 34. 
     Predisposing factors, Enabling factors, Reinforcing factors.. These three factors we need to consider in :  
    • A. 

      Epidemiological diagnosis

    • B. 

      Social diagnosis

    • C. 

      Educational Diagnosis

  • 35. 
     Knowledge is necessary before a personal health action will occur, it is fully sufficient to initiate action
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
     Which one of the following represents a collection of beliefs that always includes an evaluative aspects; good-bad, positive-negative:  
    • A. 

      Values

    • B. 

      Beleifs

    • C. 

      Attitudes

  • 37. 
     -------------- clarification is an important Health education technique that help people to sort through conflicts in their HRV.  
    • A. 

      Attitudes

    • B. 

      Values

    • C. 

      Beliefs

  • 38. 
    Which of the following are measured through semantic differential technique:  
    • A. 

      Attitudes

    • B. 

      Values

    • C. 

      Beliefs

  • 39. 
    The best way to increase awareness is:
    • A. 

      Mass media

    • B. 

      Community organization

    • C. 

      Local media

    • D. 

      Lectures

  • 40. 
    There are several levels of infection, which one is related to S. aureus in skin and nasopharynx:  
    • A. 

      Subclinical infection

    • B. 

      Colonization

    • C. 

      Latent infection

    • D. 

      Clinical infection

  • 41. 
    Which of the following is missmatched:
    • A. 

      Subclinical infection - polio

    • B. 

      Colonization - Tuberculosis

    • C. 

      Latent infection - Herpes type 1

    • D. 

      Lice or worms - infestation

  • 42. 
    The lodgment, development and reproduction of arthropods on the surface of the body or in the clothing, Called:  
    • A. 

      Contamination

    • B. 

      Infection

    • C. 

      Infestation

    • D. 

      Contagious disease

  • 43. 
    Which one of the following is not a Contagious disease :  
    • A. 

      Scabies

    • B. 

      Trachoma

    • C. 

      Leprosy

    • D. 

      Ascariasis

  • 44. 
    Malaria – mosquito ,, clostridium titanus - soil .. These ( respectively) are :  
    • A. 

      Vector , Reservoir

    • B. 

      Reservoir , Vector

    • C. 

      Both are Reservoirs

    • D. 

      Both are Vectors

  • 45. 
    Number of new cases in a given time period expressed as percent infected per year, called :  
    • A. 

      Cumulative incidence

    • B. 

      Incidence density

    • C. 

      Prevalence

  • 46. 
    Sickle cell anemia in the middle east is an example of which term :  
    • A. 

      Epidemic

    • B. 

      Endemic

    • C. 

      Hyperendemic

    • D. 

      Pandemic

  • 47. 
    Prevalence is of little interest if an infectious disease is of long duration like chronic hepatitis B.  
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 48. 
    Which one of the following terms expresses a high level of infection beginning early in life and affecting most of the child population:  
    • A. 

      Epidemic

    • B. 

      Endemic

    • C. 

      Hyperendemic

    • D. 

      Holoendemic

  • 49. 
    Which of the following is missmatched :
    • A. 

      Hyperendemic - rocky mountain spotted fever (more than 5%)

    • B. 

      Holoendemic - Hepatitis B

    • C. 

      Endemic - sickle cell anemia in the middle east

    • D. 

      Pandemic – Influenza

  • 50. 
    Rabies in the UK is an example of :
    • A. 

      Epidemic diseases

    • B. 

      Endemic diseases

    • C. 

      Hyperendemic diseases

    • D. 

      Exotic diseases

  • 51. 
    Which one of the following is not an example of sporadic infections:  
    • A. 

      Polio

    • B. 

      Meningococcal meningitis

    • C. 

      Tetanus

    • D. 

      Rabies in the UK

  • 52. 
     An epizotic is an outbreak (epidemic) of disease in an animal population, e.g. rift valley fever. An Enzotic is an endemic occurring in animals, e.g. bovine TB.  
    • A. 

      True, False

    • B. 

      False, True

    • C. 

      BOTH are True

    • D. 

      BOTH are False

  • 53. 
    Which one of the following Diseases is not amenable to elimination in the mean time:  
    • A. 

      Polio

    • B. 

      Measles

    • C. 

      Diphtheria

    • D. 

      Hepatitis B

  • 54. 
    Three elements have to occur to form a carrier state. Which one of these following is wrong : 
    • A. 

      The presence in the body of the disease agent.

    • B. 

      The presence of recognizable symptoms and signs of disease.

    • C. 

      The shedding of disease agent in the discharge or excretions