Macroeconomie

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| By Eduard Popescu
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Eduard Popescu
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Quizzes Created: 3 | Total Attempts: 13,570
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Macroeconomie - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Functionarea economiei depinde de:

    • A.

      Capacitatea guvernului de a modifica semnificativ cotele de impozitare si cheltuieli autorizate

    • B.

      Capacitatea statului de a interveni mai mult in economie

    • C.

      Capacitatea indivizilor de a asigura cooperarea

    Correct Answer
    C. Capacitatea indivizilor de a asigura cooperarea
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Capacitatea indivizilor de a asigura cooperarea." This is because the functioning of the economy relies on the ability of individuals to cooperate with each other. Cooperation among individuals is necessary for various economic activities such as trade, investment, and production. Without cooperation, it would be difficult for the economy to function efficiently and effectively. Therefore, the ability of individuals to ensure cooperation is crucial for the overall functioning of the economy.

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  • 2. 

    Istoria banilor arata ca multe societati au ales metale precum cuprul, argintul si aurul ca mijloc preferat de schimb .. ... ... 

    • A.

      Mai putin atractive

    • B.

      Rare

    • C.

      Netransportabile

    • D.

      Indivizibile

    Correct Answer
    B. Rare
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "rare". The history of money shows that many societies have chosen metals such as copper, silver, and gold as their preferred medium of exchange because these metals are scarce or rare.

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  • 3. 

    Printre cauzele care pot genera somajul se inscriu:

    • A.

      Diminuarea cantitatii de munca oferita la nivelul pietei muncii

    • B.

      Sporirea cantitatii de munca cerute pe piata muncii

    • C.

      Parasirea voluntara a locului de munca

    Correct Answer
    C. Parasirea voluntara a locului de munca
    Explanation
    The given answer states that one of the causes that can generate unemployment is voluntary leaving of the workplace. This means that individuals who choose to quit their jobs contribute to the unemployment rate. This could be due to various reasons such as dissatisfaction with the job, seeking better opportunities, or personal circumstances. When people voluntarily leave their jobs without immediately finding new employment, it adds to the number of unemployed individuals in the labor market.

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  • 4. 

    Cand Banca Centrala vinde obligatiuni, atunci:

    • A.

      Rata dobanzii creste

    • B.

      Creste oferta de bani

    • C.

      Rata dobanzii scade

    • D.

      M1 creste

    Correct Answer
    A. Rata dobanzii creste
    Explanation
    When the Central Bank sells bonds, it reduces the money supply in the economy. This decrease in money supply leads to an increase in the demand for money, which in turn causes interest rates to rise. Therefore, the correct answer is that the interest rate increases when the Central Bank sells bonds.

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  • 5. 

    Pe termen scurt, expansiunea monetara:

    • A.

      Inhiba creditarea

    • B.

      Il determina pe angajator sa recurga la concedieri

    • C.

      Conduce la "alungirea" proiectelor investitionale

    • D.

      Genereaza cresterea ratei dobanzii

    Correct Answer
    B. Il determina pe angajator sa recurga la concedieri
    Explanation
    Expansiunea monetară il determină pe angajator să recurgă la concedieri. This means that when there is an increase in the money supply, it leads to inflation and higher prices. As a result, businesses may struggle to afford the increased costs and may need to cut back on expenses, including reducing their workforce through layoffs or firings. This is because the increased money supply reduces the purchasing power of money, making it more expensive for businesses to operate and maintain their current level of employment.

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  • 6. 

    Detinatorul de actiune are dreptul:

    • A.

      De a obtine o dobanda anuala

    • B.

      De a obtine un venit sigur

    • C.

      De a obtine dividend

    Correct Answer
    C. De a obtine dividend
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "de a obtine dividend". As the owner of shares, the shareholder is entitled to receive dividends. Dividends are a portion of a company's profits that are distributed to its shareholders as a return on their investment. This is one of the ways in which shareholders can earn income from their ownership in a company.

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  • 7. 

    Marea Criza din 1929-1933 a fost determinata de:

    • A.

      Scaderea gradului de ocupare

    • B.

      Cresterea volumului de credite acordate

    • C.

      Reducerea volumului de credite acordate

    • D.

      Cresterea productiei

    Correct Answer
    D. Cresterea productiei
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Cresterea productiei". The Great Depression of 1929-1933 was caused by a decrease in employment and a reduction in the volume of credit being extended. However, the growth in production is not a factor that contributed to the crisis.

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  • 8. 

    Modalitatea de baza prin care se realizeaza creatia monetara este:

    • A.

      O crestere de ansamblu a volumului imprumuturilor acordate de bancile comerciale

    • B.

      Economii facute de public sau decizia de a nu cheltui o parte din venitul castigat

    • C.

      Emiterea de moneda suplimentara de catre Banca Centrala

    • D.

      Extinderea capacitatii de productie, pentru ca productia este in mod simultan si venit

    Correct Answer
    C. Emiterea de moneda suplimentara de catre Banca Centrala
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Emiterea de moneda suplimentara de catre Banca Centrala" (The issuance of additional currency by the Central Bank). This is the basic method through which money creation is achieved. When the Central Bank issues additional currency, it increases the money supply in the economy, allowing for economic growth and expansion. This process is often used to stimulate economic activity or to stabilize the financial system.

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  • 9. 

    Capacitatea unei banci nereglementate de a continua sa creeze bani pe perioada nedeterminata este limatata de:

    • A.

      Abilitatea sa de a mentine increderea oamenilor in valoarea constanta a garantiilor sale

    • B.

      Numarul creditelor pe care le acorda

    • C.

      Numarul oamenilor pe care ii poate convinge sa depuna bani in conturi de economii

    • D.

      Numarul filialelor pe care le opereaza intr-o anumita zona

    Correct Answer
    A. Abilitatea sa de a mentine increderea oamenilor in valoarea constanta a garantiilor sale
    Explanation
    The ability of an unregulated bank to continue creating money indefinitely is limited by its ability to maintain people's trust in the constant value of its guarantees. This means that if people start doubting the bank's ability to honor its guarantees or if the value of its guarantees fluctuates, people may lose confidence in the bank and withdraw their money. This loss of trust can lead to a decrease in deposits and ultimately limit the bank's ability to create money.

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  • 10. 

    Inflatia:

    • A.

      Distorsioneaza sistemul preturilor relative

    • B.

      Dezavantajeaza, in general, sistemul bancar si guvernul

    • C.

      Descurajeaza traiul pe datorie

    • D.

      Descurajeaza consumul pe termen scurt

    Correct Answer
    A. Distorsioneaza sistemul preturilor relative
    Explanation
    Inflation refers to the increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. It distorts the relative prices of different goods and services, meaning that the prices of some items may increase at a faster rate than others. This can create imbalances in the economy and affect the purchasing power of consumers. Inflation also tends to disadvantage the banking system and the government, as it erodes the value of money and can lead to higher interest rates and borrowing costs. Additionally, inflation discourages living on debt and encourages long-term consumption decisions.

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  • 11. 

    Pe o piata financiara eficienta:

    • A.

      Preturile trebuie sa reflecte toate informatiile relevante, in mod continuu, astfel incat orice noua informatie sa fie integrata in pretul titlului

    • B.

      Nu este necesar ca preturile sa reflecte toate informatiile relevante

    • C.

      Investitorii pot sa realizeze regulat venituri mai mari decat media pietei

    Correct Answer
    A. Preturile trebuie sa reflecte toate informatiile relevante, in mod continuu, astfel incat orice noua informatie sa fie integrata in pretul titlului
    Explanation
    On an efficient financial market, prices must reflect all relevant information continuously, so that any new information is integrated into the price of the security. This means that investors cannot consistently earn higher returns than the market average because prices already incorporate all available information.

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  • 12. 

    Excesul de oferta fata de cererea de moneda conduce la o serie de probleme de coordonare asociate:

    • A.

      Deflatiei

    • B.

      Inflatiei

    • C.

      Dezinflatiei

    Correct Answer
    B. Inflatiei
    Explanation
    Excesul de oferta fata de cererea de moneda conduce la inflatie. Cand oferta de moneda este mai mare decat cererea, exista mai multa moneda disponibila pentru achizitii, ceea ce poate duce la cresterea preturilor bunurilor si serviciilor. Aceasta crestere a preturilor este cunoscuta sub numele de inflatie. Inflatia poate avea efecte negative asupra economiei, cum ar fi scaderea puterii de cumparare a consumatorilor, reducerea investitiilor si cresterea costurilor de productie pentru companii. Prin urmare, excesul de oferta fata de cererea de moneda poate duce la inflatie.

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  • 13. 

    Expansiunea monetara:

    • A.

      Stimuleaza economia pe termen lung

    • B.

      Genereaza un boom economic pe termen lung

    • C.

      Stimuleaza economisirea

    • D.

      Conduce la cresterea generalizata a preturilor

    Correct Answer
    D. Conduce la cresterea generalizata a preturilor
    Explanation
    Expansiunea monetară conduce la creșterea generalizată a prețurilor deoarece prin injectarea de lichiditate în economie, se crește oferta de bani disponibili pentru cheltuieli și investiții. Odată cu creșterea disponibilității de bani, cererea pentru bunuri și servicii crește, ceea ce duce la o creștere a prețurilor în general. Astfel, inflația poate apărea ca rezultat al expansiunii monetare, deoarece valorile prețurilor cresc într-un ritm mai rapid decât creșterea productivității economiei.

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  • 14. 

    Operatiunile cu prima simpla " a la hausse":

    • A.

      Ofera posibilitatea cumparatorului de a alege intre executarea sau rezilierea contractului. In functie de situatia existenta la termenul de scadenta.

    • B.

      Obliga cumparatorul la executarea contractului la scadenta

    • C.

      Nu ofera posibilitatea cumparatorului de a alege intre executarea sau rezilierea contractului, in functie de situatia existenta la termenul de scadenta

    Correct Answer
    A. Ofera posibilitatea cumparatorului de a alege intre executarea sau rezilierea contractului. In functie de situatia existenta la termenul de scadenta.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that operatiunile cu prima simpla "a la hausse" ofera posibilitatea cumparatorului de a alege intre executarea sau rezilierea contractului, in functie de situatia existenta la termenul de scadenta. This means that the buyer has the option to either execute or terminate the contract based on the situation at the maturity date.

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  • 15. 

    Masa monetara totala aflata in circulatie creste atunci cand:

    • A.

      Creditele bancare sunt ramursate intr-un ritm mai mare decat cel de acordare de noi credite

    • B.

      Bancile creeaza moneda prin acordare de noi credite

    • C.

      Bancile acorda credite intr-un ritm mai lent decat cel de rambursare a creditelor existente

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    B. Bancile creeaza moneda prin acordare de noi credite
    Explanation
    When banks create new currency by granting new loans, the total monetary mass in circulation increases. This means that when banks provide loans, they are essentially creating new money that enters the economy. As a result, the total amount of money in circulation increases.

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  • 16. 

    Politicile anti-inflationiste:

    • A.

      Determina scaderea puterii de cumparare a monedei

    • B.

      Nu sunt avantajoase pentru guverne, limitand finantarea cheltuieli

    • C.

      Sunt imbinate cu politici bugetare expansioniste

    • D.

      Sunt favorabile clasei politice, fiind un set de masuri foarte populare

    Correct Answer
    B. Nu sunt avantajoase pentru guverne, limitand finantarea cheltuieli
    Explanation
    Anti-inflationary policies are not advantageous for governments because they limit the funding of expenses. These policies aim to reduce the purchasing power of the currency in order to control inflation. By implementing measures such as reducing government spending or increasing interest rates, governments may face challenges in financing their expenditures. Therefore, anti-inflationary policies can be seen as a constraint on government budgets, which may not be favorable for them.

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  • 17. 

    Caracterul preponderent negativ al inflatiei deriva din:

    • A.

      Cresterea preferintei pentru economisire a populatiei

    • B.

      Scumpirea creditelor acordate de banci

    • C.

      Austeritatea politicilor guvernamentale

    • D.

      Distorsinarea preturilor relative

    Correct Answer
    D. Distorsinarea preturilor relative
    Explanation
    The predominant negative character of inflation is derived from the distortion of relative prices. Inflation causes prices to rise unevenly, which leads to a misallocation of resources and a loss of purchasing power for individuals. As prices increase at different rates, it becomes difficult for businesses and consumers to make informed decisions about spending and investment. This distortion can also lead to market inefficiencies and economic instability. Therefore, the distortion of relative prices is a key factor in understanding the negative impact of inflation.

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  • 18. 

    Din ce sunt alcatuite, aproape exclusiv, mijloacele de schimb de astazi ?

    • A.

      Aur

    • B.

      Argint

    • C.

      Cupru

    • D.

      Promisiuni de plata

    Correct Answer
    D. Promisiuni de plata
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Promisiuni de plata" because in today's financial system, most exchange mediums are based on the concept of promises to pay. This includes various forms of currency such as paper money, electronic transactions, and even digital cryptocurrencies. These mediums of exchange rely on the trust and confidence that people have in the issuer's ability to honor their promises to pay.

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  • 19. 

    Eficienta pietei de capital vizeaza:

    • A.

      Doar eficienta operationala

    • B.

      Atat eficienta operationala cat si eficienta alocarii

    • C.

      Cele doua tipuri de eficienta nu sunt elocvente pentru piata financiara

    • D.

      Doar eficienta alocarii

    Correct Answer
    B. Atat eficienta operationala cat si eficienta alocarii
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "atat eficienta operationala cat si eficienta alocarii" (both operational efficiency and allocation efficiency). This means that market efficiency aims to achieve both efficient operations within the market and efficient allocation of resources. Operational efficiency refers to the ability of the market to function smoothly and effectively, while allocation efficiency refers to the ability of the market to allocate resources in a way that maximizes their value and benefits the economy as a whole. Both types of efficiency are important for a well-functioning financial market.

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  • 20. 

    In perioada electorala politicienii vor prefera acele politici care produc:

    • A.

      Beneficii si costuri pe termen scurt

    • B.

      Beneficii si costuri pe termen lung

    • C.

      Beneficii pe termen lung

    • D.

      Beneficii pe termen scurt si costuri pe termen lung

    Correct Answer
    D. Beneficii pe termen scurt si costuri pe termen lung
    Explanation
    During an electoral period, politicians are more likely to prioritize policies that yield short-term benefits, as these can have a more immediate impact on voters and increase their chances of winning the election. However, these policies may come with long-term costs that are not immediately visible or may be passed on to future generations. This approach allows politicians to gain popularity in the short term while potentially disregarding the long-term consequences of their decisions.

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  • 21. 

    Banca Centrala poate mari rezervele excedentare ale bancilor comerciale prin:

    • A.

      Cresterea cerintelor privind rezervele obligatorii

    • B.

      Vanzarea de obligatiuni de la stat

    • C.

      Diminuarea creditelor pentru bancile comerciale

    • D.

      Diminuarea ratei rezervelor obligatorii

    Correct Answer
    D. Diminuarea ratei rezervelor obligatorii
    Explanation
    When the Central Bank decreases the required reserve ratio, it means that commercial banks are required to hold a smaller percentage of their deposits as reserves. This allows commercial banks to have more excess reserves, which they can then use to lend out to borrowers. Therefore, by decreasing the required reserve ratio, the Central Bank can increase the excess reserves of commercial banks.

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  • 22. 

    Daca un client al unei banci oarecare are un card de credit cu care cumpara un computer:

    • A.

      Nici M1, nici 2 nu se modifica

    • B.

      M1 creste dar M2 nu se schimba

    • C.

      M1 si M2 cresc

    • D.

      M1 creste si M2 ramane neschimbat

    Correct Answer
    D. M1 creste si M2 ramane neschimbat
    Explanation
    When a customer of a bank uses a credit card to purchase a computer, M1 (the narrow measure of money supply, which includes physical currency and demand deposits) increases, indicating an increase in the amount of money in circulation. However, M2 (the broader measure of money supply, which includes M1 plus savings deposits, time deposits, and money market funds) remains unchanged, suggesting that the purchase does not affect the overall amount of money available in the economy.

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  • 23. 

    Echilibrul monetar presupune:

    • A.

      Egalitatea dintre banii din conturile curente si cei din conturile de economii

    • B.

      Egalitatea dintre cererea si oferta de moneda

    • C.

      Egalitatea dintre numerar si banii din conturile curente

    • D.

      Egalitatea dintre masa monetara in sens restrans si masa monetara in sens larg

    Correct Answer
    B. Egalitatea dintre cererea si oferta de moneda
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Egalitatea dintre cererea si oferta de moneda" which translates to "Equality between the demand and supply of money." This means that in a monetary equilibrium, the amount of money demanded by individuals and businesses is equal to the amount of money supplied by the central bank or financial institutions. This balance ensures stability in the economy and helps prevent inflation or deflation.

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  • 24. 

    Reducerea ratei dobanzii pe piata monetara determina:

    • A.

      Scaderea cursului titlurilor de valoare

    • B.

      Nu are nici o influenta asura cursului titlurilor de valoare

    • C.

      Cresterea cursului titlurilor de valoare

    Correct Answer
    B. Nu are nici o influenta asura cursului titlurilor de valoare
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that reducing the interest rate in the money market has no influence on the exchange rate of securities. This suggests that changes in interest rates do not directly affect the value or price of securities. Other factors such as market demand, economic conditions, and investor sentiment may have a greater impact on the exchange rate of securities.

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  • 25. 

    Tranzactiile derulate la nivelul pietei muncii:

    • A.

      Vizeaza serviciile de munca si sunt supuse unui cadrui cadru juridic si institutional bine ...

    • B.

      Se desfasoara intre guvern si angajatori

    • C.

      Se desfasoara intre guvern si sindicate

    • D.

      Au drept obiect serviciile de munca, insa nu sunt supuse reglementarii

    Correct Answer
    A. Vizeaza serviciile de munca si sunt supuse unui cadrui cadru juridic si institutional bine ...
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Se desfasoara intre guvern si angajatori" (They are carried out between the government and employers). This answer states that the transactions in the labor market are conducted between the government and employers. This suggests that there is a regulatory and institutional framework in place to govern these transactions, ensuring that they are conducted legally and in accordance with established rules and regulations.

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  • 26. 

    Piata muncii se diferentiaza de celelalte piete prin:

    • A.

      Prin faptul ca este o piata perfect concurentiala

    • B.

      Lipsa segmentarii, aceasta fiind unica pentru totalitatea sectoarelor din economie

    • C.

      Prin subiectul si obiectul de activitate al acesteia, respectiv capitalul financiar

    • D.

      Nivelul de reglementare caracteristic

    Correct Answer
    D. Nivelul de reglementare caracteristic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "nivelul de reglementare caracteristic" because it suggests that the labor market is different from other markets due to its specific level of regulation. This implies that there are certain rules and regulations in place that govern the labor market, which may include laws related to minimum wage, working hours, employment contracts, and other labor-related policies. These regulations aim to protect the rights and interests of workers and ensure fair and equitable treatment in the labor market.

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  • 27. 

    Institutia care poate acorda credit bancilor poarta denumirea de:

    • A.

      Banca centrala

    • B.

      Agentie guvernamentala

    • C.

      Institutie financiara de incredere

    • D.

      Guvern

    Correct Answer
    A. Banca centrala
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Banca centrala. The term "Banca centrala" refers to the central bank, which is the institution responsible for granting credit to banks. It is an essential institution in the financial system, as it regulates and supervises the banking sector, manages the country's monetary policy, and acts as a lender of last resort.

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  • 28. 

    Cum variaza agregatele monetare atunci cand un client al unei banci oarecare achita un credit ?

    • A.

      M2 scade dar M1 nu se modifica

    • B.

      M1 si M2 scad

    • C.

      M1 scade dar M2 nu se modifica

    • D.

      M1 si M2 cresc

    Correct Answer
    C. M1 scade dar M2 nu se modifica
    Explanation
    When a customer of a bank repays a loan, the amount of money in circulation decreases. This is reflected in the M1 aggregate, which includes physical currency and demand deposits. However, the M2 aggregate, which includes M1 plus savings deposits and other time deposits, remains unchanged as these types of deposits are not affected by loan repayments. Therefore, the correct answer is that M1 decreases while M2 does not change.

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  • 29. 

    Rata somajului reprezinta raportul procentual intre:

    • A.

      Populatia somera si populatia ocupata

    • B.

      Populatia somera si intreaga populatie a tarii

    • C.

      Populatia activa si populatia somera

    • D.

      Populatia somera si populatia activa

    Correct Answer
    D. Populatia somera si populatia activa
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Populatia somera si populatia activa". Rata somajului reprezinta raportul procentual intre populatia somera (persoanele care sunt in cautarea unui loc de munca) si populatia activa (persoanele care sunt angajate sau in cautarea unui loc de munca). Aceasta rata este utilizata pentru a masura nivelul somajului intr-o tara si pentru a evalua eficienta pietei muncii.

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  • 30. 

    Piata capitalului pe termen scurt este o piata interbancara:

    • A.

      Prin care bancile se imprumuta intre ele, realizand o functie de compensare a excedentului si deficitului de lichiditati bancare

    • B.

      Ce nu cuprinde operatiunile de scontare si re-scontare a titlurilor de credit

    • C.

      Ce cuprinde si operatiunile cu activele financiare care au scadente lungi

    Correct Answer
    A. Prin care bancile se imprumuta intre ele, realizand o functie de compensare a excedentului si deficitului de lichiditati bancare
    Explanation
    The correct answer explains that the short-term capital market is an interbank market where banks borrow from each other, acting as a mechanism to balance surplus and deficit of bank liquidity. It clarifies that this market does not include operations of discounting and rediscounting credit securities, but does involve transactions with long-term financial assets.

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  • 31. 

    Politica keynesiana

    • A.

      A avut repercusiuni negative asupra economiei pe termen scurt

    • B.

      Reducerea cheltuielilor publice

    • C.

      A presupus contractarea de imprumuturi si cheltuirea lor de catre guvern

    • D.

      Cresterea impozitelor pentru a spori veniturile fiscale pentru nivelul cheltuielilor guvernamentale

    Correct Answer
    C. A presupus contractarea de imprumuturi si cheltuirea lor de catre guvern
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that Keynesian policy involved borrowing money and spending it by the government. This is in line with the principles of Keynesian economics, which suggests that during economic downturns, governments should increase spending to stimulate demand and boost the economy. By borrowing money and spending it, the government aims to create jobs, increase consumer spending, and ultimately revive the economy. However, this approach can have negative repercussions on the short-term economy, as it may lead to increased government debt and higher taxes in the future.

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  • 32. 

    Daca toata productia ar fi compusa din produsele realizate la comanda:

    • A.

      Recesiunile ar fi mult mai slabe ca intensitate

    • B.

      Recesiunile ar fi mult mai puternice ca intensitate

    • C.

      Ar exista in economie mai multa incertitudine

    • D.

      Populatia ar fi mult mai bogata

    Correct Answer
    B. Recesiunile ar fi mult mai puternice ca intensitate
    Explanation
    If all production were composed of custom-made products, recessions would be much stronger in intensity. This is because custom-made products are typically more expensive and cater to a smaller market, making them more susceptible to fluctuations in demand. Therefore, during economic downturns, the decrease in demand for these high-priced goods would be more pronounced, leading to a more severe recession.

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  • 33. 

    Care dintre urmatoarele masuri pot fi considerate drept apte sa combata problema somajului

    • A.

      Interventia statului in economie, prin politici de reducere a exporturilor

    • B.

      Interventia statului in economie, prin politici de descurajare a consumului

    • C.

      Interventia statului in economie, orientata catre stimularea cererii agregate

    • D.

      Interventia statului in economie prin politici de descurajare a investitiilor

    Correct Answer
    C. Interventia statului in economie, orientata catre stimularea cererii agregate
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "interventia statului in economie, orientata catre stimularea cererii agregate" because when the state intervenes in the economy to stimulate aggregate demand, it can create more job opportunities. By implementing policies that encourage consumer spending and investment, the government can boost economic activity and create a demand for goods and services, which in turn leads to increased production and job creation. This approach is considered effective in combating unemployment as it focuses on increasing demand for labor.

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  • 34. 

    Oferta curenta de munca este reprezentata de:

    • A.

      Populatia activa

    • B.

      Rezervele de munca

    • C.

      Populatia ocupata minus somerii

    • D.

      Populatia ocupata

    Correct Answer
    C. Populatia ocupata minus somerii
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Populatia ocupata minus somerii". This answer represents the current labor force, which includes all individuals who are employed and actively working, excluding those who are unemployed and actively seeking employment (the unemployed). This measure provides a more accurate representation of the actual workforce available for productive work.

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  • 35. 

    La baza sirului de erori care au dus la criza din anii 10-30 au stat: 

    • A.

      Politicile monetare restrictive din anii 1920

    • B.

      Politicile monetare expansioniste din anii 1920

    • C.

      Restrangerile creditului

    Correct Answer
    B. Politicile monetare expansioniste din anii 1920
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "politicile monetare expansioniste din anii 1920" because these policies contributed to the errors that led to the crisis in the 10-30 years. Expansionary monetary policies involve increasing the money supply and lowering interest rates to stimulate economic growth. However, in the 1920s, these policies led to excessive speculation, overproduction, and a credit boom, which eventually resulted in the stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression.

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  • 36. 

    Alternativa la politicile fiscale si monetare discretionare  este data de:

    • A.

      Politicile implementate in statele centralizate

    • B.

      Absenta politicilor

    • C.

      Politicile adoptate de conducatorul unui stat autocrat, ce are puteri absolute

    • D.

      Politicile bazate pe angajamente ferme fata de normele legislative existente

    Correct Answer
    B. Absenta politicilor
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Absenta politicilor". This means that the absence of policies is the alternative to discretionary fiscal and monetary policies. In other words, instead of implementing discretionary policies, the alternative is to have no policies at all. This could imply a lack of intervention or decision-making in the economy, which may have its own consequences and implications.

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  • 37. 

    Situatia de ocupare deplina a fortei de munca exista atunci cand:

    • A.

      Rata curenta a somajului este egala cu rata naturala a somajului

    • B.

      Somajul voluntar este egal cu somajul involuntar

    • C.

      Cantitatea de munca oferita este egala cu cantitatea de munca ceruta

    • D.

      Rata curenta a somajului este zero

    Correct Answer
    A. Rata curenta a somajului este egala cu rata naturala a somajului
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that "Situatia de ocupare deplina a fortei de munca exista atunci cand rata curenta a somajului este egala cu rata naturala a somajului." This means that full employment occurs when the current unemployment rate is equal to the natural rate of unemployment. The natural rate of unemployment refers to the level of unemployment that exists when the economy is operating at its full potential. In this situation, there is no cyclical unemployment, and the economy is considered to be functioning at its optimal level.

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  • 38. 

    In urma analizei facute in contextual Marii Crize din anii 1929-1933, Keynes sustinea faptul ca:

    • A.

      Bugetele trebuie sa fie echilibrate pe parcursul unui ciclu de afaceri;

    • B.

      Excedentele si deficitele trebuie sa se compenseze pe parcursul unui an fiscal;

    • C.

      Deficitele nu sunt bune pentru economie

    • D.

      Bugetele trebuie sa fie echilibrate de la an la an

    Correct Answer
    B. Excedentele si deficitele trebuie sa se compenseze pe parcursul unui an fiscal;
    Explanation
    Keynes sustinea faptul ca excedentele si deficitele trebuie sa se compenseze pe parcursul unui an fiscal. Aceasta inseamna ca, in perioadele de crestere economica, cand exista excedente bugetare, acestea ar trebui utilizate pentru a compensa deficitele din perioadele de recesiune. Prin aceasta abordare, se urmareste stabilizarea economiei si evitarea fluctuatiilor bruste. Keynes considera ca deficitele nu sunt neaparat rele pentru economie, ci pot fi utilizate strategic pentru a stimula cererea si a sustine cresterea economica. Astfel, compensarea excedentelor si deficitele pe parcursul unui an fiscal ar putea contribui la mentinerea unei economii echilibrate.

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  • 39. 

    Uniunrea Europeana:

    • A.

      Nu se protejeaza fata de terti in politica comerciala, deoarece si-a liberalizat pietele bunurilor, serviciilor, capitalurilor si fortei de m unca;

    • B.

      Nu aplica o politica comerciala comunca;

    • C.

      Este in prezent atat o uniune vamala cat si o piata interna

    • D.

      Desi are numeroase domenii in care decide prin institutiile proprii, supranationale, in nici un domeniu nu are competente exclusive.

    Correct Answer
    C. Este in prezent atat o uniune vamala cat si o piata interna
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the European Union is currently both a customs union and an internal market. This means that the EU member states have eliminated tariffs and trade barriers between them, allowing for the free movement of goods, services, capital, and labor within the EU. Additionally, the EU has established common regulations and standards for these areas. However, the answer also mentions that the EU does not have exclusive competences in any field, indicating that decision-making power is shared between the EU institutions and the member states.

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  • 40. 

    Pe termen scurt, expansiunea monetara:

    • A.

      Generaza cresterea ratei dobanzii

    • B.

      Inhiba creditarea;

    • C.

      Conduce la “alungirea” proiectelor investitionale;

    • D.

      Ii determina pe angajatori sa recurga la concedieri;

    Correct Answer
    D. Ii determina pe angajatori sa recurga la concedieri;
  • 41. 

    Una dintre cauzele crizei economice o reprezinta:

    • A.

      Lacomia investitorilor;

    • B.

      Cresterea preferintei pentru economisire a populatiei;

    • C.

      Consumul exagerat din anii de boom economic, incurajat de ratele reduse ale dobanzii.

    • D.

      Option 4

    Correct Answer
    C. Consumul exagerat din anii de boom economic, incurajat de ratele reduse ale dobanzii.
    Explanation
    During economic booms, low interest rates encourage excessive consumption, which can lead to an economic crisis. This is because people tend to borrow more money to finance their consumption, creating a debt bubble. When the economy eventually slows down or interest rates rise, people struggle to repay their debts, causing financial instability and a potential economic crisis.

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  • 42. 

    In urma analizei facute in contextual Marii Crize din anii 1929-1933, Keynes sustinea faptul ca:

    • A.

      Bugetele trebuie sa fie echilibrate pe parcursul unui ciclu de afaceri;

    • B.

      Excedentele si deficitele trebuie sa se compenseze pe parcursul unui an fiscal;

    • C.

      Deficitele nu sunt bune pentru economie

    • D.

      Bugetele trebuie sa fie echilibrate de la an la an

    Correct Answer
    B. Excedentele si deficitele trebuie sa se compenseze pe parcursul unui an fiscal;
    Explanation
    Keynes believed that during an economic cycle, surpluses and deficits should balance out over the course of a fiscal year. This means that in times of economic downturn, when there is a deficit, the government should increase spending to stimulate the economy. Conversely, during times of economic growth, when there is a surplus, the government should reduce spending to prevent overheating of the economy. Keynes argued that deficits are not inherently bad for the economy, as they can be used as a tool to stabilize and promote growth. By compensating for deficits and surpluses over a fiscal year, Keynesian economics aims to maintain stability and promote economic growth.

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  • 43. 

    Bancile care vor sa-si maximizeze profiturile sunt nevoite sa:

    • A.

      Respecte dorintele clientilor cu privire la procesul acordarii de credite ieftine;

    • B.

      Accepte faptul ca rezervele obligatorii le aduc castiguri substantiale

    • C.

      Sa aiba passive care sa depaseasca un multiplu al rezervelor legale;

    • D.

      Pastreze un echilibru intre dorinta de a acorda cat mai multe credite la dobanzi mari si nevoia de a pastra increderea populatiei in capacitatea de rambursare a depozitelor

    Correct Answer
    D. Pastreze un echilibru intre dorinta de a acorda cat mai multe credite la dobanzi mari si nevoia de a pastra increderea populatiei in capacitatea de rambursare a depozitelor
    Explanation
    Banks that want to maximize profits need to maintain a balance between the desire to grant as many loans at high interest rates and the need to maintain the public's trust in their ability to repay deposits. This means that while they may want to offer high-interest loans to generate more income, they also need to ensure that borrowers are able to repay those loans. By doing so, they can maintain the confidence of the population and prevent a situation where depositors start withdrawing their funds due to concerns about the bank's stability.

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  • 44. 

    Intr-o societate cu economie de piata productia pentru un produs se desfasoara:

    • A.

      Concomitent cu manifestarea cererii

    • B.

      Anticipat fata de cerere

    • C.

      Dupa manifestarea cererii

    • D.

      La comanda

    Correct Answer
    B. Anticipat fata de cerere
    Explanation
    Intr-o societate cu economie de piata, productia pentru un produs se desfasoara anticipat fata de cerere. Aceasta inseamna ca producatorii estimeaza cererea viitoare pentru un produs si incep procesul de productie inainte ca cererea sa fie manifestata efectiv de catre consumatori. Acest lucru se face pentru a se asigura ca produsele sunt disponibile in cantitati suficiente atunci cand cererea creste, evitand astfel situatia in care cererea depaseste oferta si se creeaza penurii. Prin anticiparea cererii, producatorii pot planifica eficient procesul de productie si pot asigura un flux constant de produse pe piata.

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  • 45. 

    Protectionismul:

    • A.

      Este o practica rar intalnita in politicile comerciale actuale ale tarilor dezvoltate;

    • B.

      Modifica raportul de schimb si avantajele comparative;

    • C.

      Determina cresterea castigurilor din comert si contribuie la utilizarea mai eficienta a resurselor;

    • D.

      Are un cost de oportunitate scazut;

    Correct Answer
    B. Modifica raportul de schimb si avantajele comparative;
    Explanation
    Protectionism modifies the terms of trade and comparative advantages. By implementing protectionist measures such as tariffs or quotas, countries aim to protect their domestic industries and reduce imports. This can lead to a change in the exchange rate and alter the comparative advantages that countries have in certain industries. Protectionism is often criticized for distorting trade patterns and potentially leading to less efficient allocation of resources.

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  • 46. 

    Un factor extrem de important pentru cursul obligatiunilor este rata dobanzii deoarece;

    • A.

      Cresterea sa mareste cererea pentru titluri si determina cresterea cursului acestora pe piata bursiera;

    • B.

      Reducerea sa mareste cererea pt. titluri si determina micsorarea cursului acestora pe piata bursiera;

    • C.

      Cresterea sa reduce cererea pt. titluri si determina micsorarea cursului acestora pe piata bursiera

    Correct Answer
    C. Cresterea sa reduce cererea pt. titluri si determina micsorarea cursului acestora pe piata bursiera
    Explanation
    An increase in interest rates reduces the demand for bonds and leads to a decrease in their price on the stock market. This is because higher interest rates make newly issued bonds more attractive, as they offer higher yields. As a result, investors sell their existing bonds, causing a decrease in their price. Therefore, the correct answer is that an increase in interest rates reduces the demand for bonds and leads to a decrease in their price on the stock market.

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  • 47. 

    In functie de durata mobilitatii geografice a fortei de munca, acestea pot fi:

    • A.

      Migratie lunara;

    • B.

      Migratie definitiva;

    • C.

      Migratie international;

    • D.

      Migratie partiala;

    Correct Answer
    B. Migratie definitiva;
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Migratie definitiva." This refers to permanent migration, where individuals relocate to a new location with no intention of returning to their original place of residence. It implies a long-term or permanent change in residency and often involves individuals seeking better job opportunities, improved living conditions, or a higher quality of life in the new location.

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  • 48. 

    Purtatorii cererii de munca sunt:

    • A.

      Persoana care se afla in cautarea unui loc de munca

    • B.

      Lucratorii

    • C.

      Angajatorii

    • D.

      Liderii de sindicat

    Correct Answer
    A. Persoana care se afla in cautarea unui loc de munca
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Persoana care se afla in cautarea unui loc de munca" because the question asks for the "purtatorii cererii de munca" which translates to "job seekers" in English. Out of the given options, only "Persoana care se afla in cautarea unui loc de munca" represents an individual who is actively looking for employment. The other options, "Lucratorii" refers to workers, "Angajatorii" refers to employers, and "Liderii de sindicat" refers to union leaders, none of which necessarily represent job seekers.

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  • 49. 

    Jobberul:

    • A.

      Stabileste cotatiile bursei rezultate din jocul cererii si ofertei si le inscrie pe panourile bursei, pe baza ordinelor transmise de brokeri;

    • B.

      Nu poate sa incheie si operatiuni pe cont propriu;

    • C.

      Are posibilitatea sa cumpere efecte financiare la un curs usor superior celui la care vinde, de aici rezultand profitul sau;

    • D.

      Are posibilitatea sa vanda efectele financiare la un curs usor inferior celui la care cumpara, de aici rezultand profitul sau;

    Correct Answer
    A. Stabileste cotatiile bursei rezultate din jocul cererii si ofertei si le inscrie pe panourile bursei, pe baza ordinelor transmise de brokeri;
    Explanation
    The job of a jobber is to determine the stock exchange quotes based on the interaction between supply and demand, and to display them on the exchange boards. They do this by executing the orders given by brokers. Jobbers do not engage in trading on their own account. They have the ability to buy financial instruments at a slightly higher price than the selling price, resulting in their profit. Similarly, they can sell financial instruments at a slightly lower price than the buying price, also resulting in their profit.

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  • 50. 

    O politica anti-inflationista adecvata presupune:

    • A.

      Supra-impozitarea veniturilor comerciantilor ce practica preturi ridicate;

    • B.

      Practicarea unor marje de profit minime

    • C.

      "blocarea” cresterii preturilor prin masuri guvernamentale

    • D.

      Reducerea ritmului expansiunii monetare;

    Correct Answer
    D. Reducerea ritmului expansiunii monetare;
    Explanation
    An appropriate anti-inflation policy involves reducing the pace of monetary expansion. This means that the government should take measures to control and limit the increase in the money supply in the economy. By reducing the rate at which new money is being introduced into the system, the government can help to prevent excessive inflationary pressures. This can be achieved through various means such as tightening monetary policy, increasing interest rates, or implementing stricter regulations on lending and credit creation. By reducing the pace of monetary expansion, the government aims to maintain price stability and control inflationary pressures in the economy.

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