TOEFL Exercise: Reading Section

5 Questions | Total Attempts: 476

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TOEFL Exercise: Reading Section - Quiz

Study each of the passages and choose the best answers to the questions that follow.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2) IQ, or Intelligence Quotient, is defined as the ratio of a person's mental age to chronological age, with the ratio multiplied by 100 to remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not so simple to define. In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individual's ability to perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual operations are considered to represent intelligence. In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus as to which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test takers from that culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from a different culture with equal intelligence. 1. What type of information included in the first paragraph?
    • A. 

      (A) An argument

    • B. 

      (B) A definition

    • C. 

      (C) An opinion

    • D. 

      (D) A theory

  • 2. 
    PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2) IQ, or Intelligence Quotient, is defined as the ratio of a person's mental age to chronological age, with the ratio multiplied by 100 to remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not so simple to define. In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individual's ability to perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual operations are considered to represent intelligence. In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus as to which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test takers from that culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from a different culture with equal intelligence. 2. How does the information in the third paragraph differ from that in the second paragraph?
    • A. 

      (A) It presents a contrasting point of view.

    • B. 

      (B) It follows chronologically from the ideas in the second paragraph.

    • C. 

      (C) It presents real information rather than a premise

    • D. 

      (D) It presents an example of the ideas in the second paragraph.

  • 3. 
    PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5) Up to now, confessions that have been obtained from defendants in a hypnotic state have not been admitted into evidence by courts in the United States. Experts in the field of hypnosis have found that such confessions are not completely reliable. Subjects in a hypnotic state may confess to crimes they did not commit for one of two reasons. Either they fantasize that they committed the crimes or they believe that others want them to confess. A landmark case concerning a confession obtained under hypnosis went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In the case of Layra v. Denno, a suspect was hypnotized by a psychiatrist for the district attorney; in a posthypnotic state the suspect signed three separate confessions to a murder. The Supreme Court ruled that the confessions were invalid because the confessions had been the only evidence against him.   3. Which of the following best describes the author's purpose in this passage?
    • A. 

      (A) To explain the details of a specific court case

    • B. 

      (B) To demonstrate why confessions made under hypnosis are not reliable

    • C. 

      (C) To clarify the role of the Supreme Court in invalidating confessions from hypnotized subjects

    • D. 

      (D) To explain the legal status of hypnotically induced confessions

  • 4. 
    PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5) Up to now, confessions that have been obtained from defendants in a hypnotic state have not been admitted into evidence by courts in the United States. Experts in the field of hypnosis have found that such confessions are not completely reliable. Subjects in a hypnotic state may confess to crimes they did not commit for one of two reasons. Either they fantasize that they committed the crimes or they believe that others want them to confess. A landmark case concerning a confession obtained under hypnosis went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In the case of Layra v. Denno, a suspect was hypnotized by a psychiatrist for the district attorney; in a posthypnotic state the suspect signed three separate confessions to a murder. The Supreme Court ruled that the confessions were invalid because the confessions had been the only evidence against him.   4. The tone of this passage could best be described as
    • A. 

      (A) outraged

    • B. 

      (B) judicial

    • C. 

      (C) hypnotic

    • D. 

      (D) informative

  • 5. 
    PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5) Up to now, confessions that have been obtained from defendants in a hypnotic state have not been admitted into evidence by courts in the United States. Experts in the field of hypnosis have found that such confessions are not completely reliable. Subjects in a hypnotic state may confess to crimes they did not commit for one of two reasons. Either they fantasize that they committed the crimes or they believe that others want them to confess. A landmark case concerning a confession obtained under hypnosis went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In the case of Layra v. Denno, a suspect was hypnotized by a psychiatrist for the district attorney; in a posthypnotic state the suspect signed three separate confessions to a murder. The Supreme Court ruled that the confessions were invalid because the confessions had been the only evidence against him.   5. This passage would probably be assigned reading in a course on
    • A. 

      (A) American law

    • B. 

      (B) psychiatric healing

    • C. 

      (C) parapsychology

    • D. 

      (D) philosophy