TOEFL Exercise: Reading Section

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| By Wahyu Pangestika
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Wahyu Pangestika
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 993
Questions: 5 | Attempts: 993

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TOEFL Exercise: Reading Section - Quiz

Study each of the passages and choose the best answers to the
questions that follow.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2) IQ, or Intelligence Quotient, is defined as the ratio of a person's mental age to chronological age, with the ratio multiplied by 100 to remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not so simple to define. In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individual's ability to perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual operations are considered to represent intelligence. In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus as to which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test takers from that culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from a different culture with equal intelligence. 1. What type of information included in the first paragraph?

    • A.

      (A) An argument

    • B.

      (B) A definition

    • C.

      (C) An opinion

    • D.

      (D) A theory

    Correct Answer
    B. (B) A definition
    Explanation
    The first paragraph of the passage includes a definition of IQ, or Intelligence Quotient. It explains that IQ is the ratio of a person's mental age to chronological age, with the ratio multiplied by 100 to remove the decimal. The passage also mentions that mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not simple to define. Therefore, the correct answer is (B) A definition.

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  • 2. 

    PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2) IQ, or Intelligence Quotient, is defined as the ratio of a person's mental age to chronological age, with the ratio multiplied by 100 to remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not so simple to define. In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individual's ability to perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual operations are considered to represent intelligence. In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus as to which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test takers from that culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from a different culture with equal intelligence. 2. How does the information in the third paragraph differ from that in the second paragraph?

    • A.

      (A) It presents a contrasting point of view.

    • B.

      (B) It follows chronologically from the ideas in the second paragraph.

    • C.

      (C) It presents real information rather than a premise

    • D.

      (D) It presents an example of the ideas in the second paragraph.

    Correct Answer
    C. (C) It presents real information rather than a premise
    Explanation
    The information in the third paragraph differs from that in the second paragraph because it presents real information rather than a premise. The second paragraph discusses the theory behind IQ tests and how they are set up to measure intelligence. In contrast, the third paragraph explains the practical difficulties in devising a test that accurately measures intelligence, such as the inability to arrive at a consensus on which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence and the presence of cultural bias in IQ tests. This information is based on real observations and challenges faced in creating IQ tests, rather than being a theoretical premise.

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  • 3. 

    PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5) Up to now, confessions that have been obtained from defendants in a hypnotic state have not been admitted into evidence by courts in the United States. Experts in the field of hypnosis have found that such confessions are not completely reliable. Subjects in a hypnotic state may confess to crimes they did not commit for one of two reasons. Either they fantasize that they committed the crimes or they believe that others want them to confess. A landmark case concerning a confession obtained under hypnosis went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In the case of Layra v. Denno, a suspect was hypnotized by a psychiatrist for the district attorney; in a posthypnotic state the suspect signed three separate confessions to a murder. The Supreme Court ruled that the confessions were invalid because the confessions had been the only evidence against him.   3. Which of the following best describes the author's purpose in this passage?

    • A.

      (A) To explain the details of a specific court case

    • B.

      (B) To demonstrate why confessions made under hypnosis are not reliable

    • C.

      (C) To clarify the role of the Supreme Court in invalidating confessions from hypnotized subjects

    • D.

      (D) To explain the legal status of hypnotically induced confessions

    Correct Answer
    D. (D) To explain the legal status of hypnotically induced confessions
    Explanation
    The author's purpose in this passage is to explain the legal status of hypnotically induced confessions. The passage discusses the fact that such confessions have not been admitted into evidence by courts in the United States due to their lack of reliability. The author also mentions a specific case that went to the U.S. Supreme Court, where the confessions obtained under hypnosis were ruled invalid. This supports the idea that the passage is focused on explaining the legal status of hypnotically induced confessions.

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  • 4. 

    PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5) Up to now, confessions that have been obtained from defendants in a hypnotic state have not been admitted into evidence by courts in the United States. Experts in the field of hypnosis have found that such confessions are not completely reliable. Subjects in a hypnotic state may confess to crimes they did not commit for one of two reasons. Either they fantasize that they committed the crimes or they believe that others want them to confess. A landmark case concerning a confession obtained under hypnosis went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In the case of Layra v. Denno, a suspect was hypnotized by a psychiatrist for the district attorney; in a posthypnotic state the suspect signed three separate confessions to a murder. The Supreme Court ruled that the confessions were invalid because the confessions had been the only evidence against him.   4. The tone of this passage could best be described as

    • A.

      (A) outraged

    • B.

      (B) judicial

    • C.

      (C) hypnotic

    • D.

      (D) informative

    Correct Answer
    D. (D) informative
    Explanation
    The passage provides information about the issue of confessions obtained from defendants in a hypnotic state and their admissibility in courts. It explains that such confessions are not considered reliable by experts in the field of hypnosis, as subjects may confess to crimes they did not commit due to either fantasizing or feeling pressured to confess. The passage also mentions a landmark Supreme Court case, Layra v. Denno, where the court ruled that the confessions obtained under hypnosis were invalid because they were the only evidence against the suspect. Therefore, the tone of the passage can be described as informative, as it presents facts and details about the topic without expressing any strong emotions or opinions.

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  • 5. 

    PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5) Up to now, confessions that have been obtained from defendants in a hypnotic state have not been admitted into evidence by courts in the United States. Experts in the field of hypnosis have found that such confessions are not completely reliable. Subjects in a hypnotic state may confess to crimes they did not commit for one of two reasons. Either they fantasize that they committed the crimes or they believe that others want them to confess. A landmark case concerning a confession obtained under hypnosis went all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In the case of Layra v. Denno, a suspect was hypnotized by a psychiatrist for the district attorney; in a posthypnotic state the suspect signed three separate confessions to a murder. The Supreme Court ruled that the confessions were invalid because the confessions had been the only evidence against him.   5. This passage would probably be assigned reading in a course on

    • A.

      (A) American law

    • B.

      (B) psychiatric healing

    • C.

      (C) parapsychology

    • D.

      (D) philosophy

    Correct Answer
    A. (A) American law
    Explanation
    The passage discusses a landmark case that went to the U.S. Supreme Court regarding the admissibility of confessions obtained under hypnosis. It explains that such confessions have not been admitted into evidence in the United States due to their lack of reliability. This suggests that the passage would likely be assigned reading in a course on American law, as it pertains to legal procedures and the criteria for admitting evidence in court.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 25, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Wahyu Pangestika
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