Macroeconomie Feaa Sem II

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Macroeconomie Feaa Sem II - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Institutia care poate acorda credit bancilor poarta denumirea de:

    • A.

      Banca centrala

    • B.

      Agentie guvernamentala

    • C.

      Institutie financiara de incredere

    • D.

      Guvern

    Correct Answer
    A. Banca centrala
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Banca centrala." The Banca centrala is the institution that has the authority to grant credit to banks. It is responsible for regulating and supervising the banking system, implementing monetary policy, and maintaining price stability in the economy. As the central bank of a country, it plays a crucial role in managing the country's money supply, controlling interest rates, and ensuring the stability of the financial system.

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  • 2. 

    Cum variaza agregatele monetare atunci cand un client al unei banci oarecare achita un credit?

    • A.

      M2 scade dar M1 nu se modifica

    • B.

      M1 si M2 scad

    • C.

      M1 scade dar M2 nu se modifica

    • D.

      M1 si M2 cresc

    Correct Answer
    B. M1 si M2 scad
    Explanation
    When a customer of a bank repays a loan, both M1 and M2 decrease. M1 represents the narrowest definition of the money supply, including only physical currency in circulation and demand deposits (such as checking accounts). When a loan is repaid, the funds are taken out of the bank's reserves, causing a decrease in M1. M2, on the other hand, includes M1 plus additional types of deposits, such as savings accounts and time deposits. Since the repayment of a loan involves a decrease in both types of deposits, M2 also decreases.

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  • 3. 

    Rata somajului reprezinta raportul procentual intre:

    • A.

      Populatia somera si populatia ocupata

    • B.

      Populatia somera si intreaga populatie a tarii

    • C.

      Populatia activa si populatia somera

    • D.

      Populatia somera si populatia activa

    Correct Answer
    D. Populatia somera si populatia activa
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "populatia somera si populatia activa." Rata somajului, or the unemployment rate, represents the percentage ratio between the unemployed population (populatia somera) and the active population (populatia activa). This ratio helps measure the level of unemployment in a country by comparing the number of unemployed individuals to the total number of individuals in the labor force.

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  • 4. 

    Politicile anti-inflationiste

    • A.

      Determina scaderea puterii de cumparare a monedei

    • B.

      Nu sunt avantajoase pentru guverne, limitand finantarea cheltuielilor guvernamentale

    • C.

      Sunt imbinate cu politici bugetare expansioniste

    • D.

      Sunt favorabile clasei politice

    Correct Answer
    B. Nu sunt avantajoase pentru guverne, limitand finantarea cheltuielilor guvernamentale
    Explanation
    Anti-inflation policies are not advantageous for governments because they limit government spending by reducing the purchasing power of the currency. This means that governments have less funding available for their expenses. These policies are not favorable for the political class as they restrict their ability to finance their initiatives and projects.

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  • 5. 

    Operatiunile cu prima simpla "a la hausse" 

    • A.

      Ofera posibilitatea cumparatorului de a alege intre executarea sau realizarea contractului in functie de situatia externa la termenul de scadenta

    • B.

      Obliga cumparatorul la executarea contractului la scadenta

    • C.

      Nu ofera posibilitatea cumparatorului de a alege intre executarea sau realizarea contractului

    Correct Answer
    A. Ofera posibilitatea cumparatorului de a alege intre executarea sau realizarea contractului in functie de situatia externa la termenul de scadenta
    Explanation
    In operatiunile cu prima simpla "a la hausse", the buyer has the option to choose between executing or realizing the contract based on the external situation at the maturity date. This means that the buyer can decide whether to go ahead with the contract or not, depending on the market conditions. Therefore, it offers the buyer the possibility to choose between executing or realizing the contract based on the external situation at the maturity date.

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  • 6. 

    Expansiunea monetara 

    • A.

      Stimuleaza economia pe termen lung

    • B.

      Genereaza un boom economic pe termen lung

    • C.

      Stimuleaza economisirea

    • D.

      Conduce la cresterea generalizata a preturilor

    Correct Answer
    D. Conduce la cresterea generalizata a preturilor
    Explanation
    Expansiunea monetară conduce la creșterea generalizată a prețurilor. Acest lucru se datorează faptului că o creștere a cantității de bani disponibili în economie duce la o creștere a cererii pentru bunuri și servicii. Pe măsură ce cererea crește, producătorii pot majora prețurile pentru a-și maximiza profiturile. Astfel, expansiunea monetară poate duce la inflație și la creșterea generală a prețurilor în economie.

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  • 7. 

    Lichiditatea in sistemul bancar poate fi asigurata si de:

    • A.

      Rezerva minima obligatorie

    • B.

      Scaderea ratei dobanzii

    • C.

      Scaderea ratei inflatiei

    • D.

      Limitele maxime  impuse de catre stat

    Correct Answer
    A. Rezerva minima obligatorie
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "rezerva minima obligatorie" (mandatory reserve requirement). In the banking system, liquidity can be ensured by maintaining a certain percentage of deposits as reserves, which banks are required to hold by law. This reserve acts as a buffer to meet withdrawal demands and ensures that banks have enough funds to cover their liabilities. By setting a mandatory reserve requirement, the central bank can control the amount of money available for lending and maintain stability in the banking system.

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  • 8. 

    Masa monetara totala aflata in circulatie creste atunci cand:

    • A.

      Creditele bancare sunt rambursate intr-un ritm mai mare decat cel de acordare de noi credite

    • B.

      Bancile creeaza moneda prin acordare de noi credite

    • C.

      Bancile acorda credite intr-un ritm mai lent decat cel de rambursare a creditelor existente

    Correct Answer
    B. Bancile creeaza moneda prin acordare de noi credite
    Explanation
    When banks create new credit, the total money supply in circulation increases. This is because when banks grant new loans, they are essentially creating new money in the form of credit. This newly created money enters into circulation and increases the total amount of money available in the economy. Therefore, the correct answer is that banks create money by granting new loans.

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  • 9. 

    Pe o piata financiara eficienta

    • A.

      Investitorii pot sa realizeze regulat venituri mai mari decat media pietei

    • B.

      Preturile trebuie sa reflecte toate informatiile relevante, in mod continuu, astfel incat orice noua informatie sa fie 

    • C.

      Nu este necesar ca preturile sa reflecte toate informatiile relevante

    Correct Answer
    B. Preturile trebuie sa reflecte toate informatiile relevante, in mod continuu, astfel incat orice noua informatie sa fie 
    Explanation
    In an efficient financial market, prices should continuously reflect all relevant information, so that any new information is immediately incorporated into the prices. This means that investors can consistently earn higher returns than the market average, as prices accurately reflect all available information.

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  • 10. 

    Care din urmatoarele afirmatii este adevarata?

    • A.

      Cea mai mare parte a fluxurilor actuale de comert se deruleaza intre industrii diferite...

    • B.

      Pentru a asigura un nivel ridicat de satisfacere a nevoilor populatiei este de preferat ca o economie sa produca.....

    • C.

      Pentru un nivel ridicat de satisfacere a nevoilor si de eficienta in utilizarea resurselor este de preferat ca economia sa se specializeze si sa participe la schimb

    Correct Answer
    C. Pentru un nivel ridicat de satisfacere a nevoilor si de eficienta in utilizarea resurselor este de preferat ca economia sa se specializeze si sa participe la schimb
    Explanation
    In order to ensure a high level of satisfaction of the population's needs and efficient use of resources, it is preferable for the economy to specialize and participate in trade. This is because specialization allows for the production of goods and services in which a country has a comparative advantage, leading to increased efficiency and productivity. By participating in trade, countries can exchange their specialized products with others, resulting in a wider variety of goods and services available to meet the needs of the population. This promotes economic growth and overall satisfaction of the population.

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  • 11. 

    Deprecierea reprezinta

    • A.

      Cresterea cursului oficial stabilit de autoritatile monetare nationale

    • B.

      Scaderea cursului de piata a nuei monede

    • C.

      Cresterea cursului de piata a unei monede

    • D.

      Scaderea cursului oficial stabilit de autoritatile monetare nationale

    Correct Answer
    B. Scaderea cursului de piata a nuei monede
    Explanation
    Deprecierea reprezinta scaderea cursului de piata a unei monede.

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  • 12. 

    Caracterul preponderet negativ al inflatiei deriva din:

    • A.

      Scumpirea creditelor acordate de banci

    • B.

      Cresterea preferintei pentru economisire a populatiei

    • C.

      Austeritatea politicilor guvernamentale

    • D.

      Distorsionarea preturilor relative

    Correct Answer
    D. Distorsionarea preturilor relative
    Explanation
    The negative character of inflation is mainly derived from the distortion of relative prices. Inflation causes prices to rise unevenly, leading to a misallocation of resources and a decrease in the purchasing power of individuals. This distortion can create economic imbalances and uncertainty, making it difficult for businesses and individuals to plan for the future. It can also lead to social unrest and inequality as certain groups may be disproportionately affected by price increases. Therefore, the distortion of relative prices is a significant factor contributing to the negative impact of inflation.

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  • 13. 

    Piata capitalului pe termen scurt este o piata interbancara

    • A.

      Ce cuprinde si operatiunile cu activele financiare care au scadente lungi

    • B.

      Prin care bancile se imprumuta intre ele, realizand o functie de compensare a excedentului si deficitului

    • C.

      Ce nu cuprinde si operatiunile de scontare si re-scontare a titlurilor de credit

    Correct Answer
    B. Prin care bancile se imprumuta intre ele, realizand o functie de compensare a excedentului si deficitului
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that the short-term capital market is an interbank market where banks borrow from each other, performing a function of balancing surplus and deficit. This means that banks can lend or borrow funds from other banks to manage their liquidity needs and balance their excess or shortfall of funds. It also implies that this market includes transactions with long-term financial assets but does not include operations of discounting and rediscounting credit securities.

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  • 14. 

    Echilibrul monetar reprezinta:

    • A.

      Un echilibru intre cererea si ferta de bani,actiuni si obligatiuni

    • B.

      Un echilibru intre cererea si oferta de moneda

    • C.

      Un echilibru intre volumul depozitelor si cel al creditelor 

    Correct Answer
    B. Un echilibru intre cererea si oferta de moneda
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Un echilibru intre cererea si oferta de moneda." This means that monetary equilibrium refers to a balance between the demand for and supply of money. In an economy, the demand for money comes from individuals and businesses who need it for transactions and investments, while the supply of money is determined by the central bank. When the demand for money matches the supply of money, there is monetary equilibrium.

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  • 15. 

    Printre efectele negative ale inflatiei regasim

    • A.

      Reducerea  puterii de cuparare a banilor

    • B.

      Diminuarea deficitelor guvernamentale

    • C.

      Scumpirea creditelor acordate de banci

    • D.

      Cresterea reatei dobanzii

    Correct Answer
    C. Scumpirea creditelor acordate de banci
    Explanation
    Inflation refers to the general increase in prices of goods and services in an economy over time. One of the negative effects of inflation is the increase in the cost of borrowing. As inflation rises, the value of money decreases, leading to higher interest rates. This, in turn, results in the increased cost of credit provided by banks. Therefore, the correct answer is "scumpirea creditelor acordate de banci" (the increase in the cost of credit provided by banks).

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  • 16. 

    In conditiile in care rata naturala a somajului este de 5.9%, rata estimata a somajului este de 8.4%,iar PIB-ul creat intr-o economie reprezinta 570 mld u.m. PIB-ul potential conform legii lui OKUN este de:

    • A.

      650 mld u.m.

    • B.

      600 mld u.m.

    • C.

      560 mld u.m.

    • D.

      620 mld u.m.

    Correct Answer
    C. 560 mld u.m.
    Explanation
    The question asks for the potential GDP according to Okun's law, given that the natural unemployment rate is 5.9% and the estimated unemployment rate is 8.4%. Okun's law states that for every 1% increase in the unemployment rate above the natural rate, there will be a 2% decrease in the GDP. Therefore, to calculate the potential GDP, we need to determine the difference between the estimated unemployment rate and the natural rate (8.4% - 5.9% = 2.5%) and multiply it by 2 (2.5% * 2 = 5%). Subtracting this 5% from the actual GDP of 570 mld u.m. gives us 570 mld u.m. - (570 mld u.m. * 5%) = 570 mld u.m. - 28.5 mld u.m. = 541.5 mld u.m. Therefore, the correct answer is 560 mld u.m.

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  • 17. 

    Istoria banilor arata ca multe societati au ales metale precum cuprul,argintul si aurul ca mijloc preferat de schimb pentru ca aceste metale erau:

    • A.

      Rare

    • B.

      Transportabile

    • C.

      Indivizibile

    • D.

      Mai putin atractive

    Correct Answer
    A. Rare
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "rare." Throughout history, many societies have chosen metals like copper, silver, and gold as their preferred medium of exchange because these metals were scarce or rare. This scarcity made them valuable and desirable as a means of trade and commerce.

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  • 18. 

    O politica fiscala contraciclica presupune:

    • A.

      O politica de tipul "pornire-oprire-pornire"

    • B.

      O reducere a incasarilor fiscale atunci cand creste PIB

    • C.

      O creste a incasarilor fiscale in perioada de recesiune

    Correct Answer
    C. O creste a incasarilor fiscale in perioada de recesiune
    Explanation
    A contracyclical fiscal policy involves an increase in tax revenues during a period of recession. This means that when the economy is experiencing a downturn, the government increases taxes to generate more revenue. This can help stabilize the economy by reducing the budget deficit and providing the government with more funds to stimulate economic growth through increased spending or investment. By increasing tax revenues during a recession, the government can counteract the negative effects of the economic downturn and support recovery efforts.

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  • 19. 

    Cand banca centrala cumpara obligatiuni

    • A.

      Reduce rezervele sistemului bancar comercial

    • B.

      M1 scade

    • C.

      Rata dobanzii creste 

    • D.

      Rezervele bancilor comerciale cresc cu suma respectiva

    Correct Answer
    D. Rezervele bancilor comerciale cresc cu suma respectiva
    Explanation
    When the central bank buys bonds, it increases the reserves of commercial banks by the same amount. This means that commercial banks will have more money available to lend out to individuals and businesses. As a result, the money supply in the economy, measured by M1, will increase. Additionally, with an increase in reserves, commercial banks will have more funds to lend, leading to increased competition among banks for borrowers. This increased competition can drive up interest rates. Therefore, the correct answer is that the reserves of commercial banks increase by the respective amount.

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  • 20. 

    Inflatia 

    • A.

      Apre in conditii de risc

    • B.

      Determina o proasta alocare a resurselor

    • C.

      Este creata de comercianti

    Correct Answer
    B. Determina o proasta alocare a resurselor
    Explanation
    Inflatia determina o proasta alocare a resurselor deoarece atunci cand preturile cresc rapid, oamenii sunt incurajati sa cheltuiasca si sa investeasca in mod nerezonabil. De exemplu, oamenii pot cumpara bunuri si servicii in exces, ceea ce duce la o cerere exagerata si la o crestere artificiala a preturilor. Aceasta poate duce la o explozie a bursei sau la o crestere nejustificata a preturilor imobiliare, ceea ce poate duce la o alocare ineficienta a resurselor economice.

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  • 21. 

    Echilibrul moetar determina stabilirea 

    • A.

      Ratei somajului

    • B.

      Cantitatii de bunuri si servicii

    • C.

      Locurilor de munca

    • D.

      Puterii de cumparare

    Correct Answer
    D. Puterii de cumparare
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "puterii de cumparare" which translates to "purchasing power" in English. Echilibrul moetar refers to market equilibrium, and in this context, it determines the purchasing power. Market equilibrium is the point where the supply and demand for goods and services are balanced, and it affects the purchasing power of individuals in the market.

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  • 22. 

    Care este caracteristica esentiala a unui bun utilizat ca bani?

    • A.

      Usurinta de a fi transportat

    • B.

      Acceptabilitatea

    • C.

      Abundenta

    Correct Answer
    B. Acceptabilitatea
    Explanation
    The essential characteristic of a good used as money is its acceptability. This means that the good is widely recognized and accepted as a medium of exchange in transactions. Without acceptability, the good would not be able to fulfill its function as a means of facilitating trade and commerce. Ease of transportation and abundance are important factors as well, but they are not as crucial as acceptability in determining the suitability of a good as money.

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  • 23. 

    Acumularea capitalului a avut importante contributii la cresterea economica prin:

    • A.

      Facilitarea specializarii extensive

    • B.

      Indeplinirea tuturor celor mentionate

    • C.

      Multiplicarea puterii muncii

    • D.

      Raspandirea inovatiilor tehnologice in bunuri de capital

    Correct Answer
    B. Indeplinirea tuturor celor mentionate
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that the accumulation of capital has had important contributions to economic growth through the fulfillment of all the mentioned factors. This implies that the accumulation of capital has facilitated extensive specialization, multiplied labor power, and spread technological innovations in capital goods. These factors have collectively played a significant role in promoting economic growth.

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  • 24. 

    Cea mai importanta diferenta dintre stat si alte institutii sociale este ca 

    • A.

      Indeplinste toate cele mentionate

    • B.

      Reprezina curtea suprema, ultima autoritate peste care nu se va mai putea face niciun apel

    • C.

      Poseda un drept exclusiv si recunoscut de constrangere si coercitie

    • D.

      Trebuie sa-si asume responsabilitatea pentru crearea regulilor dupa care functioneaza alte institutii

    Correct Answer
    C. Poseda un drept exclusiv si recunoscut de constrangere si coercitie
    Explanation
    The most important difference between the state and other social institutions is that it possesses an exclusive and recognized right of constraint and coercion. This means that the state has the authority to enforce laws and regulations through the use of force if necessary. Other social institutions may have their own rules and regulations, but they do not have the same power to enforce them. The state's ability to exercise constraint and coercion sets it apart and gives it a unique position of authority in society.

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  • 25. 

    Costurile de tranzactie fac mai dificila reducerea externalitatilor deoarece:

    • A.

      Nu sunt platite din taxe

    • B.

      Sunt costuri de investitie si nu marginale

    • C.

      Exclud posibilitatea cooperarii voluntare ce are la baza eficienta economica

    • D.

      Nu sunt impozitate

    Correct Answer
    C. Exclud posibilitatea cooperarii voluntare ce are la baza eficienta economica
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "exclud posibilitatea cooperarii voluntare ce are la baza eficienta economica." The explanation for this answer is that transaction costs make it more difficult to reduce externalities because they prevent voluntary cooperation, which is based on economic efficiency. Transaction costs refer to the costs associated with conducting economic transactions, such as the costs of searching for information, negotiating contracts, and enforcing agreements. These costs can discourage individuals from cooperating to address externalities, as they may find it more costly to engage in voluntary exchanges that would help reduce the negative effects of externalities.

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  • 26. 

    Dilema detinutului este un concept care ne ajuta sa intelegem de ce:

    • A.

      Uneori, comportamentul social nu produce rezultatele pe care intreaga societate le doreste

    • B.

      Crima nu renteaza

    • C.

      Regula mojoritatii produce consecinte asupra interesului public

    • D.

      Pedeapsa ne descurajeaza intodeauna comportamentul infractional

    Correct Answer
    A. Uneori, comportamentul social nu produce rezultatele pe care intreaga societate le doreste
    Explanation
    The concept of the prisoner's dilemma helps us understand why sometimes social behavior does not produce the desired results for the entire society. This is because individuals may prioritize their own self-interest over the collective interest, leading to outcomes that are not optimal for the society as a whole. In the prisoner's dilemma, individuals are faced with a choice between cooperating for a mutually beneficial outcome or betraying each other for personal gain. The dilemma arises when both individuals choose to betray each other, resulting in a suboptimal outcome for both.

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  • 27. 

    Economistii utilizeaza PIB pentru a determina:

    • A.

      Stabilitatea financiara a unei tari

    • B.

      Performanta economica a unei tari in timp

    • C.

      Bunastarea cetatenilor unei tari

    • D.

      Toate variantele mentionate

    Correct Answer
    B. Performanta economica a unei tari in timp
    Explanation
    Economists use GDP to determine the economic performance of a country over time. GDP is a measure of the total value of goods and services produced within a country's borders in a specific period. By analyzing changes in GDP over time, economists can assess the growth or contraction of an economy, identify trends, and make predictions about future economic performance. Therefore, GDP is a key indicator for evaluating the economic health and progress of a country.

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  • 28. 

    Externalitatile nu ar exista daca:

    • A.

      Oamenii nu ar mai fi egoisti

    • B.

      Toti ar respecta legile, indiferent daca sa-r simti supravegheati sau nu 

    • C.

      Costurile de tranzactie ar fi zero

    • D.

      Toti s-ar comoporta cu ceilalti asa cum ar dori ca ceilalti sa se comporte cu ei

    Correct Answer
    C. Costurile de tranzactie ar fi zero
    Explanation
    If transaction costs were zero, it would mean that there are no barriers or obstacles in conducting economic transactions. This would eliminate the need for negotiations, contracts, and other transaction-related activities that often incur costs. Without transaction costs, individuals and businesses would be able to freely engage in economic activities without any hindrance. As a result, there would be no externalities, which are the unintended consequences or effects of economic activities on third parties. Therefore, if transaction costs were zero, externalities would not exist.

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  • 29. 

    In anul 2018, o persoana achizitioneaza direct de la magazinul fabricii de articole de imbracaminte, un costum platind suma de 1.000 lei.Peste doi ani, costumul devenind deomdat,persoana il vinde unui comerciant de produse SH pentru suma de 500 lei.Comerciantul revinde costumul unei alte persoane pentru suma de 800 lei. Astfel:

    • A.

      PIB-ul anului 2018 se va diminua cu 500 lei

    • B.

      PIB-ul anului 2018 se va diminua cu 200 lei

    • C.

      PIB-ul anului 2020 se va majora cu 300 lei

    • D.

      PIB-ul anului 2020 se va diminua cu 200 lei

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. PIB-ul anului 2018 se va diminua cu 500 lei
    C. PIB-ul anului 2020 se va majora cu 300 lei
    Explanation
    The correct answer states that the GDP of 2018 will decrease by 500 lei because the person sold the suit for 500 lei, which means that the value of the suit is deducted from the GDP. Additionally, the answer states that the GDP of 2020 will increase by 300 lei because the suit was resold for 800 lei, which contributes to the GDP. Therefore, the GDP of 2018 decreases and the GDP of 2020 increases, as mentioned in the answer.

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  • 30. 

    In teoria economica,calatorul clandestin(free rider) este cineva care:

    • A.

      Poate obtine beneficii fara sa plateasca pentru ele si nici nu este nevoit sa contribuie la costuri

    • B.

      Utilizeaza un abonament de transport expirat

    • C.

      Nu achita costurile de tranzactie

    • D.

      Poate produce un bun cu un cost marginal zero

    Correct Answer
    A. Poate obtine beneficii fara sa plateasca pentru ele si nici nu este nevoit sa contribuie la costuri
    Explanation
    A free rider, in economic theory, refers to someone who is able to obtain benefits without paying for them and is not required to contribute to the costs. This means that they are essentially taking advantage of the benefits provided by others without bearing any of the associated costs.

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  • 31. 

    Interesul de a fi realesi ii incurajeaza pe politicieni sa spriine politicile care:

    • A.

      Determina costuri pe termen scurt

    • B.

      Confera beneficii pe termen scurt si costuri pe termen lung

    • C.

      Ii avantajeaza pe toti oamenii

    • D.

      Confera beneficii pe termen lung

    Correct Answer
    B. Confera beneficii pe termen scurt si costuri pe termen lung
    Explanation
    Politicians are encouraged to support policies that confer short-term benefits and long-term costs because they are often focused on gaining immediate popularity and securing their re-election. By implementing policies that provide immediate benefits, such as increased public spending or tax cuts, politicians can gain the support and favor of the public in the short term. However, these policies may have long-term consequences, such as increased debt or reduced funding for essential services, which can be detrimental to the overall well-being of the society. Nonetheless, politicians prioritize their own interests and short-term gains over long-term sustainability.

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  • 32. 

    Intr-o economie nationala venitul natioanl este egal cu 20.000 u.m.,profiturile nedistribuite de societatile comerciale reprezinta 5.000 u.m., impozitele asupra acestor profituri nedistribuite reprezinta 1.000 u.m., cotizatiile platite de catre societatile comerciale pentru asigurari sociale reprezinta 3.000 u.m., iar indemnizatiile pentru somaj,ajutoare ,burse etc. insumeaza 2.000 u.m. Daca transferurile nete catre restul lumii reprezinta 3.000 u.m. iar impozitele directe se ridica la 500 u.m. atunci: 

    • A.

      Venitul personal este egal cu 23.000 u.m.

    • B.

      Venitul persoanl este egal cu 11.000 u.m.

    • C.

      Venitul personal disponibil este egal cu 12.500 u.m.

    • D.

      Venitul natioanl disponibil este egal cu 10.500 u.m.

    Correct Answer
    C. Venitul personal disponibil este egal cu 12.500 u.m.
    Explanation
    The personal income is calculated by adding the national income, which is 20,000 u.m., with the undistributed profits of commercial companies (5,000 u.m.) and subtracting the taxes on these profits (1,000 u.m.). Additionally, the contributions paid by commercial companies for social insurance (3,000 u.m.) and the allowances for unemployment, aid, scholarships, etc. (2,000 u.m.) are included. The net transfers to the rest of the world (3,000 u.m.) and the direct taxes (500 u.m.) are not relevant to calculating personal income. Therefore, the correct answer is that the personal income available is equal to 12,500 u.m.

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  • 33. 

    Lucratorii americani ai filialei  Ford de la Craiova contribuie,prin productia pe care o realizeaza, la cresterea : 

    • A.

      PIB-ului Romaniei

    • B.

      PIB-ului SUA

    • C.

      PNB-ului Romaniei

    Correct Answer
    A. PIB-ului Romaniei
    Explanation
    The American workers at the Ford branch in Craiova contribute to the growth of Romania's GDP through the production they carry out.

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  • 34. 

    Negocierea si cooperarea sunt mai eficace in reducerea externalitatilor atunci cand:

    • A.

      Deciziile sociale luate democratic

    • B.

      Drepturile de propietate sunt detinute in comun

    • C.

      Indivizii considera ca au drepturi exclusive

    • D.

      Drepturile de propietate sunt clar definite si aplicate

    Correct Answer
    D. Drepturile de propietate sunt clar definite si aplicate
    Explanation
    Clear and enforced property rights provide individuals with a sense of ownership and control over their resources. When property rights are well-defined and protected, individuals have the incentive to invest in and take care of their property, leading to efficient use of resources. This reduces externalities because individuals are more likely to consider the impact of their actions on others when they have a stake in the property. In contrast, when property rights are unclear or not enforced, individuals may not have the incentive to consider the negative effects of their actions on others, leading to increased externalities.

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  • 35. 

    Superioritatea enorma a unor sisteme economice asupra altor depinde exclusiv de:

    • A.

      Diferite inzestrari cu resurse  naturale

    • B.

      Hotararea istorica a unor tari bogate de a fi independente economic

    • C.

      Niciuna din variantele de mai sus 

    • D.

      Raportul dintre populatie si terenul disponibil 

    Correct Answer
    C. Niciuna din variantele de mai sus 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "none of the above" because the question is asking about the enormous superiority of economic systems, and none of the options provided directly address this. The options mention factors such as natural resources, historical decisions of wealthy countries, and the population-to-land ratio, but none of these factors alone determine the superiority of economic systems. Other factors such as technological advancements, political stability, education, and infrastructure also play significant roles in determining the superiority of economic systems. Therefore, none of the options provided can explain the enormous superiority of economic systems.

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  • 36. 

    Operatiunile pe piata financiara primara sunt mijlocite de cele mai multe ori de catre:

    • A.

      Comercianti

    • B.

      Banci

    • C.

      Burse de valori

    • D.

      Agentii guvernamentale

    Correct Answer
    B. Banci
    Explanation
    In the primary financial market, where new securities are issued and sold for the first time, the majority of operations are facilitated by banks. Banks play a crucial role in underwriting and distributing new securities, as well as providing financial advice and services to both issuers and investors. They act as intermediaries between the issuers of securities and the investors, helping to match the demand and supply of funds in the market. Therefore, banks are the most common entities involved in operations in the primary financial market.

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  • 37. 

    Daca PIB exprimat in preturile pietei este de  200.000 u.m., impozitele indirecte sunt de 10.000 um,subventiile de exploatare sunt de 15.000 um., veniturile primite de la restul lumii sunt de 20.000 um. iar cele varsate restului lumii sunt de 15.000u.m. PNB exprimat in preturile factorilor este:

    • A.

      190.000um.

    • B.

      210.000um.

    • C.

      195.000um

    • D.

      205.000 um.

    Correct Answer
    C. 195.000um
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 195.000um. This can be calculated by subtracting the indirect taxes (10.000um) and adding the subsidies (15.000um) to the GDP expressed in market prices (200.000um). Then, the net income received from the rest of the world (20.000um) needs to be added, while the income paid to the rest of the world (15.000um) needs to be subtracted. The resulting value is the GNP expressed in factor prices, which is 195.000um.

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  • 38. 

    PIB exprimat in preturile factorilor este egal cu 1.000um.Impozitele indirecte nete reprezinta 300um.Consumul de capital fix este egal cu 400um.In aceste conditii,venitul national exprimat in preturile pietei este:

    • A.

      300 u.m.

    • B.

      Imposibil de determinat

    • C.

      900 um.

    • D.

      1.100u.m.

    Correct Answer
    C. 900 um.
    Explanation
    The question provides information about the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) expressed in factor prices, which is equal to 1,000um. It also states that net indirect taxes are 300um and fixed capital consumption is 400um. To determine the national income expressed in market prices, we need to subtract net indirect taxes from GDP expressed in factor prices and add fixed capital consumption. Therefore, the national income expressed in market prices would be 1,000um - 300um + 400um = 1,100um. Hence, the correct answer is 900um.

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  • 39. 

    O societate poate inbunatati calitatea mediului la costul cel mai mic atunci cand poluarea este redusa de catre:

    • A.

      Firmele mici

    • B.

      Firmele care polueaza cel mai mult

    • C.

      Firmele care detin avantaje comparativ in reducerea poluarii

    • D.

      Firmele mari

    Correct Answer
    C. Firmele care detin avantaje comparativ in reducerea poluarii
    Explanation
    Firmele care detin avantaje comparativ in reducerea poluarii pot imbunatati calitatea mediului la costul cel mai mic. Aceste firme au capacitati si tehnologii mai avansate pentru a reduce poluarea, ceea ce le permite sa faca acest lucru la un cost mai mic. Prin urmare, ele pot contribui la imbunatatirea mediului in mod eficient si economic.

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  • 40. 

    Hartia care promitea plata catre titular a unei cantitati specifice de moneda se numea:

    • A.

      Nota de hartie

    • B.

      Card bancar

    • C.

      Nota de metal

    • D.

      Bilet de banca

    Correct Answer
    D. Bilet de banca
    Explanation
    A bilet de banca is a type of financial instrument that guarantees payment to the holder of a specific amount of currency. It is commonly referred to as a banknote or a paper bill. This type of document is issued by a central bank and is widely accepted as a form of payment in a country's economy.

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  • 41. 

    Expansiunea creditelor determinata de Banca Centrala:

    • A.

      Nu genereaza un "boom"artificial

    • B.

      Are la baza cresterea economiilor reale

    • C.

      Creste rata dobanzii de pe piata monetara 

    • D.

      Reduce rata dobanzii de pe piata monetara

    Correct Answer
    D. Reduce rata dobanzii de pe piata monetara
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "reduce rata dobanzii de pe piata monetara." This is because when the central bank expands credit, it injects more money into the economy, which increases the supply of money in the market. With more money available, the demand for loans increases, leading to a decrease in interest rates. As a result, borrowing becomes cheaper, encouraging businesses and individuals to borrow and invest more, which stimulates economic growth. Therefore, the expansion of credit by the central bank reduces interest rates in the money market.

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