Microbiology Unit 2 Test 1

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Microbiology Quizzes & Trivia

Enzymes


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    _____________ is the total of all _______ reactions and ________ workings occurring in a cell. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    Metabolism, chemical, physical
    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to all the chemical and physical reactions that take place in a cell. These reactions involve the breakdown of molecules to release energy (chemical reactions) as well as the movement and transportation of molecules within the cell (physical workings). Therefore, the correct answer is metabolism, as it encompasses both the chemical and physical reactions occurring in a cell.

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  • 2. 

    Two types of chemical reactions?

    • A.

      Anabolism

    • B.

      Fermentation

    • C.

      Catabolism

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Anabolism
    C. Catabolism
    Explanation
    Anabolism and catabolism are two types of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms. Anabolism refers to the metabolic processes that build complex molecules from simpler ones, requiring energy input. This includes processes such as protein synthesis and the formation of complex carbohydrates. On the other hand, catabolism involves the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, releasing energy in the process. This includes processes such as the digestion of food and the breakdown of glucose during cellular respiration. These two types of reactions are essential for maintaining the balance of molecules and energy within an organism.

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  • 3. 

    Biosynthesis, building complex molecules from simple ones. Requires ATP.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Anabolism
    Explanation
    Anabolism is the correct answer because it refers to the process of building complex molecules from simpler ones. This process requires energy, which is provided by ATP. Anabolism is a key component of biosynthesis, as it involves the synthesis of larger molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. It is the opposite of catabolism, which involves the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones.

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  • 4. 

    Catabolism is __________ breaking down complex molecules into simple ones, _____ ATP.

    Correct Answer(s)
    degradation, generates
    Explanation
    Catabolism is the process of breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones. This process is known as degradation, and it occurs in cells to obtain energy. During catabolism, ATP is generated as a result of the breakdown of these complex molecules.

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  • 5. 

    Enzymes are biological ________ that increase the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the _________ of _________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    catalysts, energy, activation
    Explanation
    Enzymes are substances that act as catalysts in biological reactions, increasing the reaction rate by lowering the energy of activation. This means that they provide an alternative pathway for the reaction to occur more easily, requiring less energy input. By reducing the energy barrier, enzymes allow reactions to happen more quickly and efficiently in living organisms.

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  • 6. 

    What is the energy of activation? 

  • 7. 

    Most enzymes are composed of ______ and may require _________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    proteins, cofactors
    Explanation
    Enzymes are biological catalysts that are primarily composed of proteins. These proteins provide the structural framework and catalytic activity necessary for enzyme function. However, some enzymes also require additional non-protein molecules called cofactors to function properly. Cofactors can be either inorganic ions or organic molecules, and they assist enzymes in carrying out their specific reactions. Therefore, the correct answer is proteins, cofactors.

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  • 8. 

    Act as ___________ catalysts to speed up the rate of _________ reactions.

    Correct Answer(s)
    organic, cellular
    Explanation
    Organic catalysts, also known as enzymes, are substances that speed up the rate of chemical reactions in living organisms. These catalysts are vital for cellular reactions, as they lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur. Enzymes are specific to certain reactions and can be found in various cellular processes, such as metabolism and DNA replication. Therefore, in the given question, the answer "organic, cellular" accurately describes the role of enzymes as catalysts in speeding up cellular reactions.

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  • 9. 

    Lowers _______ _________ required for chemical reaction to proceed. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    activation energy
    Explanation
    Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy required for a chemical reaction to occur. It is the energy needed to break the bonds of the reactant molecules and initiate the reaction. By lowering the activation energy, the reaction can proceed more easily and at a faster rate. This can be achieved by using a catalyst or by increasing the temperature, both of which provide additional energy to overcome the activation energy barrier.

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  • 10. 

    Enable _________ reactions to proceed at a speed compatible with life.

    Correct Answer(s)
    metabolic
    Explanation
    Metabolic reactions are essential for the proper functioning of living organisms. They involve the breakdown and synthesis of molecules to provide energy and create necessary substances. Without metabolic reactions occurring at an appropriate speed, vital processes such as digestion, respiration, and cell division would be compromised. Therefore, enabling metabolic reactions to proceed at a speed compatible with life ensures the maintenance of essential biological functions.

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  • 11. 

    Have unique ___________. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    characteristics
    Explanation
    The word "unique" suggests that the characteristics being referred to are distinct and different from others. Therefore, the answer "characteristics" fits the context as it implies that the qualities being discussed are special and individual to a particular entity or group.

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  • 12. 

    Provide an active site for target molecules called ________. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    substrates
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "substrates". Substrates are the molecules that bind to the active site of an enzyme or receptor and undergo a chemical reaction. The active site is a specific region on the enzyme or receptor that allows for the binding and interaction with the substrates. By binding to the active site, substrates can be converted into products through enzymatic or receptor-mediated reactions. Therefore, the active site is responsible for facilitating the interaction between enzymes/receptors and their target molecules, which in this case are referred to as substrates.

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  • 13. 

    Enzymes are ________ than substrates.

    • A.

      Smaller

    • B.

      Larger

    Correct Answer
    B. Larger
    Explanation
    Enzymes are larger than substrates because enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions. They have complex structures with specific active sites where substrates bind and undergo chemical reactions. Enzymes often have additional functional groups or cofactors that contribute to their larger size compared to substrates. This size difference allows enzymes to effectively catalyze reactions by providing a suitable environment for substrates to interact and undergo the necessary chemical transformations.

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  • 14. 

    Enzymes associate closely with substrates and become integrated in the reaction's products. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Enzymes do not become integrated with reaction products, although the DO work closely with substrates.

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  • 15. 

    Enzymes are not used up or permanently changed by the reaction

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in living organisms. They are not consumed or altered in the process, meaning they can be reused multiple times. This is due to their specific structure and mechanism of action. Enzymes bind to substrates, facilitating the conversion of reactants into products, and are then released unchanged. This property allows enzymes to be highly efficient and essential for various metabolic processes in the body. Therefore, the statement "Enzymes are not used up or permanently changed by the reaction" is true.

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  • 16. 

    Enzymes can be __________ and therefore function in very _____ concentrations.

    Correct Answer
    recycled, low
    Explanation
    Enzymes can be recycled, meaning they can be used repeatedly in chemical reactions without being consumed or permanently altered. This allows them to function in very low concentrations because only a small amount of enzyme is needed to catalyze a reaction. By recycling enzymes, cells can conserve energy and resources while maintaining efficient metabolic processes.

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  • 17. 

    Enzymes are greatly effected by _______ and ____.

    Correct Answer
    temperature, ph
    Explanation
    Enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions in living organisms. Temperature and pH are two important factors that can greatly affect the activity and stability of enzymes. Changes in temperature can alter the kinetic energy of molecules, affecting the rate of enzyme-substrate collisions and the overall reaction rate. Extreme temperatures can denature enzymes, disrupting their three-dimensional structure and rendering them inactive. Similarly, pH can also alter the enzyme's structure and charge properties, affecting its ability to bind to substrates and catalyze reactions. Therefore, maintaining optimal temperature and pH conditions is crucial for the proper functioning of enzymes.

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  • 18. 

    _____ site is the site for binding.

    Correct Answer
    active
    Explanation
    The word "active" is the correct answer because it fits the context of the sentence. The sentence is stating that the "active" site is the site for binding. In biochemistry, the active site refers to the specific region of an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction. Therefore, the word "active" is the most appropriate choice to complete the sentence.

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  • 19. 

    _______ enzymes consist of only proteins.

    Correct Answer
    Simple
    Explanation
    Simple enzymes consist of only proteins. This means that they do not require any additional non-protein molecules, such as cofactors or coenzymes, to perform their catalytic functions. Simple enzymes are able to catalyze chemical reactions solely through the arrangement of amino acids in their protein structure. This distinguishes them from complex enzymes, which require the presence of non-protein molecules for their catalytic activity.

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  • 20. 

    Example of cofactors

    • A.

      Iron

    • B.

      Protein

    • C.

      Copper

    • D.

      Magnesium

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Iron
    C. Copper
    D. Magnesium
    Explanation
    The given list includes examples of cofactors, which are inorganic molecules or ions that are required by certain enzymes to function properly. Iron, copper, and magnesium are all examples of cofactors that play important roles in various enzymatic reactions. Iron is a cofactor for enzymes involved in oxygen transport and energy production. Copper is a cofactor for enzymes involved in electron transfer and antioxidant defense. Magnesium is a cofactor for enzymes involved in DNA synthesis and energy metabolism. These examples highlight the essential role of cofactors in enzyme activity and overall cellular function.

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  • 21. 

    Hexokinase transfers _______ to ______.

    Correct Answer(s)
    phosphate, glucose
    Explanation
    Hexokinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to glucose, resulting in the formation of glucose-6-phosphate. This phosphorylation of glucose is an important step in the first stage of glycolysis, a metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate. Therefore, the correct answer is that hexokinase transfers phosphate to glucose.

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  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jun 27, 2011
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    Colleennicole
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