Medicinal Chemistry Acid-base/Prodrugs

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Medicinal Chemistry Quizzes & Trivia

Test on Acid-Base and Prodrugs


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following effect the outcome of drug molecules?

    • A.

      Where it is aborsbed

    • B.

      Its solubility in the stomach, plasma or in aqueous IV

    • C.

      Compatibility with other drugs

    • D.

      The method of delivery

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the factors mentioned in the options can affect the outcome of drug molecules. The location where a drug is absorbed can determine its bioavailability and effectiveness. Solubility in different environments such as the stomach, plasma, or in an aqueous IV solution can impact the drug's ability to dissolve and be absorbed by the body. Compatibility with other drugs is crucial to avoid interactions and ensure safe and effective treatment. The method of delivery, such as oral, intravenous, or topical, can affect the drug's absorption rate and efficacy. Therefore, all of these factors play a role in determining the outcome of drug molecules.

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  • 2. 

    What do physicochemical properties of a drug molecule effect?

    • A.

      Distribution

    • B.

      Metabolism

    • C.

      Excretion

    • D.

      Toxicity

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The physicochemical properties of a drug molecule can affect its distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity. Distribution refers to how the drug is distributed throughout the body after administration. Metabolism involves the chemical transformations that the drug undergoes in the body. Excretion refers to the elimination of the drug from the body. Lastly, the physicochemical properties of a drug can also influence its toxicity, determining its potential harmful effects on the body. Therefore, all of the listed options are correct.

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  • 3. 

    What type of drug can have several PKAs

    • A.

      Acid drugs

    • B.

      Prodrugs

    • C.

      Polyfunctional drugs

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Polyfunctional drugs
    Explanation
    Polyfunctional drugs are drugs that have multiple functional groups, which can result in different ionization states and therefore multiple pKa values. These multiple pKa values can affect the drug's solubility, absorption, distribution, and overall pharmacokinetics. Therefore, it is possible for polyfunctional drugs to have several pKa values.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following are polyfunctional drugs?

    • A.

      Ciprofloxacin

    • B.

      Amoxicillin

    • C.

      Sulfide

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B
    Explanation
    Ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin are considered polyfunctional drugs because they possess multiple therapeutic functions. Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is effective against various bacterial infections. It belongs to the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics and is commonly used to treat respiratory, urinary tract, and skin infections. Amoxicillin, on the other hand, is a penicillin-type antibiotic that is also effective against a wide range of bacterial infections. It is commonly used to treat respiratory, urinary tract, and ear infections. Both drugs have multiple therapeutic uses, making them polyfunctional drugs.

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  • 5. 

    As the Ph of an environment decreases the the net charge of a drug molecule will what?

    • A.

      Increase

    • B.

      Decrease

    • C.

      Stay the same

    • D.

      Cannot be determined

    Correct Answer
    A. Increase
    Explanation
    As the pH of an environment decreases, it becomes more acidic. This means that there is an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+). Drug molecules can have ionizable groups that can either gain or lose protons depending on the pH of the environment. In an acidic environment, these ionizable groups will tend to lose protons and become more positively charged. Therefore, the net charge of the drug molecule will increase as the pH decreases.

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  • 6. 

    Intramolecular hydrogen bonds may decrease solubility in what amino acid?

    • A.

      Phenylalanine

    • B.

      Tyrosine

    • C.

      Alanine

    • D.

      Gultamate

    • E.

      Histadine

    Correct Answer
    B. Tyrosine
    Explanation
    Intramolecular hydrogen bonds can form within the structure of a molecule, and in the case of tyrosine, these bonds can occur between the hydroxyl group of the tyrosine side chain and the amine group of the amino acid backbone. These intramolecular hydrogen bonds can make the molecule more compact and less soluble in water. Therefore, tyrosine's solubility may be decreased due to the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds.

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  • 7. 

    What is an inactive compound transformed by chemical or metabolic means to an active product?

    • A.

      Acid drugs

    • B.

      Prodrugs

    • C.

      Polyfunctional drugs

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Prodrugs
    Explanation
    A prodrug is an inactive compound that can be transformed into an active product through chemical or metabolic processes. This allows for controlled release or targeted delivery of the active drug, improving its effectiveness or reducing side effects. Acid drugs and polyfunctional drugs are not specific terms related to the transformation of inactive compounds, so the correct answer is prodrugs.

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  • 8. 

    What is not a reason to use prodrugs?

    • A.

      To reduce pain

    • B.

      Atler absorption, distribution and metabolism

    • C.

      Avoid an unpleasant taste

    • D.

      Increase toxicity

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Increase toxicity
    Explanation
    Using prodrugs is not a reason to increase toxicity. Prodrugs are compounds that are inactive or less active until they are metabolized in the body to produce the active drug. They are designed to improve the drug's pharmacokinetic properties, such as absorption, distribution, and metabolism. Prodrugs can also be used to reduce pain or avoid an unpleasant taste. However, increasing toxicity is not a purpose for using prodrugs.

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  • 9. 

    What drug is linked to a pro-moiety because of its bitter taste?

    • A.

      Chloramphenicol

    • B.

      Enalaprilic acid

    • C.

      Dipivefrin HCl

    • D.

      Clindamycin phosphate

    • E.

      Estramustine

    Correct Answer
    A. Chloramphenicol
    Explanation
    Chloramphenicol is linked to a pro-moiety because of its bitter taste. A pro-moiety is a chemical group that is added to a drug to improve its pharmacokinetic properties or enhance its absorption. In the case of chloramphenicol, the addition of a pro-moiety may help mask its bitter taste, making it more palatable for patients.

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  • 10. 

    Where is olsalazine converted into mesalamine?

    • A.

      Colon

    • B.

      Kidney

    • C.

      Small intestine

    • D.

      Liver

    • E.

      A and B

    Correct Answer
    A. Colon
    Explanation
    Olsalazine is converted into mesalamine in the colon. This conversion occurs through the action of bacterial enzymes present in the colon. Mesalamine is the active form of the drug and is responsible for its therapeutic effects in treating inflammatory bowel disease. The colon is the primary site of action for olsalazine and mesalamine, as they are designed to target the inflammation and symptoms associated with conditions such as ulcerative colitis.

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  • 11. 

    Where is menadione converted into phytonadione?

    • A.

      Colon

    • B.

      Kidney

    • C.

      Small intestine

    • D.

      Liver

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Liver
    Explanation
    Menadione is converted into phytonadione in the liver. The liver is responsible for the metabolism and conversion of various substances in the body. Menadione, a synthetic form of vitamin K, is converted into phytonadione, the active form of vitamin K, in the liver. This conversion is necessary for the proper functioning of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors in the blood. Therefore, the liver plays a crucial role in the conversion of menadione into phytonadione.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is an ACE inhibitor and poorly absorbed?

    • A.

      Chloramphenicol

    • B.

      Enalaprillic acid

    • C.

      Dipivefrin HCl

    • D.

      Aminosalicylic acid

    • E.

      Mesalamine

    Correct Answer
    B. Enalaprillic acid
    Explanation
    Enalaprillic acid is a poorly absorbed ACE inhibitor. ACE inhibitors are a class of drugs commonly used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. They work by inhibiting the enzyme ACE, which helps to regulate blood pressure. Enalaprillic acid is a metabolite of enalapril, another ACE inhibitor, and it has limited absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This means that it is not efficiently absorbed into the bloodstream after oral administration, which can limit its effectiveness as a medication.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is not a esterase that generates active drugs?

    • A.

      Azo reductase

    • B.

      Acetylcholinesterase

    • C.

      Lipase

    • D.

      Cholinesterase

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Azo reductase
    Explanation
    Azo reductase is not an esterase that generates active drugs. Esterases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds, while azo reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of azo bonds. Therefore, azo reductase does not generate active drugs through ester hydrolysis. Acetylcholinesterase, lipase, and cholinesterase, on the other hand, are esterases that are involved in the metabolism of drugs and other substances in the body.

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  • 14. 

    What drug is used to avoid pain at the point of injection during parenteral administration?

    • A.

      Chloramphenicol

    • B.

      Enalaprilic acid

    • C.

      Dipivefrin HCl

    • D.

      Clindamycin phosphate

    • E.

      Estramustine

    Correct Answer
    D. Clindamycin phosphate
    Explanation
    Clindamycin phosphate is a drug used to avoid pain at the point of injection during parenteral administration. It is an antibiotic that is commonly used to treat various bacterial infections. When administered through injection, clindamycin phosphate is formulated in a way that reduces pain and discomfort at the injection site, making it a suitable option for parenteral administration.

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  • 15. 

    What is the prodrug of epinephrine?

    • A.

      Chloramphenicol

    • B.

      Enalaprilic acid

    • C.

      Dipivefrin HCl

    • D.

      Clindamycin phosphate

    • E.

      Mesalamine

    Correct Answer
    C. Dipivefrin HCl
    Explanation
    Dipivefrin HCl is the prodrug of epinephrine. A prodrug is an inactive or less active compound that is converted into an active drug within the body. In this case, dipivefrin HCl is converted into epinephrine, which is a hormone and neurotransmitter that plays a role in the fight or flight response. Dipivefrin HCl is commonly used in ophthalmology to treat glaucoma and ocular hypertension by reducing intraocular pressure.

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  • 16. 

    What converts Protonsil into Sulfanilamide?

    • A.

      Azo reductase

    • B.

      Esterase

    • C.

      Viral thymindine kinase

    • D.

      Glucosidase

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Azo reductase
    Explanation
    Azo reductase is the enzyme that converts Protonsil into Sulfanilamide.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is used to treat ulcerative colitis?

    • A.

      Aminosalicylic acid

    • B.

      Menadione

    • C.

      Mesalamine

    • D.

      A and C

    • E.

      A and B

    Correct Answer
    D. A and C
    Explanation
    Aminosalicylic acid and mesalamine are both used to treat ulcerative colitis. Aminosalicylic acid is a type of medication that helps reduce inflammation in the colon, which is a common symptom of ulcerative colitis. Mesalamine, on the other hand, is specifically designed to target the inflammation in the colon and help control the symptoms of ulcerative colitis. Therefore, options A and C are the correct answers as they both include medications that are commonly used to treat ulcerative colitis.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is used for prostate cancer?

    • A.

      Chloramphenicol

    • B.

      Enalaprilic acid

    • C.

      Dipivefrin HCl

    • D.

      Aminosalicylic acid

    • E.

      Estramustine

    Correct Answer
    E. Estramustine
    Explanation
    Estramustine is used for the treatment of prostate cancer. It is a combination of estradiol, a form of estrogen, and nitrogen mustard, a chemotherapy drug. Estramustine works by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and is commonly used in combination with other medications or therapies for prostate cancer treatment.

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  • 19. 

    What can dopamine be derived from?

    • A.

      L-dopa

    • B.

      Dihydropyridine prodrug

    • C.

      Enalaprilic acid

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      A and C

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B
    Explanation
    Dopamine can be derived from L-dopa and dihydropyridine prodrug. L-dopa is a precursor to dopamine and is commonly used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Dihydropyridine prodrug is another compound that can be converted into dopamine in the body. Enalaprilic acid, on the other hand, is not related to dopamine synthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B.

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  • 20. 

    What enzyme activates Idoxuridine?

    • A.

      Azo reductase

    • B.

      Esterase

    • C.

      Viral thymidine kinase

    • D.

      Glucosidase

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Viral thymidine kinase
    Explanation
    Viral thymidine kinase is the enzyme that activates Idoxuridine. This enzyme is responsible for phosphorylating Idoxuridine, converting it into its active form. Once activated, Idoxuridine can inhibit viral DNA synthesis by incorporating itself into the viral DNA chain, leading to the termination of viral replication. Therefore, viral thymidine kinase plays a crucial role in the antiviral activity of Idoxuridine.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jan 18, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Pharmdnate
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