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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Upper management typically supports the team process best by: I. Reinforcing positive team results II. Punishing negative team results III. Providing direction and support IV. Allowing teams to establish the company’s mission statement

    • A.

      1only

    • B.

      I and III only

    • C.

      I, II and III only

    • D.

      I, II, III and IV

    Correct Answer
    B. I and III only
    Explanation
    Upper management typically supports the team process best by reinforcing positive team results and providing direction and support. By reinforcing positive team results, upper management encourages and motivates the team to continue their good work and achieve their goals. This helps in boosting team morale and productivity. Additionally, providing direction and support ensures that the team has clear guidance and resources to effectively carry out their tasks. This helps in aligning the team's efforts with the overall objectives of the organization and ensures their success.

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  • 2. 

    The DPMO for a process is 860. What is the approximate 6 sigma level of the process?

    • A.

      4.2

    • B.

      4.4

    • C.

      4.6

    • D.

      4.8

    Correct Answer
    C. 4.6
    Explanation
    The DPMO (Defects Per Million Opportunities) is a measure of process performance, where a lower value indicates better performance. The higher the sigma level, the lower the DPMO. In this case, the DPMO is 860, which indicates a relatively low defect rate. To find the sigma level, we can use a sigma conversion table or formula. Since the answer is 4.6, it suggests that the process has a 6 sigma level, which means it is highly capable and has a very low defect rate.

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  • 3. 

     In selecting a base for measuring quality costs, which of the following should be considered? I. Is it sensitive to increases and decreases in production schedules? II. Is it affected by mechanization and the resulting lower direct labor costs? III. Is it affected by seasonal product sales? IV. Is it over sensitive to material price fluctuations?

    • A.

      I and III only

    • B.

      I, III and IV only

    • C.

      I, II and III only

    • D.

      I, II, III and IV

    Correct Answer
    D. I, II, III and IV
    Explanation
    The base for measuring quality costs should consider factors such as sensitivity to production schedules, mechanization and resulting lower labor costs, seasonal product sales, and material price fluctuations. All of these factors can have an impact on the overall quality costs of a product or service. Therefore, options I, II, III, and IV are all valid considerations when selecting a base for measuring quality costs.

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  • 4. 

     Increasing performance in a Six Sigma Corporation from 3 sigma to 4 sigma would reduce defects per million by a factor of:

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      8

    • C.

      10

    • D.

      16

    Correct Answer
    C. 10
    Explanation
    Increasing performance from 3 sigma to 4 sigma in a Six Sigma Corporation would reduce defects per million by a factor of 10. This is because each sigma level represents a standard deviation, and going from 3 sigma to 4 sigma means reducing the variation in the process, resulting in fewer defects. The factor of 10 represents the improvement in performance, as each sigma level roughly corresponds to a 10-fold reduction in defects per million opportunities.

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  • 5. 

    The purpose of “rolled throughput yield” in the Six Sigma define step would NOT be to:

    • A.

      Spot significant differences is yield

    • B.

      Provide a baseline metric

    • C.

      Use the calculation for customer analysis

    • D.

      Analyze a process flow for improvement ideas

    Correct Answer
    C. Use the calculation for customer analysis
    Explanation
    The purpose of "rolled throughput yield" in the Six Sigma define step would NOT be to use the calculation for customer analysis. Rolled throughput yield is a metric used to measure the overall effectiveness of a process by calculating the probability of producing a defect-free product. It helps identify significant differences in yield, provides a baseline metric, and analyzes a process flow for improvement ideas. However, it is not directly used for customer analysis, which typically involves understanding customer needs, preferences, and satisfaction levels.

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  • 6. 

     In the preparation of a project, efforts should be made to identify and involve various parties affected by the planned changes. These other parties are known as:

    • A.

      Process owners

    • B.

      Champions

    • C.

      Team leaders

    • D.

      Stakeholders

    Correct Answer
    D. Stakeholders
    Explanation
    In the preparation of a project, it is important to identify and involve various parties who are affected by the planned changes. These parties are known as stakeholders. Stakeholders are individuals or groups who have an interest or concern in the project and can influence its outcome. They may include employees, customers, suppliers, shareholders, and the community. By involving stakeholders, their perspectives and needs can be considered, leading to better decision-making and increased support for the project.

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  • 7. 

    Which one of the following assessment statements is not a Strength:

    • A.

      We have tremendous cost advantages

    • B.

      We have good marketing skills

    • C.

      We have a Good Canteen facility

    • D.

      Our management team is outstanding

    Correct Answer
    C. We have a Good Canteen facility
    Explanation
    The statement "We have a Good Canteen facility" is not a strength because having a good canteen facility does not provide a competitive advantage or contribute to the success of the organization. While it may be a positive aspect for employees, it does not directly impact the company's performance, profitability, or market position. Strengths typically refer to unique capabilities, resources, or attributes that give an organization a competitive edge in the market.

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  • 8. 

    Benchmarking of performance is:

    • A.

      Not applicable to most organizations because their processes are unique

    • B.

      Infrequently used because each company needs to protect their trade secrets

    • C.

      Ignored because of the perceived barriers to sharing internal company information

    • D.

      Discouraged because of anti-trust laws

    Correct Answer
    C. Ignored because of the perceived barriers to sharing internal company information
    Explanation
    Benchmarking of performance is often ignored because of the perceived barriers to sharing internal company information. Many organizations are hesitant to share their internal processes and data with other companies due to concerns about confidentiality, competitive advantage, and protecting trade secrets. This reluctance to share information can hinder the benchmarking process, as it relies on the exchange of data and best practices between organizations. Despite the potential benefits of benchmarking, such as identifying areas for improvement and learning from industry leaders, these perceived barriers often discourage organizations from actively engaging in benchmarking activities.

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  • 9. 

     A project team is formed to solve a distribution problem; the team members are in position; the stakeholders are identified; the customer of the project must be determined. The customer of the project is NOT likely to be which of the following?

    • A.

      Stockholder

    • B.

      End user

    • C.

      Process owner

    • D.

      External customer

    Correct Answer
    A. Stockholder
    Explanation
    The customer of the project is NOT likely to be a stockholder because a stockholder is someone who owns shares in a company and has a financial interest in its success, but they are not directly involved in the day-to-day operations or decision-making of a project. The customer is typically the end user, the person or group who will benefit from the project's outcome, or the external customer, who is the recipient of the project's deliverables. The process owner is also a potential customer as they are responsible for the process being improved or changed by the project.

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  • 10. 

    Arrange the following design steps into a logical sequence from start to finish. I. Measure and determine customer needs and specifications II. Define the project goals and customer needs specifications III. Analyze the process options IV. Verify and validate the design V. Develop the design details for producing the customer needs

    • A.

      I, II, III, IV, V

    • B.

      II, I, III, V, IV

    • C.

      II, I, IV, III, V

    • D.

      I, II, V, III, IV

    Correct Answer
    B. II, I, III, V, IV
    Explanation
    The correct sequence for the design steps is as follows: First, project goals and customer needs specifications are defined. Then, customer needs and specifications are measured and determined. Next, the process options are analyzed. After that, the design details for producing the customer needs are developed. Finally, the design is verified and validated.

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  • 11. 

    Which groups of employees in the organization have the most to lose by employee involvement efforts?

    • A.

      Top management

    • B.

      Middle management

    • C.

      Supporting staff functions

    • D.

      Operators

    Correct Answer
    B. Middle management
    Explanation
    Middle management has the most to lose by employee involvement efforts because they may feel threatened by the increased participation and decision-making power of lower-level employees. Middle managers often hold positions of authority and control, and employee involvement can potentially undermine their power and status within the organization. Additionally, middle managers may fear that their expertise and knowledge will be devalued or rendered unnecessary if employees are given more autonomy and involvement in decision-making processes. Therefore, they may resist or be reluctant to support employee involvement efforts.

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  • 12. 

    The elements of project management are: I. Objectives II. Planning III. Scheduling IV. Controlling

    • A.

      I, II and III only

    • B.

      I, II and IV only

    • C.

      I, III and IV only

    • D.

      II, III and IV only

    Correct Answer
    D. II, III and IV only
    Explanation
    The correct answer is II, III and IV only. This answer is correct because planning, scheduling, and controlling are all elements of project management. Objectives, on the other hand, are not specifically mentioned as an element of project management in this question. Therefore, option I is not included in the correct answer.

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  • 13. 

    Using the Kano model, improvement teams most often select improvement projects from among which of the following customer need categories? I. Satisfiers II. Dissatisfiers III. Delighters

    • A.

      I only

    • B.

      I and II only

    • C.

      I and III only

    • D.

      I, II and III

    Correct Answer
    B. I and II only
    Explanation
    Using the Kano model, improvement teams most often select improvement projects from among the customer need categories of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers. Satisfiers are the basic requirements that customers expect to be fulfilled, while Dissatisfiers are the aspects that, if not met, can lead to customer dissatisfaction. By focusing on these two categories, improvement teams can address the fundamental needs of customers and prevent potential dissatisfaction. Delighters, on the other hand, are unexpected features or enhancements that can exceed customer expectations but are not typically the primary focus of improvement projects.

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  • 14. 

    The key difference between internal and external customers is:

    • A.

      Their interest in the product or service

    • B.

      Internal customers can influence the design of the product

    • C.

      External customers usually influence the design of the product

    • D.

      External customers best determine the true quality of the product

    Correct Answer
    D. External customers best determine the true quality of the product
    Explanation
    External customers best determine the true quality of the product because they are the end-users or consumers who actually use or experience the product. Their satisfaction and feedback play a crucial role in evaluating the quality of the product. On the other hand, internal customers, such as employees or departments within the organization, may have some influence on the design or development of the product, but their perspective may be biased or limited compared to the external customers who have a direct experience with the product.

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  • 15. 

    Benchmarking should be done in the following sequence: I. Measure competitive performance II. Implement significant improvements III. Understand your own processes IV. Identify improvement criteria

    • A.

      I, III, IV, II

    • B.

      III, IV, I, II

    • C.

      IV, III, II, I

    • D.

      I, II, III, IV

    Correct Answer
    B. III, IV, I, II
    Explanation
    Benchmarking should be done in the following sequence: First, understand your own processes to have a clear understanding of your current performance. Then, identify improvement criteria to set specific goals for improvement. After that, measure competitive performance to compare your performance with that of your competitors. Finally, implement significant improvements based on the insights gained from the benchmarking process. This sequence ensures that you have a solid foundation of understanding and criteria before making improvements and allows for effective comparison with competitors.

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  • 16. 

    Identify the new quality management tool that would be of greatest assistance in identifying the impact that various process input variables could have on key process output variables:

    • A.

      Prioritization matrices

    • B.

      Tree diagram

    • C.

      Activity network diagrams

    • D.

      Process decision program charts

    Correct Answer
    A. Prioritization matrices
    Explanation
    Prioritization matrices are a quality management tool that can be used to identify the impact of various process input variables on key process output variables. They allow for the comparison and ranking of different variables based on their importance and potential impact. By using prioritization matrices, organizations can prioritize their efforts and resources towards the variables that have the greatest potential to affect the desired outcomes. This tool helps in decision-making and resource allocation by providing a systematic approach to analyzing and understanding the relationships between input and output variables.

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  • 17. 

    Ideally, customer feedback should satisfy organization needs such as: I. Identifying customer requirements II. Fulfilling ISO 9000 requirements III. Spotting upcoming trends IV. Having data for analysis

    • A.

      I only

    • B.

      I and II only

    • C.

      II and III only

    • D.

      I, II, III and IV

    Correct Answer
    D. I, II, III and IV
    Explanation
    Customer feedback is important for organizations as it helps in identifying customer requirements (I), which is crucial for improving products and services. It also helps in fulfilling ISO 9000 requirements (II), which is a quality management standard. Additionally, customer feedback allows organizations to spot upcoming trends (III), enabling them to stay ahead in the market. Lastly, customer feedback provides valuable data for analysis (IV), which can be used to make informed business decisions. Therefore, all the options I, II, III, and IV are correct.

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  • 18. 

    The Kano model is used to:

    • A.

      Measure supplier performance

    • B.

      Analyze customer requirements

    • C.

      Describe takt time

    • D.

      Calculate rolled throughput time

    Correct Answer
    B. Analyze customer requirements
    Explanation
    The Kano model is a tool that is used to analyze customer requirements. It helps in understanding and categorizing customer needs and expectations into different categories such as basic, performance, and delight. By using the Kano model, businesses can prioritize their efforts and resources to meet customer expectations and enhance customer satisfaction. This model helps in identifying which features or attributes are essential to customers and which ones can provide a competitive advantage. It enables businesses to make informed decisions regarding product development, design, and marketing strategies.

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  • 19. 

     A well-constructed problem statement includes all of the following Except:

    • A.

      Description of current process performance

    • B.

      Proposed solution

    • C.

      Impact if problem is not solved

    • D.

      Estimate of Cost of Poor Quality

    Correct Answer
    B. Proposed solution
    Explanation
    A well-constructed problem statement includes the description of current process performance, the impact if the problem is not solved, and an estimate of the cost of poor quality. However, it does not include the proposed solution. The problem statement is meant to clearly define the problem and its consequences, while the proposed solution is usually discussed separately in order to explore different options and evaluate their feasibility.

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  • 20. 

    The Tool/ technique most widely used by a number of automotive manufactures that supply products to Toyota is called:

    • A.

      Kanban

    • B.

      Muda

    • C.

      Poka-yoka

    • D.

      An Andon board

    Correct Answer
    A. Kanban
    Explanation
    Kanban is a tool/technique widely used by automotive manufacturers that supply products to Toyota. Kanban is a visual system that helps in managing inventory levels and production flow. It uses cards or signals to indicate when more materials should be produced or delivered. This system enables just-in-time production and helps in eliminating waste and improving efficiency in the manufacturing process.

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  • 21. 

    Assume an operating speed rate of 80%. If 40 units are produced at 2 minutes / unit in two hours, what is the performance efficiency of the work unit?

    • A.

      0.8

    • B.

      0.667

    • C.

      0.534

    • D.

      0.435

    Correct Answer
    C. 0.534
    Explanation
    The performance efficiency of a work unit can be calculated by dividing the actual output by the standard output. In this case, the standard output would be the number of units that could have been produced at the given operating speed rate of 80% in the given time frame. The actual output is given as 40 units, and the time frame is two hours. Since each unit takes 2 minutes to produce, in two hours (120 minutes) a total of 60 units could have been produced. Therefore, the performance efficiency is 40/60 = 0.667.

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  • 22. 

    When comparing push versus pull concepts, who is really doing the push?

    • A.

      The customer

    • B.

      Cycle time

    • C.

      Company management

    • D.

      The takt time

    Correct Answer
    C. Company management
    Explanation
    In the context of push versus pull concepts, the push refers to the act of pushing products or services onto the market without considering the actual demand. This approach is typically driven by company management, who make decisions on what products to produce and how much to produce based on their own assumptions and forecasts. By contrast, pull concepts focus on producing goods or services based on actual customer demand. Therefore, in this scenario, the correct answer is company management as they are the ones driving the push approach.

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  • 23. 

    Kanban concepts include all of the following EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Pull instead of push

    • B.

      JIT

    • C.

      One piece flow

    • D.

      Storage in the warehouse but not on the production floor

    Correct Answer
    D. Storage in the warehouse but not on the production floor
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Storage in the warehouse but not on the production floor." This is because Kanban emphasizes having materials and inventory readily available on the production floor to support a smooth flow of work. The concept of Kanban involves using visual signals to signal the need for more materials or products, which is contrary to storing them in a separate location like a warehouse.

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  • 24. 

    Lean manufacturing would be most concerned with: I. Reducing waste II. Reducing people III. Reducing management layers IV. Eliminating bottlenecks in a process

    • A.

      I and IV only

    • B.

      I, II, III and IV

    • C.

      I, II and IV only

    • D.

      I and III only

    Correct Answer
    A. I and IV only
    Explanation
    Lean manufacturing is a systematic approach that aims to eliminate waste and improve efficiency in a production process. It focuses on identifying and reducing non-value-added activities, such as overproduction, waiting time, unnecessary transportation, and defects. By doing so, lean manufacturing helps to optimize the flow of materials and information, minimize costs, and enhance overall productivity. Therefore, the correct answer is I and IV only, as they both align with the core principles of lean manufacturing.

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  • 25. 

    The Japanese techniques that best compliment the visual factory concept are: I. Kanban II. Poka-yoka III. 5 – Whys IV. 5 – S’s

    • A.

      I, II and III only

    • B.

      I, II and IV only

    • C.

      I, III and IV only

    • D.

      II, III and IV only

    Correct Answer
    C. I, III and IV only
    Explanation
    The visual factory concept is a lean manufacturing practice that aims to make information and processes easily visible and understandable through visual cues. Kanban, a Japanese technique, is a visual scheduling system that uses cards or signals to control the flow of materials and information in a production process. The 5 Whys is a problem-solving technique that involves asking "why" multiple times to get to the root cause of a problem. The 5 S's are a set of principles for workplace organization and standardization. Both the 5 Whys and 5 S's involve visual cues and are therefore complementary to the visual factory concept. Poka-yoke, on the other hand, is a mistake-proofing technique that aims to prevent errors or defects in a process, but it does not directly relate to visual cues or the visual factory concept. Therefore, the correct answer is I, III and IV only.

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  • 26. 

    Standard work as visualized by the Japanese means: I. Working harder II. Working safer III. Working productively IV. Working under extreme constraints

    • A.

      I and II only

    • B.

      III and IV only

    • C.

      II and III Only

    • D.

      I and IV only

    Correct Answer
    C. II and III Only
    Explanation
    Standard work as visualized by the Japanese means working safer and working productively. The Japanese emphasize on creating a safe working environment to prevent accidents and injuries. They also focus on improving productivity by implementing efficient work processes and eliminating waste. Working harder and working under extreme constraints are not specifically mentioned in the given explanation.

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  • 27. 

    Calculate the takt time as per the system data provided?

    • A.

      5 minutes

    • B.

      1.8 minutes

    • C.

      3 minutes

    • D.

      2 minutes

    Correct Answer
    D. 2 minutes
  • 28. 

     Which of the following techniques does NOT necessarily compliment the visual factory concept?

    • A.

      Kanban

    • B.

      Tool boards

    • C.

      5S

    • D.

      SMED

    Correct Answer
    D. SMED
    Explanation
    SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) is a technique used to reduce the setup time in manufacturing processes. While it is a valuable technique for improving efficiency and reducing downtime, it does not directly contribute to the visual factory concept. The visual factory concept focuses on using visual cues and indicators to communicate information quickly and clearly, such as through the use of kanban cards and tool boards. 5S, which involves organizing and standardizing the workplace, also complements the visual factory concept by ensuring that everything is in its designated place and easily accessible.

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  • 29. 

    Identify those graphical methods that are alternatives to histograms in displaying variable data: I. Scatter diagrams II. Boxplots III. Stem and leaf plots IV. Ordinal plots

    • A.

      I, III and IV only

    • B.

      II and III only

    • C.

      I, II and III only

    • D.

      I, II, III and IV

    Correct Answer
    B. II and III only
    Explanation
    Scatter diagrams and boxplots are alternative graphical methods to histograms in displaying variable data. Scatter diagrams are used to show the relationship between two variables, while boxplots are used to display the distribution of a single variable. Stem and leaf plots and ordinal plots are not alternatives to histograms, as they are used for different purposes.

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  • 30. 

    Which two of the following confidence interval calculations require the use of Z table values? I. Large sample means II. Small sample means III. Variation confidence intervals IV. Proportion confidence intervals

    • A.

      I and II only

    • B.

      II and III only

    • C.

      I and III only

    • D.

      I and IV only

    Correct Answer
    D. I and IV only
    Explanation
    Large sample means and proportion confidence intervals require the use of Z table values. In large sample means, the sample size is large enough to approximate the population distribution, allowing the use of the Z distribution. Similarly, in proportion confidence intervals, the sample size is large enough for the proportion to be approximately normally distributed, making the Z distribution applicable. Small sample means and variation confidence intervals require the use of t-distribution values, not Z table values.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 09, 2016
    Quiz Created by
    ArksInsight
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