ITEC A&p (Excretory/Urinary) Q&a

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| By Wayne Duggan
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Wayne Duggan
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Quizzes Created: 17 | Total Attempts: 13,478
Questions: 18 | Attempts: 316

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ITEC A&p (Excretory/Urinary) Q&a - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is meant by micturition?

    • A.

      The act of passing urine

    • B.

      The act of passing faeces

    • C.

      The act of filtration within the glomerular capsule

    • D.

      The act of re-absorption of proteins, amino acids and sugars in the nephrons of the kidneys

    Correct Answer
    A. The act of passing urine
    Explanation
    Micturition refers to the act of passing urine. It is the process by which urine is expelled from the body through the urethra. This occurs when the bladder muscles contract and the sphincter muscles relax, allowing urine to flow out of the body. Micturition is a normal physiological process that helps eliminate waste products and maintain the balance of fluids in the body.

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  • 2. 

    What is the name given to inflammation of the kidney?

    • A.

      Cystitis

    • B.

      Nephritis

    • C.

      Glomerulonephritis

    • D.

      Kidney stones

    Correct Answer
    B. Nephritis
    Explanation
    Nephritis is the correct answer because it refers to inflammation of the kidney. Cystitis is inflammation of the bladder, glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney, and kidney stones are not related to inflammation but rather the formation of hard deposits in the kidneys.

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  • 3. 

    What is meant by micturition?

    • A.

      The act of passing urine

    • B.

      The act of passing faeces

    • C.

      The act of filtration within the glomerular capsule

    • D.

      The act of re-absorption of proteins, amino acids and sugars in the nephrons of the kidneys

    Correct Answer
    A. The act of passing urine
    Explanation
    Micturition refers to the act of passing urine. This process involves the contraction of the bladder muscles and relaxation of the urethral sphincter, allowing urine to be expelled from the body. Micturition is a normal physiological process that helps eliminate waste products and maintain fluid balance in the body.

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  • 4. 

    Which disease/disorder results in calcium deposits forming in the renal pelvis?

    • A.

      Kidney stones

    • B.

      Gall bladder stones

    • C.

      Nephritis

    • D.

      Glomemlonephritis

    Correct Answer
    A. Kidney stones
    Explanation
    Kidney stones are formed when calcium deposits accumulate in the renal pelvis, causing a disease/disorder known as nephrolithiasis. This condition occurs when there is an imbalance in the levels of certain minerals and salts in the urine, leading to the formation of hard deposits in the kidneys. These deposits can vary in size and can cause severe pain and discomfort when they pass through the urinary tract. Treatment options for kidney stones include medication, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgical intervention.

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  • 5. 

    Urine consists of what percentage of water?

    • A.

      90%

    • B.

      93%

    • C.

      96%

    • D.

      98%

    Correct Answer
    C. 96%
    Explanation
    Urine consists of 96% water. This means that 96% of the volume of urine is made up of water, while the remaining 4% consists of waste products, such as urea, salts, and toxins. Water is essential for the body's normal functioning, and urine helps to remove waste and maintain hydration levels.

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  • 6. 

    which part of the urinary system connects the medulla to the ureter?

    • A.

      The renal pelvis

    • B.

      The bladder

    • C.

      The urethra

    • D.

      The nephron

    Correct Answer
    A. The renal pelvis
    Explanation
    The renal pelvis is the part of the urinary system that connects the medulla to the ureter. It is a funnel-shaped structure that collects urine from the kidney and funnels it into the ureter for elimination from the body. The renal pelvis acts as a reservoir for urine before it is transported to the bladder.

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  • 7. 

    What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?  

    • A.

      Stimulates basic metabolic rate

    • B.

      Increases water reabsorption in kidneys

    • C.

      Maintains calcium levels in bones

    • D.

      Contracts the uterus during labour

    Correct Answer
    B. Increases water reabsorption in kidneys
    Explanation
    The function of antidiuretic hormone is to increase water reabsorption in the kidneys. This hormone is released by the pituitary gland in response to low blood volume or high blood osmolality. It acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of water, which helps to conserve water in the body and prevent excessive water loss through urine. This helps to maintain the body's fluid balance and prevent dehydration.

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  • 8. 

    which part of the urinary system connects the medulla to the ureter?

    • A.

      The renal pelvis

    • B.

      The bladder

    • C.

      The urethra

    • D.

      The nephron

    Correct Answer
    A. The renal pelvis
    Explanation
    The renal pelvis is the part of the urinary system that connects the medulla to the ureter. It is a funnel-shaped structure that collects urine from the major calyces and transports it to the ureter. The renal pelvis acts as a reservoir for urine before it is expelled from the body through the ureter.

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  • 9. 

    What is meant by micturition?

    • A.

      The act of passing urine

    • B.

      The act of passing faeces

    • C.

      The act of filtration within the glomerular capsule

    • D.

      The act of re-absorption of proteins, amino acids and sugars in the nephrons of the kidneys _______

    Correct Answer
    A. The act of passing urine
    Explanation
    Micturition refers to the act of passing urine. This process involves the relaxation of the urinary sphincter muscles, allowing urine to flow from the bladder through the urethra and out of the body. Micturition is controlled by the nervous system, specifically the coordination between the bladder muscles and the muscles of the urethra. It is a natural and necessary bodily function to eliminate waste products and maintain fluid balance in the body.

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  • 10. 

    What is the name given to inflammation of the kidney?

    • A.

      Cystitis

    • B.

      Nephritis

    • C.

      Glomerulonephritis

    • D.

      Kidney stones

    Correct Answer
    B. Nephritis
    Explanation
    Nephritis is the correct answer because it refers to inflammation of the kidney. Cystitis is the inflammation of the bladder, not the kidney. Glomerulonephritis specifically refers to inflammation of the glomeruli in the kidney. Kidney stones are not related to inflammation but rather the formation of solid deposits within the kidneys.

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  • 11. 

    Where does the pigment that gives urine its colour come from?

    • A.

      The liver

    • B.

      The pancreas

    • C.

      Urea

    • D.

      Bile

    Correct Answer
    D. Bile
    Explanation
    Bile is the correct answer because it is a yellowish-green fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It is released into the small intestine to aid in the digestion and absorption of fats. Bile contains a pigment called bilirubin, which gives urine its yellow color when it is excreted from the body. The liver processes bilirubin and excretes it into the bile, which eventually ends up in the urine.

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  • 12. 

    The function of the renal pelvis is to:

    • A.

      Take urine from the bladder to the outside

    • B.

      Collect urine from the medulla and pass it to the ureter

    • C.

      Act as a reservoir

    • D.

      Take urine from the kidney to the bladder

    Correct Answer
    B. Collect urine from the medulla and pass it to the ureter
    Explanation
    The renal pelvis is a funnel-shaped structure in the kidney that collects urine from the medulla, which is the innermost part of the kidney, and then passes it to the ureter. The ureter then carries the urine from the kidney to the bladder. Therefore, the correct answer is "Collect urine from the medulla and pass it to the ureter."

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  • 13. 

    Define brights disease:

    • A.

      Inflammation of the urethra

    • B.

      Inflammation of the kidney

    • C.

      Inflammation of the ureter

    • D.

      Inflammation of the bladder

    Correct Answer
    B. Inflammation of the kidney
    Explanation
    Bright's disease, also known as nephritis, is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the kidney. It can be caused by various factors such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or certain medications. The inflammation can affect the kidney's ability to filter waste products and excess fluid from the blood, leading to symptoms such as swelling, high blood pressure, and changes in urine output. If left untreated, Bright's disease can result in kidney damage and potentially lead to kidney failure. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and manage the inflammation promptly to prevent further complications.

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  • 14. 

    Cystitis is defined as inflammation of which of the following?

    • A.

      Urethra

    • B.

      Kidney

    • C.

      Ureter

    • D.

      Bladder

    Correct Answer
    D. Bladder
    Explanation
    Cystitis is defined as inflammation of the bladder. The term "cyst" refers to the bladder, and "itis" indicates inflammation. The other options - urethra, kidney, and ureter - are not correct because they refer to different parts of the urinary system and not specifically the bladder.

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  • 15. 

    During filtration and urine production, reabsorption takes place in the:

    • A.

      Convoluted tubules

    • B.

      Calyces

    • C.

      Bowmans capsule

    • D.

      Urethra

    Correct Answer
    A. Convoluted tubules
    Explanation
    During filtration and urine production, reabsorption takes place in the convoluted tubules. This is because the convoluted tubules are responsible for reabsorbing important substances such as water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes from the filtrate back into the bloodstream. This reabsorption process helps to maintain the body's water and electrolyte balance and prevent the loss of valuable substances. The other options, such as the calyces, Bowman's capsule, and urethra, do not play a significant role in reabsorption during urine production.

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  • 16. 

    The percentage of urea in urine is:

    • A.

      2%

    • B.

      4%

    • C.

      6%

    • D.

      96%

    Correct Answer
    A. 2%
    Explanation
    The percentage of urea in urine is 2% because urea is a waste product that is excreted by the kidneys. It is a byproduct of protein metabolism and is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys. The kidneys then excrete urea in the urine. The concentration of urea in urine is relatively low compared to other substances, making up only about 2% of the total urine composition.

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  • 17. 

    What is nephritis:

    • A.

      " An inflammation of the eyes

    • B.

      " An inflammation of the kidneys

    • C.

      " An inflammation of the bladder

    • D.

      " An inflammation of the liver

    Correct Answer
    B. " An inflammation of the kidneys
    Explanation
    Nephritis is defined as an inflammation of the kidneys. This condition can be caused by various factors such as infections, autoimmune disorders, or certain medications. Symptoms of nephritis may include blood in the urine, frequent urination, high blood pressure, and swelling in the hands and feet. Treatment for nephritis depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or kidney transplant.

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  • 18. 

    Cystitis is defined as:

    • A.

      " An inflammation of the urethra

    • B.

      " An inflammation of the kidneys

    • C.

      " An inflammation of the bladder

    • D.

      " An inflammation of the ureter

    Correct Answer
    C. " An inflammation of the bladder
    Explanation
    Cystitis is defined as an inflammation of the bladder. Inflammation refers to the body's response to injury or infection, which causes redness, swelling, and pain. The bladder is a hollow organ that stores urine, and when it becomes inflamed, it can lead to symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or discomfort during urination, and a strong urge to urinate. This inflammation is often caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be due to other factors such as irritation from certain chemicals or medications.

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