Infertility - For GYN Test On Fri. 11/5/10

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Infertility - For GYN Test On Fri. 11/5/10 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after how many months of unprotected intercourse?

    • A.

      9 months

    • B.

      12 months

    • C.

      18 months

    Correct Answer
    B. 12 months
    Explanation
    Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse. This duration is considered significant because most couples are able to conceive within this timeframe. If a couple has been trying to conceive for 12 months without success, it may indicate an underlying fertility issue that requires medical attention. Waiting for 12 months helps to rule out temporary factors such as stress or timing issues, and allows for a more accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment if necessary.

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  • 2. 

    Infertility problems are usually only due to female reproductive issues.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    It can be due to female, male, or both.

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  • 3. 

    Factors of Conception:One of the four factors of conception depends on the production of healthy __________ and __________.

    Correct Answer
    sperm, eggs
    eggs, sperm
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sperm, eggs. In order for conception to occur, healthy sperm and eggs are essential. Sperm is necessary for fertilizing the egg, while the egg provides the necessary genetic material for fertilization to take place. Both sperm and eggs need to be healthy in order to increase the chances of successful conception and a healthy pregnancy.

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  • 4. 

    Factors of Conception:One of the four factors of conception depends on the female having ____________ fallopian tubes.

    Correct Answer
    unblocked
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "unblocked." One of the factors of conception depends on the female having unblocked fallopian tubes. This means that the fallopian tubes should not be obstructed or blocked in any way to allow for the fertilization of the egg by the sperm and the subsequent journey of the fertilized egg to the uterus for implantation. If the fallopian tubes are blocked, it can hinder the process of conception and increase the difficulty of getting pregnant.

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  • 5. 

    Factors of Conception:One of the four factors of conception depends on the ability of the fertilized eggs to become ___________  _____  ____________.

    Correct Answer
    implanted in uterus
    Explanation
    The ability of the fertilized eggs to become implanted in the uterus is one of the four factors of conception. This means that for successful conception to occur, the fertilized eggs must be able to attach and embed themselves into the lining of the uterus. Without this ability, the fertilized eggs will not be able to develop further and result in a pregnancy.

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  • 6. 

    Factors of Conception:One of the four factors of conception depends on sufficient ___________ quality.

    Correct Answer
    embryo
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "embryo" because the factors of conception refer to the various aspects that contribute to the successful fertilization and development of an embryo. One of these factors is the quality of the embryo itself. For conception to occur, the embryo needs to be of sufficient quality, meaning it should have the necessary characteristics and development potential to result in a viable pregnancy.

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  • 7. 

    Assessment of the infertile couple includes:*(Check all that apply)

    • A.

      Gonal artery Sonogram

    • B.

      Transvaginal Ultrasound

    • C.

      Laparoscopy

    • D.

      Blood work

    • E.

      CAT Scan

    • F.

      Semen analysis

    • G.

      X-Ray

    • H.

      Hysterosalpingogram

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Transvaginal Ultrasound
    C. Laparoscopy
    D. Blood work
    F. Semen analysis
    H. Hysterosalpingogram
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes Transvaginal Ultrasound, Laparoscopy, Blood work, Semen analysis, and Hysterosalpingogram. These are all common diagnostic tests used in the assessment of infertility in couples. Transvaginal Ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure that allows visualization of the reproductive organs. Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that allows direct visualization of the pelvic organs. Blood work is necessary to assess hormone levels and other potential causes of infertility. Semen analysis is used to evaluate the male partner's sperm count and quality. Hysterosalpingogram is an X-ray procedure that evaluates the fallopian tubes and uterus for any blockages or abnormalities.

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  • 8. 

    Transvaginal ultrasound is used to monitor the size of ____________ for patients receiving infertility treatments.

    Correct Answer(s)
    follicles
    Explanation
    Transvaginal ultrasound is a commonly used procedure in infertility treatments to monitor the size of follicles. Follicles are small sacs within the ovaries that contain eggs. By monitoring the size of these follicles, doctors can determine the progress and effectiveness of the infertility treatment. Transvaginal ultrasound involves inserting a probe into the vagina to obtain detailed images of the reproductive organs, allowing healthcare providers to accurately measure the size of the follicles. This information is crucial in determining the optimal time for procedures such as egg retrieval or insemination, increasing the chances of successful conception.

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  • 9. 

    Transvaginal ultrasound is also used to to retrieve __________ eggs and implant ___________ eggs.

    Correct Answer(s)
    mature, fertilized
    Explanation
    Transvaginal ultrasound is a medical procedure that involves inserting a probe into the vagina to obtain images of the reproductive organs. It is used to retrieve mature eggs, which are eggs that have reached the appropriate stage of development for fertilization. These mature eggs can then be fertilized with sperm in a laboratory setting before being implanted back into the uterus. Therefore, the correct answer is "mature, fertilized" as transvaginal ultrasound is used for both retrieving mature eggs and implanting fertilized eggs.

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  • 10. 

    If a laparoscopy is performed to assess an infertile female, they would be trying to rule out _______________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    endometriosis
    Explanation
    A laparoscopy is a surgical procedure used to examine the abdominal cavity and reproductive organs. It is commonly performed to assess infertility in females. Endometriosis is a condition where the tissue lining the uterus grows outside of it, causing pain and fertility issues. By performing a laparoscopy, doctors can visually inspect the reproductive organs and look for any signs of endometriosis, such as abnormal tissue growth or adhesions. Therefore, ruling out endometriosis is one of the main objectives of a laparoscopy in infertile females.

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  • 11. 

    The incidence of infertility increases with ____________ age.

    • A.

      Maternal

    • B.

      Paternal

    Correct Answer
    A. Maternal
    Explanation
    The incidence of infertility increases with maternal age. This is because a woman's fertility declines as she gets older. As women age, the number and quality of their eggs decrease, making it more difficult for them to conceive. Additionally, older women are more likely to have underlying health conditions that can affect their fertility. Therefore, maternal age is an important factor to consider when assessing the risk of infertility.

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  • 12. 

    Male etiology in infertility contributes to approximately ____(#) percent of cases.

    Correct Answer
    40
    Explanation
    Male etiology in infertility contributes to approximately 40% of cases. This means that in 40% of infertility cases, the cause can be attributed to male factors. These factors may include low sperm count, poor sperm motility, abnormal sperm shape, or blockages in the reproductive system. It is important to consider male infertility when diagnosing and treating couples struggling with infertility, as it is a significant factor in a substantial number of cases.

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  • 13. 

    Male Causes of Infertility:The term used to describe that no sperm cells are being produced is ____________.

    Correct Answer
    azoospermia
    Explanation
    Azoospermia is the term used to describe the condition where no sperm cells are being produced. This can be caused by various factors including hormonal imbalances, genetic abnormalities, testicular trauma, or certain medical treatments. Azoospermia can lead to male infertility as it prevents the sperm from being present in the ejaculate, making it difficult or impossible to conceive a child naturally.

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  • 14. 

    Male Causes of Infertility:The term used to decribe when few sperm cells are being produced is ___________.

    Correct Answer
    oligospermia
    Explanation
    Oligospermia is the term used to describe a condition where a man produces a low number of sperm cells. This can be a cause of male infertility as it reduces the chances of fertilization. A low sperm count can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, genetic abnormalities, testicular issues, or certain lifestyle choices like smoking or excessive alcohol consumption. Oligospermia can be diagnosed through a semen analysis and can be treated depending on the underlying cause.

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  • 15. 

    Male Causes of Infertility:In rare cases, genetic diseases such as __________  __________ and __________ abnormalities can cause male infertility.

    Correct Answer
    cystic fibrosis, chromosomal
    Explanation
    In rare cases, genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and chromosomal abnormalities can cause male infertility. Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, pancreas, and other organs, and it can also impact the reproductive system. Chromosomal abnormalities refer to changes or abnormalities in the structure or number of chromosomes, which can lead to infertility in males. These conditions can interfere with sperm production, sperm function, or the ability to transport sperm, ultimately resulting in male infertility.

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  • 16. 

    Male Causes of Infertility:Another cause of male infertility could be due to ___________  ___________ which is when the spermatic cord to a testicle twists.

    Correct Answer
    testicular torsion
    Explanation
    Testicular torsion is a condition where the spermatic cord, which connects the testicle to the rest of the reproductive system, becomes twisted. This twisting can cut off the blood supply to the testicle, leading to severe pain and potential damage to the testicular tissue. If not treated promptly, testicular torsion can result in infertility due to the loss of function in the affected testicle. Therefore, testicular torsion is a potential cause of male infertility.

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  • 17. 

    Male Causes of Infertility:Exposure to __________ on job, such as x-rays, radioactivity, lead, etc. can lead to infertility.

    Correct Answer
    lead
    Explanation
    Exposure to lead on the job, such as through x-rays, radioactivity, or direct contact, can be a male cause of infertility. Lead is a toxic metal that can interfere with the normal functioning of the reproductive system. It can disrupt sperm production, impair sperm motility and morphology, and even lead to DNA damage in sperm cells. Therefore, exposure to lead in the workplace can significantly increase the risk of male infertility.

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  • 18. 

    Male Causes of Infertility:____________ testicles could be another cause of male infertility.

    Correct Answer
    undescended
    Explanation
    Undescended testicles, or cryptorchidism, is a condition where one or both testicles fail to descend into the scrotum. This can lead to infertility in males as the high temperature inside the body can affect sperm production and function. Testicles need to be in the scrotum, which is cooler than the body, for optimal sperm production. Therefore, undescended testicles could be a potential cause of male infertility.

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  • 19. 

    Female Causes of Infertility:_______________ (absence of ?) or one that occurs abnormally can cause female infertility.

    Correct Answer
    anovulation
    Explanation
    Anovulation refers to the absence or abnormal occurrence of ovulation, which can lead to female infertility. Ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovary, and it is necessary for fertilization to occur. When a woman does not ovulate regularly or at all, it becomes difficult for her to conceive. Anovulation can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, or certain medications.

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  • 20. 

    Female Causes of Infertility:Tubal and transport factors such as ____________ or ____________.

    Correct Answer
    adhesions, hydrosalpinx
    hydrosalpinx, adhesions
    Explanation
    Female causes of infertility can be attributed to tubal and transport factors such as adhesions and hydrosalpinx. Adhesions refer to the formation of scar tissue that can cause the fallopian tubes to become blocked or damaged, hindering the movement of eggs and sperm. Hydrosalpinx, on the other hand, is a condition where the fallopian tubes become filled with fluid, preventing the fertilization of an egg. Both adhesions and hydrosalpinx can contribute to infertility in women.

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  • 21. 

    Female Causes of Infertility:______________  is when endometrial tissue adheres to areas outside of the uterus.

    Correct Answer
    endometriosis
    Explanation
    Endometriosis is a condition where the endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, grows outside of the uterus. This can cause infertility in females because the abnormal growth of tissue can interfere with the functioning of the reproductive organs, such as the ovaries and fallopian tubes. The presence of endometrial tissue in these areas can lead to inflammation, scarring, and blockages, making it difficult for fertilization to occur or for a fertilized egg to implant properly in the uterus. Therefore, endometriosis is a known cause of infertility in females.

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  • 22. 

    Female Causes of Infertility:Uterine factors such as ___________ can cause infertility problems.  These are benign tumors of the uterus.

    Correct Answer
    fibroids
    Explanation
    Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that can cause infertility problems in females. These growths occur in the uterus and can interfere with the implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt the normal functioning of the reproductive system. Fibroids can lead to complications such as blockage of the fallopian tubes, changes in the shape of the uterus, or the formation of scar tissue. These factors can make it difficult for a woman to conceive or carry a pregnancy to full term, resulting in infertility.

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  • 23. 

    Female Causes of Infertility:The most common cause of anovulatory infertility is caused by ___________  ___________  ___________.

    Correct Answer
    polycystic ovarian disease
    Explanation
    Polycystic ovarian disease is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in females. This condition is characterized by the formation of multiple small cysts on the ovaries, which disrupts the normal ovulation process. The hormonal imbalance caused by polycystic ovarian disease can lead to irregular or absent menstrual periods, making it difficult for a woman to conceive. Treatment options for this condition may include lifestyle changes, medication to regulate hormones, and assisted reproductive techniques.

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  • 24. 

    Treatment:Most cases (85-90%) of infertility are treated with conventional therapies such as __________  treatment or __________  ___________ of reproductive organs.

    Correct Answer
    drug, surgical repair
    Explanation
    The correct answer is drug, surgical repair. Infertility can be treated using drugs to stimulate ovulation or regulate hormone levels. Surgical repair may be necessary in cases where there are structural abnormalities in the reproductive organs that are causing infertility. These treatments aim to address the underlying causes of infertility and increase the chances of successful conception.

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  • 25. 

    Treatment:The medication used to treat infertility that increases FSH secretion and stimulates more follicles is called ____________.

    Correct Answer
    Clomid
    Explanation
    Clomid is a medication commonly used to treat infertility. It works by increasing the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which in turn stimulates the development of more follicles in the ovaries. This can increase the chances of ovulation and improve fertility in women who have difficulty conceiving. Therefore, Clomid is the correct answer to the question as it accurately describes the medication that increases FSH secretion and stimulates more follicles.

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  • 26. 

    Treatment:The medication used to treat infertility that contains equal parts of FSH and LH is called ___________.

    Correct Answer
    Pergonal
    Explanation
    Pergonal is a medication used to treat infertility that contains equal parts of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). FSH and LH are hormones that play a crucial role in the reproductive system, specifically in the development and release of eggs in women and the production of sperm in men. By providing equal amounts of these hormones, Pergonal helps stimulate the ovaries to produce mature eggs, increasing the chances of successful conception.

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  • 27. 

    Which medication used to treat infertility do patients encounter more complications with?

    • A.

      Clomid

    • B.

      Pergonal

    Correct Answer
    B. Pergonal
    Explanation
    Pergonal is a medication used to treat infertility that can lead to more complications compared to Clomid. Pergonal contains a combination of hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. However, this increased hormonal stimulation can result in a higher risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a condition characterized by enlarged ovaries and fluid accumulation in the abdomen. On the other hand, Clomid is a milder medication that works by stimulating ovulation without the same level of risk for complications. Therefore, patients are more likely to encounter complications with Pergonal compared to Clomid.

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  • 28. 

    _________ (TAS or TVS) is the method of choice for monitoring follicular development for IVF.

    Correct Answer
    TVS
    Explanation
    Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is the method of choice for monitoring follicular development for IVF. This technique involves inserting a probe into the vagina to obtain high-resolution images of the ovaries and follicles. TVS allows for accurate and detailed assessment of the number and size of follicles, as well as the thickness of the endometrium. It is a safe and non-invasive procedure that provides real-time information, making it ideal for monitoring the progress of follicular development during IVF treatment.

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  • 29. 

    When monitoring a patient for IVF, follicles are typically aspirated when they measure _____(#) to _____(#) mm.

    Correct Answer
    18, 24
    Explanation
    During the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF), the size of the follicles is monitored to determine the optimal time for egg retrieval. Generally, follicles are aspirated when they measure between 18 to 24 mm. This size range indicates that the follicles are mature and ready for egg retrieval, increasing the chances of successful fertilization and implantation.

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  • 30. 

    Complications of Infertility Tx:This is a condition resulting from the excessive stimulation of the ovaries which is caused by an over response to fertility drugs.  The ovaries become very enlarged.

    Correct Answer
    OHSS
    Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
    Explanation
    OHSS, or Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, is a condition that occurs as a complication of infertility treatment. It is caused by an excessive response of the ovaries to fertility drugs, resulting in their enlargement. This condition can lead to various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and fluid accumulation in the abdomen. In severe cases, OHSS can cause complications like ovarian torsion, blood clots, and kidney problems. Therefore, OHSS is the correct answer to this question as it accurately describes the condition resulting from the overstimulation of the ovaries during infertility treatment.

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  • 31. 

    Choose the correct symptoms or complications of OHSS.

    • A.

      Pleural effusion

    • B.

      Ascites

    • C.

      Ovarian Torsion

    • D.

      Cystic ovarian enlargement

    • E.

      Hematuria

    • F.

      Hypertension

    • G.

      Weight gain

    • H.

      Electrolyte imbalance

    • I.

      Fever

    • J.

      Hypotension

    • K.

      Death

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pleural effusion
    B. Ascites
    C. Ovarian Torsion
    D. Cystic ovarian enlargement
    G. Weight gain
    H. Electrolyte imbalance
    J. Hypotension
    K. Death
    Explanation
    In more severe cases hospitalization may be required for: Hypotension, Electrolyte imbalance, Ovarian torsion. High mortality rate.

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  • 32. 

    Complications of Infertility Tx:Incidence of ____________ gestations increases with infertility treatment.  This can complicate pregnancy by impacting maternal health and well-being and fetal outcome.

    Correct Answer(s)
    multiple
    Explanation
    The incidence of multiple gestations increases with infertility treatment. This can complicate pregnancy by impacting maternal health and well-being and fetal outcome. Multiple gestations, such as twins or triplets, are more common in women undergoing infertility treatment due to the use of assisted reproductive technologies like in vitro fertilization (IVF). Multiple pregnancies pose a higher risk for complications such as preterm birth, low birth weight, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor and manage pregnancies with multiple gestations to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the babies.

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  • 33. 

    Complications of Infertility Tx:Name the two major complications of infertility treatments.

    Correct Answer(s)
    OHSS, multiple gestations
    multiple gestations, OHSS
    Explanation
    The two major complications of infertility treatments are OHSS (Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome) and multiple gestations. OHSS occurs when the ovaries become enlarged and fluid accumulates in the abdomen, causing pain and discomfort. Multiple gestations refer to the occurrence of more than one fetus in the womb, which can increase the risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery.

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  • 34. 

    Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) is used for treatment of tubal disease or unexplained infertility.  Name the three methods that are used.**(In alphabetical order)

    Correct Answer(s)
    Artificial Insemination, In Vitro Fertilization, Salpingo-ovariolysis
    AI, IVF, Salpingo-ovariolysis
    Explanation
    The three methods used in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) are Artificial Insemination, In Vitro Fertilization, and Salpingo-ovariolysis. These methods are commonly used for the treatment of tubal disease or unexplained infertility. Artificial insemination involves placing sperm directly into the reproductive tract, while in vitro fertilization involves fertilizing an egg outside the body and then transferring the embryo into the uterus. Salpingo-ovariolysis is a surgical procedure that removes blockages in the fallopian tubes.

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  • 35. 

    In Vitro fertilization is performed when a woman has blocked or absent ____________  ____________, or the man has a ________  _________  _________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    fallopian tubes, low sperm count
    Explanation
    In vitro fertilization is a procedure that is used when a woman's fallopian tubes are blocked or absent, or when a man has a low sperm count. This means that the woman is unable to conceive naturally due to the inability of the egg to travel from the ovaries to the uterus, or the man's sperm is not sufficient in quantity to fertilize the egg. In vitro fertilization involves the extraction of eggs from the woman's ovaries and the fertilization of these eggs with the man's sperm in a laboratory. The resulting embryos are then transferred back into the woman's uterus for implantation and pregnancy.

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  • 36. 

    The term used to describe pain associated with ovulation is called _____________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Mittelschmerz
    Explanation
    Mittelschmerz is the term used to describe the pain that some women experience during ovulation. It is a German word that literally translates to "middle pain." This pain is typically felt on one side of the lower abdomen and can range from mild to severe. It occurs as a result of the release of an egg from the ovary and the stretching of the ovarian wall. Mittelschmerz is a normal and common occurrence, and while it can be uncomfortable, it is not usually a cause for concern.

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  • 37. 

    The term for a benign cyst of the cervix is...

    Correct Answer(s)
    Nabothian cyst
    Explanation
    A Nabothian cyst is a type of benign cyst that forms on the cervix. It occurs when the mucus-producing glands in the cervix become blocked, causing a buildup of fluid. These cysts are usually small and harmless, and often do not cause any symptoms. They are commonly found during routine pelvic exams and are not usually a cause for concern.

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  • 38. 

    The term for a benign cyst of the vagina is... 

    Correct Answer(s)
    Gartner's duct cyst
    Explanation
    A Gartner's duct cyst refers to a benign cyst that develops in the vagina. It occurs when the Gartner's duct, a remnant of the embryonic reproductive system, fails to fully regress during fetal development. This cyst is typically small and asymptomatic, but it can cause discomfort or pain if it grows larger. Gartner's duct cysts are usually harmless and do not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or complications.

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  • 39. 

    Menstruation that occurs before the age of 8 or develops secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and pubic hair is termed ___________  ____________.

    Correct Answer(s)
    precocious puberty
    Explanation
    Precocious puberty refers to the early onset of puberty, which is characterized by the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and pubic hair before the age of 8 in girls. This condition is caused by the premature release of hormones that trigger puberty.

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  • 40. 

    If a woman is 35 years of age or older at the time of delivery it is termed AMA which stands for...

    Correct Answer(s)
    advanced maternal age
    Explanation
    AMA stands for "advanced maternal age," which is a term used to describe women who are 35 years of age or older at the time of delivery. This term is used because women who conceive at an older age may face certain risks and complications during pregnancy and childbirth. These risks include an increased chance of genetic abnormalities, miscarriage, gestational diabetes, high blood pressure, and preterm birth. Therefore, it is important for women in this age group to receive proper prenatal care and monitoring to ensure a healthy pregnancy and delivery.

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  • Mar 15, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Nov 03, 2010
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